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NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE 
Bethesda, Maryland 

Gift of 
James Harvey Young 

In memory of his parents 

William Harvey and Blanche DeBra 
Young 








I 



I 




the 



MEDICAL COMPANION, 

OR 

FAMILY PHYSICIAN; 

TREATING OF THE 

DISEASES OF THE UNITED STATES, 

WITH THEIR SYMPTOMS, CAUSES, CURE, AND MEANS OF PREVENTION - . 

COMMON CASES IN SURGERY, AS FRACTURES, DISLOCATIONS, &fc- 

THE MANAGEMENT AND DISEASES OF 

A DISPENSATORY, FOR PREPARING FAMILY MEDICINES, 

AND A 

GLOSSARY EXPLAINING TECHNICAL TERMS. 

TO WHICH ARE ADDED, 

A BRIEF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HUMAN BODY, 

SHEWING, ON RATIONAL PRINCIPLES, THE CAUSE AND CURE OF DISEASES: 

AN ESSAY ON HYGIEINE, 

«R THE ART OF PRESERVING HEALTH, WITHOUT THE AID OF MEDICINE: 

POINTING OUT THE VIRTUES AND DOSES OF OUR MEDICINAL PLANTS. 
ALSO, 

THE NURSE'S GUIDE. 



THE SEVENTH EDITION, 

REVISED, ENLARGED, AND VERY CONSIDERABLY i&PROVED; 



BY JAMES EWELL, 

PHYSICIAN IN WASHINGTON.TORMERLY OF SAVANNAH. 



'• I have always thought it a greater happiness to discover a certain method of eunnsr, even 
the slightest disease, than to accumulate the largest fortune ; and whoever compasses tl: ■ form- 
■ ;i . l est" ( m not only happier, hut wiser and better too." SYDENHAM. 



WASHINGTON: 

PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETORS-. 

1827. 

rnrcE five dollars. 




iL.Sj 



DISTRICT OP COLUMBIA, to wit. 

BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the eighth day of November, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
two, and of the Independence of the United States of America, 
the forty-seventh, CORDELIA B. EWELL and OLIVIA F. 
EWELL, of the said district, have deposited in the Office of the 
Clerk of the District Court for the District of Columbia, the Title of a Book, 
the right whereof, they claim as proprietors, in the words following, to wit: 
"The Medical Companion, or Family Physician; treating of the diseases of 
the United States, with their symptoms, causes, cure; and means of prevention; 
common cases in surgery, as fractures, dislocations, &c. The management and 
diseases of women and children: a dispensatory for preparing family medicines, 
and a glossary explaining technical terms. To which are added, a brief anato- 
my and physiology of the human body, showing on rational principles, the cau- 
ses and cure of diseases: an essay on Hygieine, or the art of preserving health 
without the- aid of medicine: an American Materia Medica, pointing out the 
virtues and doses of our medicinal plants. Also, the Nurse's Guide. — The sixth 
edition, revised, enlarged, and very considerably improved, By James Ewell, 
physician in Washington, formerly of Savannah. "I have always thought it a 
greater happiness to discover a certain method of curing even the slightest dis- 
ease, than to accumulate the largest fortune: and whoever compasses the for- 
mer, I esteem not only happier, but wiser and better too. — Sydenham." 

In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, "An 
Act for the encouragement of learning by securing the copies of maps, charts, 
and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times 
therein mentioned." — And also to the Act, entitled, "An Act supplementary to 
the act, entitled An Act 'for the encouragement of learning, by securing the 
copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such 
copies during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits there- 
of to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and affixed the public 
seal of my office, the day and year aforesaid. 

EDM. I. LEE. 
Glerk of the District Court for the District of ColuuMtU 




RECOMMENDATIONS. 



In testimony of the merits of this work, the following 
commendations, by some of the most distinguished med- 
ical characters of the United States, are inserted; to- 
gether with the letters of their excellencies, Thomas 
Jefferson, and G.Hyde de Neuville— also, a review by 
Professor Mitchill, of New-York. 

Baltimore, JYov. 18, 1822. 

BEAR SIR, 

I have been truly gratified in the perusal of the Sixth Editioa 
of your "Medical Companion, or Family PJnjsician." 

The improvements made in this new impression of your work, 
compared with the former editions, are indeed extensive and impor- 
tant. Independent of your having enlarged considerably on dis- 
eases °-enerally, you have introduced additional matter, which 
"ready enhances its value. The introduction of the Nurse's Guide, 
as also the treatise you have given on the management of female 
complaints, will have the most happy effects, in correcting the 
gross errors daily committed by ignorant persons, and thereby save 
many valuable lives. 

I do not hesitate to say, that this new edition of your Medical 
Companion, is decidedly the best popular treatise on medicine, that 
has ever been published; and considering it, as I verily do, a safe 
and useful guide for heads of families, as well as for young prac- 
titioners of medicine, I take much pleasure in recommending it to 
the attention of our fellow citizens, both in town and country. 

I will only add, if your book meets with that encouragement, to 
which it is justly entitled, you will very soon be called upon, by the 
public, for another edition. 

I am, dear sir, with much respect, 
Your friend and servant, 

COLIN MACKENZIE, M. D 
Dr. James Ewell. 



IV" RECOMMENDATIONS. 

Baltimore, Nov. I8th 18 
DEAR SIR, 

When the Medical Companion was first published, I considered 
it greatly superior to every work of that character I had read. I 
have now read the Sixth Edition, and am much gratified in hav- 
ing it in my power to say, that in this Edition you have so enhanc- 
ed the value of the work, as to claim my unqualified approbation. 

Doctor Rush, during my residence in his house, often spoke of 
his intention to publish a medical work for the use of families, adapt- 
ed to the climate of the United States. 

As he reserved it for the last act of his labours, for the benefit 
of mankind, unhappily he did not live to accomplish his design. 
In the work now presented to the public, you have fulfilled the 
patriotic intentions of the great and good Rush, to the utmost ex- 
tent, and I sincerely hope your reward may be as it deserves, 
ample. 

I am, dear sir, very truly, yours, 

ASHTON ALEXANDER, M. D 

Dr. James Eiodl. 



Philadelphia, August 13, 1816. 

DEAR SIR, 

I have looked over, with some care, the copy of the Third Edi- 
tion of the "'■Medical Companion," wbich you did me the favour to. 
present to me. 

By the additions and revisions given to this new impression of the 
work, it is not only enlarged, but exceedingly improved. 

After stating so much, I need hardly repeat an opinion, which I 
publicly expressed on a former occasion, that I consider it, as indis- 
putable . the most useful popular treatise on medicine with which 1 
am acquainted. 

Compared with the European Books of the same nature, it has, 
^specially in relation to the treatment of the diseases of oui own 
country, a very decided superiority. 

I trust that the success of this literary enterprize maybe equal to 
your very generous and benevolent disposition. 

With great respect, I am, dear sir, your«, Stc. 

N. CHAPMAN, M. I) 

Professor of the hist' lutes and Practice of Medicine and 

Clinical Practice, in the University of Pennsylvania 



K E C O M M E N D A. T 1 N ».. $ 

Philadelphia, Aug. ISth, IS 16. 
pEAR sin, 

I have derived much satisfaction from a perusal of the Third Edi- 
tion of your '•''Medical Companion.'''' 

The additions and improvements which it contains, as compared 
with the two first editions of the work, are extensive and important, 

To families in the country, remote, not only from medical aid, 
but from places where common medicinal articles are to be pro- 
cured, your Materia Medica alone, disclosing to them the healing 
resources of their own farms and forests, will be of high value. 
Nor, provided they be true to their best interests, and avail themselves 
of the advantages placed at their disposal, will your rules and direc- 
tions for the preservation of health, be less useful to them. 

In addition to these two important branches, now introduced into 
the Medical Companion for the first time, it contains a large amount 
of new miscellaneous matter, which cannot fail to be interestii. s to 
the reader. 

On the whole, if T be not greatly mistaken in my estimation of 
the character of your work, it is well calculated to prove extensive- 
ly useful, and to place you in the midst of the permanent benefac- 
tors of your country. 

That you may receive, in reputation and wealth, your full reward, 
is the sincere wish of 

Dear sir, your very humble 

And obedient servant, 

CH. CALDWELL, M. D. 

JYow Professor of Materia Medica and Physiology in the 

Transylvania University. 
Dr. James Swell. 

Philadelphia, December 31, 1S07, 

DEAR SIR, 

I have read your book entitled "The Medical Companion,'- with 

pleasure, and think it worthy the attention of the citizens of the. 

United States. _ * _ 

W. SHJPPEN, M. D 

Professor of Anatomy. 

Dr. James Ewell. 



Philadelphia, December 31, 1807. 

PEAR SIR, 

I have carefully perused your work, "The Medical Companion," 

and take much pleasure in expressing my entire approbation of the 
plan, and of the utility with which you have conducted your inqui- 
ries. Your book cannot fail to be a very acceptable present to the 
i ublic in general, and especially to our own countrymen. I really 
'opinion, that you are entitled to much praise for the paint.. 



VI RECOMMENDATIONS. 

which you have taken in furnishing us with a work, the want of which 
has long been experienced among us. 

Your friend, &.C. 

B. S. BARTON, M. D. 

Professor of Materia Medica, Natural History and Botany. 
I)r* James Etc ell. 

December 28, 1807. 
I have read " The medical Companion," by Dr. James Ewell, 
with satisfaction. It is a book containing a variety of matter in a 
small compass. The practice which he recommends in diseases, is 
modern and judicious, and the work cannot fail of being useful in 
all families in the United States. 

JAMES WOODHOUSE, M. D. 
Professor of Chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania. 

Dr. James Ewell. 



DEAR SIR, 

1 have looked over your "Medical Companion," with pleasure. 
The arrangement pf the various parts is judicious, the language 
plain and perspicuous, and the sentiments happily condensed; the 
modes of treatment grow out of the most improved state of our sci- 
ence, and may serve as a safe and useful guide to every family cut 
off from the services of able physicians. 

Accept the homage of my regard. 

JOHN B. DAVIDGE, M. D 
Professor of Anatomy, Surgery, fyc. in the College of Medicine 

of Maryland. 
Baltimore, Feb. 19, 1808. 
Dr. James Ewell. 



DEAR SIR, 

We have perused your "Medical Companion''' with much satis- 
faction, and strongly recommend it to the attention of those fami- 
lies who cannot with convenience procure medical aid. We think 
it the best publication we have ever read on the domestic treatment 
of diseases, more especially as it regards those of our climate. 

We are very respectfully, sir, your most obedient servants, 

BROWN & MACKENZIE 

Baltimore, March 4, 1S08. 

Dr. James Ewell*, 



RECOMMENDATIONS. Vll 

SIR, 

I have read your book on Domestic Medicine with pleasure. The 
practice recommended in it is judicious, and being from the pen of 
a native physician, has great advantage over the publications of 
European authors. 

JOHN SHAW, M. D. 

Professor of Chemistry in the College of Medicine of Maryland. 

Dr. James Eivell. 



Charleston, May 7, 1808. 

PEAR SIR, 

Your "Medical Companion" contains much useful knowledge in a 
small compass, and is particularly adapted to these states. Fami- 
lies remote from medical aid. will find their account in possessing a 
book which describes diseases so plainly, and prescribes for them 
to judiciously, as bid fair to save valuable lives, which otherwise 
might be lost. 

Your most obedient servant, 

DAVID RAMSAY, M. D. 
Dr. James Ewell. 



Charleston, S. C. May 12, 1808. 

DEAR SIR, 

The perusal of your "Medical Companion" has given me the grea- 
test satisfaction. Such a publication has been much wanted, and I 
think the plan and execution of your work must answer the mos,t 
valuable purposes. 

Yours very truly, 

ALEX. BARRON, M. D 
Dr. James Ewell. 



Charleston, May 14, 1808. 

DEAR SIR, 

I have, with great pleasure, perused your "Family Physician." I 
find it to be a well digested compend of the most modern and ap- 
proved modes of treating diseases, especiallv those to which our 
country is most exposed.— You have subjoined a dispensatory, ju- 
diciously calculated to obviate those errors which too frequently 
ensue from the exhibition of medicine, where the aid of the practi- 
tioner cannot be obtained. 

Yours, &c. 

PHILIP G. PRIOI^EATX 
Dr. James EwelL , 



frtfl R B t : M M E \ D AT ION S. 

Washington, March 1, 1808. 
sir, 

I return you my thinks for flic copy of u The Medical Companion" 
you have been so kind as to send me, md must particularly express 
my sense of the favourable sentiments expressed towards me in the. 
beginning of the work; especially too, wh re it recalls to my recol- 
lection the memory of your respectable father, who was the friend 
and companion of my youth, and for whom I retained through life 
an affectionate attachment. The plan of your work is certainly 
excellent, and its execution, as far as I am a judge, worthy of the 
plan. Tt brings within a moderate compass whatever is useful, lev- 
els it to ordinary comprehension, and as a manual, will be a valua- 
ble possession to every family. 

I pray you accept my salutations and assurances of esteem and 
respect. 

TH. JEFFERSON. 
Dr. Ewell. * 



Washington, July 3, 1819. 

SIB, 

I had the honour to thank you viva voce after my having received 
your book, T owe you new thanks after perusing it. 

Such a work would be useful, very useful, in every country, but it 
mav be said it is necessary in the United States, and you have ac- 
quired true titles to the gratitude of your fellow-citizens, and spe- 
cially that of the families who happen to be distant from medical 
aid, by pointing them out the surest and, at the same time^ the. 
simplest rules to be followed in case of sickness. 

T, above all, offer up my prayers, that your wise hints to ladies maj 
not be laid aside, and that mothers of families impress them info 
their minds. 

Consumption, that inexorable enemy of youth and beauty, is in- 
deed, in most instances, but the mournful result of an imprudent 
fashion, and it cannot be too often repeated to youns; ladies who do 
not fear to show themselves at assemblies in winter, m light dresses, 
that which a great physician answered to one of his friends who 
told him, I am well, T have only got a cold: "Colds^ said he, take 
away more people than the plague." 

Agree, Sir, with my sincere acknowledgments, the assurance of 
my truly distinguished consideration. 

G. HYDE DE NEUVTLLE. 
Dr. James Ewell. 



The following Revieio is from that celebrated ivorhj the New York 
Medical Rep ository. 
Manuals of health, or popular publications on medicine, have be- 
come so frequent as to have excited the censure of some grave and 
oracular members of the profession. They consider their publish- 



RECOMMENDATIONS. 1% 

Ing brethren as unnecessarily divulging the arcana of the art, as 
depreciating its credit and estimation^ and as teaching the common 
jnassof readers to know as much as themselves. This communi- 
cative disposition they conceive to be carried to a very faulty ex- 
treme. For when the secrets of the healing faculty are promulgat- 
ed by its members, with such consummate knowledge and success, 
what is left for distinguishing the regularly initiated from those who 
are without the pale? The propagation of the Esculapian myste- 
ries is viewed to be faulty on another account; in as much as in di* 
minishing the importance, it lessens the profits of the practisers, and 
thus, for the gratification and emolument of one tell-tale author, the 
whole fraternity is disparaged. 

Let us, however, do justice to those sons of physic who are thus 
accused Of faithlessness, in uttering abroad those matters which ought 
to be viewed as under the restriction of closed doors. Contrast 
their conduct with that of another class of medical personages, who 
forever deal in nostrums^ and are incessantly boasting of their won- 
der-Working powers; who assure the credulous world they can cure 
every possible disease of mind and body; but with a cunning equal 
to their effrontery, permit no mortal to become acquainted with their 
remedies. Compare the conduct of him who withholds nothing from 
his fellow citizens, with that of him who keeps every thing to him- 
self. There can scarcely be a stronger exhibition of generous com- 
munication On the one part, and of selfish concealment on the other. 
Whatever may be pleaded in behalf of the persons who refuse to 
make a magnanimous publication for the good of mankind^ of such 
valuable means of cilre as they may possess, 0^ who secure the pro* 
fits of them under the statute of patents, there certainly is a 1 charac- 
ter of greater disinterestedness and philanthropy, and a temper of 
a brighter mould and finish in him, who, without fee or price, offers 
to his fellow creatures all he knows that will be beneficial to them. 

We know it has been said, that a smattering in the knowledge of 
the animal economy, and of diseases, multiplies the number of pa- 
tients, and encourages the practice of physic. Books on such sub- 
jects, addressed to the people at large, are peculiarly calculated to 
alarm their fears whenever they are unwell, and therefore, impel 
them to seek assistance from those on whose skill they rely. It 
lias been surmised too, that the disciples of Buchan, Willich, and 
their coadjutors, have often been led, from superficial and conceited 
knowledge, to become prescribers to others, and have, by their blun- 
ders, rendered the attendance of the regular physician more needful 
than ever. Hence it has been argued, that publications of this kind 
fail to promote the plausible object of their composition, and in re- 
ality, produce a mischievous, and not a beneficial effect. It has even 
been urged against them, that they are of no service to any per- 
son but the writer, who may diffuse his fame and increase his wealth 
in proportion to the circulation of his book and the consequent (bV 
furbance it works in societv. 






% HKCOMMENDATIONS. 

Whatever may be the merits of this controversy among; those! 
who are toiling night and day in the service of the infirm and dis- 
abled, or in the compilation of volumes, for our own parts, as review- 
ers, we feel favourable to the general distribution of knowledge. 
He are not attached to monopolies of any kind, and less than any, 
to that which confines to a particular order, the information which 
will teach man how to prevent sickness and pain, and to remove 
these ills when they invade. He who publishes wholesome precepts 
and directions, cannot be denied the merit of good intention; and it 
would be hard to refuse him the additional credit of having done 
substantial good to those who have followed his advice. Having in- 
dulged these prefatory reflections, we advance to the consideration 
of the, work before us. 

The author has prefixed to it a dedication to the President of the 
tinted States, a preface explanatory of his design, and a number of 
recommendatory epistles from his friends. Then follows a chapter 
of preliminary observations, of which we were inclined to offer an 
extract for the gratification of our readers; but our limits forbade. 

^ The body of the work is devoted to the consideration of the prin- 
cipal diseases which assail the human frame at different times of life. 
They begin with fevers, and end with rickets; without, however, 
observing any strict method or nosological arrangement. Each 
section stands by itself, and has little or no connexion with thepre- 
ceding or subsequent matter. — But a table of contents and index are 
two goodkeya to the subjects discussed. 

The diseases are severally considered in short and generally ap- 
propriate terms. After a definition, the observations are mostly 
comprised under the head of symptoms, causes, treatment, and regi- 
men; to which, in some instances, are added paragraphs on preven- 
tion. And it is but justice to observe, that the author has manifest- 
careful and discriminating mind in condensing so much valua- 
ble instruction into such a moderate compass. The sententious and, 
at the same time, intelligible manner of conveying his directions, 
is at once calculated to give the reader a clear idea of his meaning, 
and favourable opinion of his understanding. 

Besides the observations that are strictly medical, the work con- 
tains a variety of directions upon surgical subjects. 

To render his compilation more generally useful and acceptable, 
the author has annexed to it a dispensatory. This consists of two 
parts: the first comprehends a table of medicines for family use, 
with their doses and qualities annexed; and the second contains a 
collection of recipes for the principal part of the compound medi- 
cines recommended in the course of the work. And this part of the 
publication is executed in a manner that justifies the opinion w6 
hinted before, of Dr, Ewell's sagacity and skill. 



# 



TO HIS EXCELLENCY 



THOMAS JETYT^ISOX, 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



I TM^i leave to \vresent this ^oolc to Mi. 

JenVrson, not because lie is President of 

1801, but because ne was theuatoiotof 1V16', 

and still more, because, through the wliole 

of a long and glorious life, lie lias been the 

ulvilosoulieY and friend of l\is country, with 

all t\\e ingenuity of the former, exposing 

tl\e misreuTesentations of illiberal f oreign- 

ers # , and with all the ardour of the Matter, 

fanning the lire of American science, and 

watering thcYOots of that sacked olive wlvhli 

sheds lier peaceful blessings ovex our land. 

To whom, then, with equal urourictv, 

could 1 dedicate a IWok, designed at least, / 

to uromotc l\ealtl\ and longevity And U 



xii 

tfhom ami so "bound l>y the tendeYcst tics of 
affection and gYatitude., as to My. JeffcYsoiV\ 
The eaYly classmate and constant fYiend of 
my deceased fathcY, and instYumcntally t\\e 
authoY of my acquaintance with the frrst 
chavacteYS in the state oi GeoYgia*, among 
wnom, with yeculiaY uleasurci I would 
mention tVve lionouYable names oi MAlledge, 
Tyouu, TVaWock, andTlowrnoy. 

That yon may long diYect the councils of 
a united and 'wise ueoule, steadily uursuing 
l\ealtl\, ueace, and competence, the main 
uillars of individual and national Ivauui- 
ness, is the fervent uYayeY, of youY l^cel* 
leucy's much Obliged and 

"VeYy gYateful seYvant, 



TQ 



^eav *\> mau\W>UA, m avl lue, o^ftMralVoufr o\ ou.'v 
^ue/mmmV^ S Wow oi uo ^"viou to w\vcm 
S com &&&AAaV& ? Wiva a/vtale/v towWu\/>jp VW 
WmwL UblVmouu ol mu awollon awA, n&fcU^S 
luau lo vde a\>l\mv\vwA> VuaWxAmv.j wWe 

Wuc buMAwA, a\X cY/aWb \uVo ve-ue/vaUcu aw 

in tiMW^ ue mau be, fcaUvu mVYUbleA, Vu Vue. 
aitoWtae ollue. ulcviwA aulleA ©i to co\m&V/yu. 

^loo^eA uUou mva'\wcVv^muc& \m fcvxMx atanMnv. 
$&%&*, avuci ea\ft WiX&wml e/\\&o\»me/\\b iu, 
\\\ \8i*, aaAcbl ^cutf* ©I aaufct-v awA, ^ma^ 






J&V 



\j\clot\w two mivhf^ ufteuvewuY iw Ytaw \wVUv- 
cucl^ tio\ &\mm\Aal \u wicvt &?n\i\t\\ ? \n^ 
l^\c miU, a&ccnicncu c\ Vive, Wciion tWvfr oV 
^wvct. t3\v«, wuAaa id e\>c«v Vtvuc, Vo vivo ^ovx^ 
V\w, faafcucY lb euo% Vtuo Vo Vuo Y t0 Y <? tVYV ^ 
wuc^l vv\c^ wuote WtVvmo. wucbo aVv.) W> W,w 
&&uctaA Vo VWvt cauu.) Wwv Vue 'h&t'uA. o\ ovvt 
■YtoovviViow Vo V\\o touAwvV ^eiu ^ awA. wuobo t>ct- 
vvcii tuVvVvt w/ro Vo Vuo a^l^ivalVow o\ Vuc 
DtcowA VclVucy ol uii couwVtu.) um/l woV \>e, Wt- 
aoVVeu^ wort wcoaalcVcA \vvi V\\obo^ Vu wuoto b©\wv 
tvawVu AwlvVd V\\e oVii^o'vv^aVvou o\ Y owtl au ^ 
Vue ycukvyA ol uowot . 

t) WV •ucwt vtU auji utmVumau tt *a icii/votA^ 
avA \\cwt ubcXwL\uAb coyvVywvuAVo ivcuaccviwVaw 
tt> V\\o Hwficnjc* aw& WimwV \»am\ o\ 

tAowt oWA.wa\V awA, AcuoVeA, !>e\\MV\\V^ 

cWmo ©mvL. 









PREFACE, 



ON the important subject of domestic medicine, many 
books hate been written, which, though excellent in other 
respects, have greatly failed of usefulness to Americans; 
because they treat of diseases which, existing in very 
foreign climates and constitutions, must widely differ 
from ours. The book now offered to the public has, 
therefore, the great advantage of having been written 
by a native American, of long and successful practice 
in the southern states, and who, for years past, has turned 
much of his attention to the composition of it. 

The professed object of this book is to treat in the 
most clear and concise manner, almost every disease to 
which the human body is subject, to give their common 
names and surest symptoms, to point out the causes 
whence they originate, and the most approved method 
of treatment — and, lastly, to prescribe the suitable regi- 
men and means of prevention. \ 

A publication like this cannot but be exceedingly use- 
ful to all, but especially to those who live in the country, 
or who go to sea, where regular and timely assistance 
rannot always be obtained. 



XVI PREFACE. 

Among the many and great services, to be rendered 
by such a book, we may fairly state its tendency to pre- 
vent that dangerous officiousness of ignorant persons, 
and, that equally pernicious neglect of the patient, at 
the onset of the disease, whereby so many lives are lost. 
These, with many other evils resulting from the want ot 
such a work, constituted the motives which first led the 
author to offer this publication to his countrymen. It is 
not for him to determine, whether it be happily executed 
or not; but, whatever may be the general opinion as to 
its merit, he has the high satisfaction to know, that it 
not only flows from the purest motives, but. also contains 
a faithful relation of facts, collected principally from his 
own experience, and, in part, selected from authors of 
the greatest celebrity. 

He has not hesitated, occasionally, to use the language 
of his favourite authors, where he found it sufficiently 
clear and familiar for his purpose ; and he hopes this ac- 
knowledgment will be received in place of frequent refer- 
ence and quotation. 

The reader will find, in the latter part of the work, a 
table of such medicines most commonly called for in fam- 
ilies, with an adaption of the doses to the age of the pa- 
tient, together with directions to prepare and administer 
them. And as it is impossible entirely to banish technical 
phrases when writing on medicine, the reader is pre- 
sented with a Glossary, explaining the medical and scien- 
tific terms unavoidably employ d in this work. 



Preface. xvii 

The Author, animated by the extraordinary success of 
the "Medical Coilf&NiOK," has greatly improved and 
enlarged it, by a synopsis of the anatomy and physiology 
of the human body; essays on air, food, exercise, sleep, 
evacuations, and passions ; and a Materia Mcdica. 

Thus improved, the Medical Companion not only 
treats of the art of preserving health, and curing disease, 
but also inculcates a familiar knowledge of the human 
system, in all its parts, and the laws that govern its 
economy. It is obvious, that by due attention to the 
non-naturals, by which is to be understood the means of 
preserving health, we may go far to protect this fabric 
from injury or disease. To inculcate this truth more 
universally and successively, the disquisitions contained 
in this work, are enlivened with appropriate illustrations, 
calculated to make impressions on the mind of the read- 
er, as lasting as they are important. 

Not the least valuable portion of this work is the 
Materia Medic a, pointing out those precious simples 
wherewith God has graciously stored our meadows^ 
fields, and woods, for the healing of our diseases, and 
rendering us happily independent of foreign medicines, 
which, while tkey are sometimes hard to be obtained, are 
frequently adulterated, and always costly. 

To conclude — The author having added much new 
and important matter to this seventh edition, it will, un^ 
questionably, be found much more valuable than any of 
the former; because, he has laboured to correct in this, 
all the errors and imperfections that have hitherto ap- 
peared, has enlarged upon the treatment of most diseases, 
3 



Will I'Kl.l v 

and has introduced several others, particularly that 
scourge of the South and West, the malignant fever*, 
sometimes denominated the Cold Plague, which weir 
not previously noticed, though highly important to In- 
well known and understood. 

In the present state of the science of medicine, daily 
improving by experience, and adding rapidly to the 
number of valuable remedies, he felt it incumbent upon 
him to enlarge considerably on the treatment of the dis- 
eases generally, as well as to make oilier additions, 
Which a work of this nature required, in order to its 
increased usefulness. 

In a familiar style he has pointed out the modus operandi 
of the different remedies; has given the prognostics of 
diseases; has noticed more particularly the circumstances 
whence the disorders originate, for the purpose of guard- 
ing against occurrences; has distinguished those cases 
which yield readily to the employment of simple means, 
from those which require the regular attendance of a 
medical practitioner; and has detailed the means for 
checking or retarding the progress of such eases. 

On the management and diseases of women, he has < i 
deavoured, with the aid of the most distinguished authors 
on this subject, to give such a description of the com- 
plaints to which they are liable, with instructions for 
their treatment, plain enough, to be understood by the at- 
tendants or the patients themselves; and which he sin- 
cerely hopes will in a measure have the tendency to cor- 
rect the errors and misconduct of unskilful midvvives, and 
to prevent unnecessary interference in young practition 



P R E F A C E . XIX 

ei's. To all which has been added a general sketch of 
the diseases of infancy and childhood. 

With a view of correcting the gross errors of nurses, 
whereby so many valuable lives have been lost, there is 
introduced the "Nurse's Guide," describing the prepa- 
rations of such aliments as arc most proper for the sick, 
which, as a family assistant, will unquestionably be a val- 
uable acquisition. 

Desirous that nothing should be omitted, which would 
in the least add to the value of the work, he has greatly 
improved the Dispensatory : which is now arranged in a 
manner that will not in the least perplex the reader; hav- 
ing endeavoured to render each formula or prescription, 
as concise and clear as possible, both as to the mode of 
preparing and the intention of employing it by short prac- 
tical remarks under each class or head. 

He has likewise given a detailed Index, so that in all 
cases of disease, the reader may be directed without trou-.' 
ble or embarrassment to the appropriate remedies. And 
that the bulk of the volume might not be too large, he has 
expunged many of the illustrations under the head of Hy- 
gieine, being of little importance compared with the mat- 
ter now introduced. 

The author cannot but think a work of this nature will 
be exceedingly useful to the student, whose theoretical 
knowledge has only prepared him to commence the ar- 
duous duties of his profession; for, it will not be denied, 
that the most experienced practitioner occasionally feels 
w ant of a guide in his practice. It is worthy to be 
noticed, when the first edition of the Medical Companion 



XX j' i; 1. 1 '. 

was presented to the public. Professor Barton, with his. 
usual liberality and philanthropy, enjoined upon his pu- 
pils to procure a copy of the work before they entered up- 
on the duties of their profession, observing at the same 
time, that he himself had profited by it in practice, by- 
refreshing his memory of what he had read in more vo- 
luminous works. 

To every family, more especially those in remote sit- 
uations, the possession of this book must unquestionably, 
be of incalculable value; for, conducted by such a guide, 
it will not be presumptuous to say that any person of tol- 
erable capacity, and reasonable attention, may be ena- 
bled to practise with safety and advantage, in those cases 
of simple diseases most incident to our climate. 

How far the Author has accomplished his wishes in 
these important respects the reader is left to judge from 
the high testimonials, prefixed to the work, from some 
of the most distinguished physicians in our country. 

He will only add, from the time and attention he has 
devoted, in making the improvements now introduced, 
he cannot but flatter himself, the "Medical Companion'* 
will not fail to be acceptable to his fellow-citizens; and 
under this pleasing impression, he submits it to tjieir gen- 
ltous patron. 



CSHERJLXi INDEX. 



ABDOMEN, description of 71 
Abortion, observations on 532 

prevention of - 535 

Abscess common - - 447 
Absorbents, class of - 810 

mixture, doses of SOI 

how prepared - 810 

Abstemious living, good ef- 
fects of - » - - 109 
Acid, nitric, tonic, - 827, 82S 

muriatic, usefid in nerv- 

vous fever, - - - 25 2 

■ ■ ■ vegetable anti-scorbutic 423 
Acute rheumatism, - - 985 
Aridity, or heartburn, 392, 522 
Adams, John, his death and 

character noticed - - 372 
Admonitory hints to ladies, 493 
Advice to masters, 45 

to parents, - - 602 

Adulterated wines, to detect 745 
After pains, - - -' - 559 
Afterbirth, caution respecting 5 15 

t-rt mode of extracting 553 

Agaric, stops bleeding, - 639 
Agrimony, useful in jaundice, lb. 
Ague and Fever, - - - 218 
Air, its influence on the blood, 88 

on the body, - - 90 

■ necessity for its renewal 93,9 7 

confined, bad effects of p3 

warm, relaxes the body, 100 

• damp, checks perspiration 101 

the most wholesome - ib. 

impure, how restored 99, 262 

Air and temperature, howtobe 

-ulated in sickness - 75 7 



Alder, black, anti-septic - 63$ 
Aloetic pills, how prepared 806 
Alteratives, class of - 827 

Alterative diet drink - - S2S 
Alum, doses of 79b' 

curd, how prepared 839 

whey, how prepared, 77 7 

root, useful in cancers 640 

Alv'me discharge, nature of 280 
Americans, patriotism of 198 
Anatomical description of the 
human body, concise and 
Interesting - - 49 

Anasarcous swellings - 407 
Ancle, dislocation of - - 4Gb 
Angelica, good aromatic, G4U 
Anger, its ill eflects on mind 
and body 1,53 ; melancholy 
instances of 155; advanta- 
ges of repressing 156; won- 
derful cliects of music in 
subduing - - - - 157 
Animation suspended, how re- 
stored - - 434, 435, 590 
Animal heat depends on tlie 
circulation of the blood, 69. 

— depression of, 

how to be restored 234, 255 
Anodynes, class of - - 816 
Anodyne liniment, to prepare 83 2 

sudorific drops,dosesof 801 

how prepared, - 809 

Anti-bilious pills, how prepar. 805. 

Anti-dysenteric mixture, 801,823 

Antimonial wine, doses of 796 

how prepared - - 830 

p.owdcii- and solution - 80S 



Ml 



EHAL IN. 



Antiphon promised to do upon 

souls what Hippocrates did 

on bodies - - - - 

Antipathy to certain remedies, 

consequences of - 40, 

Anus, imperforate 

railing down of - 

Aperient medicines, impor- 
tance of in fevers 
Aperient and diaphoretic pills 
Apoplexy, or apoplectic fits 
Appetites, three kinds of 105, 
Apparent, death, <o resuscitate 
Apparel, observations on - 
Apple, Peru a valuoble plant 
Apple water - 
Apthae, or thrush 
Arbutus, useful in gravel - 
Irdent spirits, utility of 
abuse of des- 
tructive to body and soul 
iristides, his goodness 
Arms, description of - 

dislocation of 

fracture of - 

\ rm ^ roi i g, Dr. remarks on use 

of stimulants in fevers, - 
\rrk>, her im incible love - 
Arrow root, very nutritious 
Arsenic solution, doses of 

howpreparen 

Art. of preserving health - 
ries, their use explained 
Asarabacea. useful in whoop- 
ing-cough', - - - - 
■\scarides, worm - - - 
Ascites, or dropsy of belly 
Askew, his singular recovery 
Asthma, treatment of - 
\ storsan dines on the heart of 
his mistress, - 
lgents, cla^s of - 
Astringent mixture 

gargles and washes - 

Atheist, conversion 6f 

— . punishment of 

Athenians, religious instruc- 
tions of the - 
Atmosphere, component parts 
e r . _ • _ - ._ - 



1 if, 



641 

91 



\\aricc, injurious to health 

fatal instances of i (, 6 

Hippocrates' advice 161 

A vens, anti-septic 

Azote, or corrupted air 

B. 

BACK-BONE use of - 51 
Backach-brake, for cough 642 
Baker, Professor, praise due 639 

Balm, useful in fevers - 643 

Balsamic medicines in con- 
sumptions when useful 358 
Balsam, capivi, doses of - 722 

remedy for gonorrha- 4 l 1 

— Turlington's, how prepared 829 
Barberry, useful in dysentery 612 
Bark Peruvian, caution in the 

321 

l Jo 

824 

ib. 

829 

770 

586 



uso of 

— jacket, bow prepared 

coLd infusion of 



decoction of 

tincture of 

Barley water, how prepared 
Barrenness, observations or 
Barton, Professor, his noble 
efforts to serve his fellow 
citi/< 
his unbounded liber- 
ality -A - 
assets the efficacy of 



638 



20 



s? oak bark in gangrene, 700; 

of poke weed in rheuma- 
tism, 708; of thorn apple 
(Ml | in epilepsy, &.C. 726; of tor 
5S5 'I bacco to dislodge worms - 732 
10 1 | Bastard ipecacuanha - -642 
it.! Bashfulness, evidence ofvirtue 185 
890 Bath, cold, when proper 

— warm, efficacy of 44, 5S 



I So 



regulation of 



267 



821.1 Bavous, a -rency of. ni produ- 
cing malignant fever 1 1th 
blank pi 
Baybeiry, useful in jaundice 642 
309 Bearberry, useful in gravel 642 
Beaufort, his dread of death 150 
uty, wonderful effi cts of 498 
ring down of the womb 
'ii s on 109 



GENERAL INDEX. 



XX111 



Beech drapBj useful incancers G 13 
Beef tea, how prepared, - 77 1 
Beer, recipes for - - 680 

ir, anecdote of - - 115 
Benne, useful in dysentery 

and yields a good sallad oil 613 
Bcthroot, useful in hemorrha- 
ges - - - - ib. 
Bigelow, professor, honoura- 
ble mention of - - 639 
testifies to the vir- 
tues of Gillenia - - 672 
Bile, the manner in which it 

is secreted, and use of - 76 
Bilious fever, treatment of - 225 

• its fatality in 

Washington - - - 231 

■ prevention of 230 

Bind -weed, purgative - - 6 43 
Byrd, colonel, celebrates the 

bastard ipecacuanha - 684 
Bites, of muscjuitoes - - 437 
of venomous animals, 438 



of mad-doars, 



Bitters, how prepared, 

dangerous effects of 

Bittersweet, good for cutane- 
ous disorders, &.c. - 
Blackberry, remedy in dysen- 
tery, - - - 
Black snake root, useful in 

fevers - . - 
Bladder, description of 

distended; cause of 



439 

830 

43 

649 1 

ib. 

748 
75 



Blood-letting, rules to be ob- 
served - 29T4, 245, 265 486 
Blood root, cure for polypus 644 
Blood wort, checks bleeding 645 
Bloody flux - - - 369 
Blossoms, grog, cure of - 425 
Blotches, or eruptions 424, 616 
Boerhaave, Dr. verifies that 
religion conduces to health 20£ 

his singular 

mode of treating epilepsy 159 
Boils or tumours - - 4 17 

Bolea, captain, his singular 

mode of taking revenge - 161 
Bonaventure, his admiration 

of a beautiful woman - 135 
Bones of the human ma- 
chine, description of - 51 
Boneset, remedy in agues - 646 
Bowman's-root, good emetic ib. 
Box-wood, excellent tonic - 
Brain, seat of - - - 59 

inflammation of - 30'- 

Breasts, anatomy of - - Ot" 

inflammation of - 654 

swelling of, infants 6(>tf 

cancer of - - 449 

Bread soup, how prepared - 774 



retroverted womb, 

inflammation of 



Bleeding, at (he nose 

piles - 

from wounds 



524 

3-29 
351 
3G7 
454 

— topical - 473,761 

Blistering plaster, how pre- 
pared - 838 
Blistering plaster, substitutes 
for. (See crowfoot, cuckoo- 
phit, me zweon,gar lie, horse 
nitHslt.) 
Blood, circulation of - 66 

, how it is recruited - 75 

• , spitting of - - ?5-2 

Blood-letting, how performed 475 



pudding, how prepared 77C 
Breath, how to preserve its 

sweetness - 334 

Breeding sickness - - 522 
Broomrape, useful in cancers 546 
Brown, Professor, his remedy 

for tetanus 
Buboes, management of - 421 
Buckthorn, good purgative - 
Burch, capt. cured of abscess «• 

of liver by onions - 
Burdock, purifies blood, - 64f 
Burleigh, Lord his just remark 

On religion - - - 215- 
Burnet saxifrage, useful in 

asthma, _ _ _ ^ 47 

Burns or scalds, - - 445J 

Butterfly weed, remedy in 

cold and pleurisy - - 647 
Butternut, excellent cathartic ib 
Button snake root, useful in 
jransreno- - i% 



fccH 



c 



Caldwell, Professor, the man- 
ner he preserved the health 
of his son - - - in] 

remarks on worms, 630 

Reserves high esteem 689 

Calico tree,remedy for itch 6 H 
Calimus, good aromatic - fi 19 
Calomel, doses of - - 797 
Calves' feet jelly, how made 77 1 

broth, how made 

Camomile, stomachic, 



(.r.MRM. INDIA. 

Catheter, manner of in< 

(•; n ,r . 

Caustic alkali, doses of 
- how prepared, 



649 
Camphorated powders, doses 801 



how prepared 



-- mixture 

— liniment 



spirits 



809 

SI!) 

882 
830 
1 19 
580 

6 1:1 

ib. 



Cancer, treatment of 

of the. womb - 

Cancer root, astringent 
Candleberry myrtle,emetic - 
Caraway, excellent aromatic 649 
Carroll, Mrs. cured of bilious 

fever by purler - - '. 29 

Carroll, Charles, his death and 

character - - - 3 2 1 

Carbonic n.-i 1, or fixed air !) I 

if. wild, diuretic - - 650 

poultices how prepar. 



corrects foetid ulcus 650 
Cartwright, Dr. thanks due to 
him for bis essays on m 
li ^nant CvYoi; - -479 
bis manner of ad- 
ministering doses of med- 
icine to his patients 12th 
blank page. 
Cartilages, description of - 52 
Castor Oil. doses of - - 797 

how made - - 650 

Cataplasm, of mustard - 889 

— of common salt - ih. 

of alum - - ih. 

Catarrh, or cold - -282 

Cat gut, or goats rue, remedy 

for worms - 850 
Cathartics, class of - -804 
Cathartic mixture, doses of S01 
— how prepared - 805 



Caution to parents, 
■ — to mast 



Celandine, useful in cutaneous 

affections, - 
Cellular membrane, use of - 
Centaury, good stomachic, - 
Chalk, prepared, doses of 
Chapman, professor, his great 

zeal in diffusing knowledge 

treatment of epidemic 

atlests the efficacy of 



seneca in obstructions ol 
the menses 659; and of bal- 
sam capivi, in gonorrhoea 

Chancres - 

Chalybeate wine, how prep. 

Charcoal powder, how prep. 
)oultice. how made 



Charity, godlike act - 
Charlemagne, nobleness of - 
Cheerfulness consistent with 

religion, - 

Cherry tree, wild, substitute. 

for Peruvian bark - 
Cheselden, \)v. 0:1 anatomy 
Che} ne, Dr.lils mode of heat- 
ing delirium - 
Chesterfield, Lord, on dn 
Chicken pox - 
Chicken water, how made - 
duckweed, red, remedy for 

hydrophobia, 
Chilblains, - 

Child, position of in the womb 
Child-bed, management of 

diseases of 

Children, management of - 
Chills and fevers, vulgar mode 

of treating - - 
Chin, or whooping cough - 
Chlorosis, or green sickness 
Chocolate, properties oi' 
Cholera infantum 

morbus 

Chordee - 

Chorea, or St.Yitus's dance 



7!»7 
831 

tin " 
45 

850 

651 

7H7 

»;.:>■ 
802 



414 

121 
823* 
832 

H It) 

7 :• 
1 -m 

205 
851 

7»;i 

189 
S 18 

77 1 

651 

1 tl 
5 1 8 

55.5 
5 5S 

758 
684 

503 
113 

C27 
400 

112 

t;.u; 



GENERAL INDEX. 



XXV 



Chremes, story of, a lesson to 

the intemperate - - 106 
Christian, his consolation - 147 
Chyle, how conveyed - - 75 
Cider, when wholesome - 112 
Cinquefoil, useful in bowel 

complaints - 652 

Circulation of the blood, how 

performed - - - 69 
Clap, or gonorrhoea - - 412 
Cleanliness promotes health 

and preserves beauty - 192 
, its importance in 

sickness - 45, 595, 759 

Cleavers, good for the gravel 652 
Clinias, calmed by music - 156 
Clothing of infants - - 591 
Club-foot, management of - 611 
Clysters, or glysters, - - 836 
Cocum, used in rheumatism 652 
Cock-up-hat, useful in yaws ib. 
Coffee, properties of - - 118 
Cohush, for rheumatism - 652 
Cold, or catarrh - - 282 

remarks on the popular 

remedies - - - 283 

of foot bathing - - 283 

of cold drinks - - 233 

of full vomiting- - 285 

of steaming the head - 287 

inhaling vapour of hot 

water - - - - 239 

prevention of - - 292 

importance of avoiding 

the exciting causes - - 295 

exposure to intense 116,294 

Coldness of the extremities 

in fevers - 234, 255, 268 

Cold water, its operation upon 
the stomach - - - 233 

, the impression it 

makes when externally ap- 
plied - 283 
Cohl bath, when beneficial - 43 
Cold washing of infants - 595 
Cold plague, its fatality, let- 
ter respecting - - 477 
Colliquative sweats - - 360 
Colic, treatment of - - 397 
Colic pains, in children - $22 
4 



Collection and preservation 
of vegetable suhstances - 
Colts-foot, useful in coughs 
Columbo, Amer'n, good tonic 
Comfrey, astringent - 
Common ulcers 
Conception, signs of - 
Conscience, the effects of, &.c. 
Congestion, signs of - 
Conclusion and general re- 
marks - - - - 
Contagion, how to be arrested 
Consumption - 
use of refrige- 



rating medicines in 

of balsamic do. 

of inhalation &. 



fumigation 

of sedatives 

of exercise 

Convulsions in children 

in pregnancy 

in labour 

hysterical 



Corday, Charlotte, interest- 
ing history of - 
Cordial mixture 
Coriander, good aromatic - 
Cornaro, by temperance re- 
stores a constitution im- 
paired by dissipation 
Corns, treatment of - 
Cosmetics, observations on - 
Costiveness, remarks on 

dangerous effects 

of, in pregnancy 

of infants 



752 
653 

ib. 

ib. 
450 
515 
149 
234 

768 

262 
351 

356 
358 

359 
360 
362 
623 
528 
552 
377 

183 
817 
653 



Cough, management of 
— symptomatic - 
danger of using pa- 



tent medicines in 
— mixture,how prepared 



Countenance, prognostic of 
disease - - - - 
Cow parsnip, useful in epilep. 
Cow pox, or vaccine disease 
Cox, professor, praise due to 
Craik, Dr. and Mrs their 

death and character 
Cranes-bill, powerful styptic 



108 
446 
494 
396 

518 
621 

296 
297 

299 
S14 

271 

654 
341 

639 

705 
654 



XXVI 



< I K A 1, 1 N UFA. 



ramp, 



— in pregnancy 

— of the stomach 

— of the legs 
colic 



985 f 

5 2 7 

ih. 
998 



Crawford, Wm. H. Hon. tes 

tilies to the efficacy of 
onions in croup - - 701 
Crawford, Dr. his treatment 

of a hypocondriac - - 981 

Cream of tartar, doses of - 797 
Cross-wort, useful in fevers 656 
Croup or hives - 632 

Crow-foot, excites Misters - 656 
Cruelly, instances of - 155 

Cuckold, useful in jaundice 656 
Cuckow pint, used externally 
for blistering - 656 

I ; iber root, useful in drop- 
sies - 657 

Cullen, Dr. celebrates horse- 
radish in hoarseness - 682 
Cupping, how performed - 4"!.] 
Cure-all, excellent tonic - 657 
Currant wine, how to make 657 
Currie. Dr. his improvement 
in the treatment of nervous 
fever - 240 
Custard apple, a good pur- 
gative - 6"7 

pudding, bow made 776 

Cutaneous eruptions - - A-iA 

Cutbusb, Dr. his successful 
practice in the epidemic, 302 
bears testimony of the ef- 
ficacy of acids in scurvy, 
6; of tobacco in dropsy 733 
Cutler, Rev. Dr. deserving 
high commendations - 639 

testifies to 

the efficacy of emetic weed 
and skunk cabbage in asth- 
ma, - - 661, 722 

D. 

Dandelion. u>eful in visceral 
obstructions - - 658 

Darwin, Dr. »rives an account 
of a parsimonious surgeon 
killing himself - 149 



Darwin, Dr. cites a case in 
v\ Inch pride was effectually 
cured - - - - 181 

hisremedv to cor 






rect bad breath 

Davidge, professor, his reme- 
dy for croup 

Daviess, colonel, his dying 
words 

Deadly night-shade, useful in 
rheumatism, - - - 

Deafness, treatment of 

Death, overmuch feared by 
some - 

Deer berry, useful in asthma 

Delirium, treatment of 570, 7 

Delivery, or child-birth 

Penman, Dr. his mode of 
preventing convulsions - 

» bis remarks on 



633 
- 108 
697 

993 

14 



539 



530 



preternatural labour. 540 

Dentition, on teething, - 624 
Detergent, gargles - 834 

Devil's list, vermifuge, 8lc. 658 
Dewberry, useful in dysentery ib. 
Dexter, professor, entitled to 

praise, - 699 

Diabetes, or incontinence of 

urine, - 

Diaphragm, use of, 71 

Diaphoretics, class of, 806 

drops, 801,80 7 

Diarrhoea, or looseness, 401 

Diet, for a healthy state, 1 10 

for the sick, - 766 

— — mode of preparing, 769 

Difficulty of urine, - 36 
Dijrfstion, how performed, 1 
Dill, good aromatic, - 658 

Directions for preserving 

vegetable substances 752 

Diseases of pregnancy, 521 

of childbed 

prognostics- of 

Dislocations, observations on 462 
j' Dislocation of the jaw 468 

I of the shoulder, 46 I 

!j of the elbow, 465 

I of the wrist or finger ib. 

11 of the thigh lb. 






466 
803 
602 
393 
811 
812 
658 

659 

815 

830 

316 



Dislocation of the knees and 

ancles - 
Dispensatory, - 
Dispositions of children, 
Dispepsia, - 

Diuretics, class of 
Diuretic infusion and pills - 
Dock water,purifies the blood 
Dog-wood, best substitute for 

the Peruvian bark - 
Domestic remedies for whoop- 
ing cough - 
— -i — — — for rheu- 
matism, - 
Dorsey, professor, his reme- 
dy for sore eyes 
■ notice of his death 

and character - - - 305 

Doses of medicines, table of 796 
Dover's powders, how prepr'd 809 

802 
659 
ib. 
805 
591 
187 
1S9 

190 
404 

407 

(530 
5S3 
5S5 



GENERAL INDEX. 
I 



XXV11 



474 
808 
774 
126 
659 
660 
ib. 



doses of 
Dragon's claw, useful in fevers 
Dragon's root,usedforblisters 
Drastic purees - 
Dressing of infants - 
Dress, love of, natural 

■ neglect of, improper 
advantages of wear- 
ing flannel - 

Dropsy of the belly - 

■ of the cellular mem- 
brane, or anarsarca 

of the head - 

of the ovarium 

of the fallopian tubes 

Drowned persons, how to be 

treated - 

Drunkards reclaimed, instan 
ces of - 

ludicrous descrip 

tion of - 

Drunkenness, its horrid con- 
sequences - 

Dysentery, treatment of 

E. 

Ear, description of - 

noise in, prognostic of 

disease - 
Ear-ach - 



- 434 
174 

- 483 

17:2 
369 



61 

277 

332 



Eccymosis 

Effervescing draught - 
Egg soup, how made - 
Eginardus, anecdote of 
Elder, common, aperient 

wine, how made 

Elecampane, expectorant - 
Elegy on the death of Col. 
Jesse Ewell - - -403 

on a deluded girl - 719 

Elixir paragoric, doses of - 798 

, how prepared 829 

Elixir vitriol, doses of - 797 

Elm, American, remedy in 

dysentery - - - 660 
Emetic weed, excellent eme- 
tic and remedy for asthma 661 
Emetics, rules for their ex- 
hibition - - - - 
Emissions, involuntary 
Empirics, cause of increase 
! cures on which 



803 

417 

39 



their fame is built - 
Enthusiasm, source of delu- 
sion - 
Envy, nature of 

baneful effects of 

antidote against 



40 

200 
163 
164 
165 
149 



Epicurus, his dread of death 
Epidemic, or typhoid pneu- 
monia - - - - 
Epilepsy, or epileptic fits - 
Epispastics - 

Ergot, hastens delivery 
Eructations - 
Eruptions of the skin, 424,572.6 15 
Erysipelas, or St. Anthony's 
fire, - - - 350, 
Ether, vitriolic, doses of 
Essence of peppermint, ditto 
Evacuations, importance of 
al vine, pro gnos- 



300 
374 
493 
663 
393 



618 

797 

ib. 

123 



tic of diseases - - 280 

Evergreen, diuretic - - 664 

Excretory vessels, use ef^ - 55 

Excoriations, or galling - 609 

Exercise, promotes health - 113 

absolute necessity of ] ]6 

mode of prescvib- 

- S23 



Lag, in sickness 



XXV 111 



GENERAL INDIA. 



Expectorants, rules for their 

exhibition - - - 813 
Eye, description of - - 60 

inflammation of - Si 5 

Eye-water, how prepared - B92 



Face, painful affection of - 339 
Fainting Fits - 376 

in pregnant and lying 

in women - - 523, 553 
Falling of the fundament - -1 15 

of the palate - 313 

■ — of the navel strings 552 

of the womb ' - 5 75 

Fallopian tubes, their use - 79 
False conception - - 582 

pains - 527 

Fanaticism, dangerous con- 
sequences of - - - 201 
Fashion, its excess disgusting 188 
Fear, its origin - - - 148 

turns the hair gray - ib. 

■ produces insanity - 149 

i superstitious founda- 
tion of - 152, G02 
Feather beds, necessity of 

airing - 122 

Febrifuge mixture and pow- 
ders - - - 802, 808 
Feeding of children - - 593 
Feeling, one of the senses - 68 
Feet, description of - 52 
Fennel, sweet, aromatic - 664 
Fern, male and female, useful 
in coughs, and remedy for 
tope-worm - ib. 
Fever, in general - - 215 

bilious or remittent - 225 

hectic. or consumption 354 

inflammatory - - 264 

■ intermittent, or ague 218 

malignant, or yellow 477 

- miliary - 348 

— milk,in lyingin women 560 

nervous, or typhus - 241 

puerperal - - 572 

scarlet - - - 348 

Fibres, description of - - 55 



Fig-tree, a mild caui - 665 

Finger, dislocation and frac- 
ture of - 

blue, active cathartic 
sweet, aromatic 



Flag, 



Flannel, wearing of, promotes 

health, - 
Flatulence, in infants 

in adults 393, 

Flax-seed sirup, how made 
Flea-bane, promotes urine - 
Flics, potato, equal to Spanish 

how collected - 

Flower-de-luce, cathartic - 
Fluor albus, or whites 
Flour, caudle, how prepared 
Flowers, pernicious efieets of 
Flux, or dysentery 
Flux-root, remedy in colds - 
Food, how received into the 

stomach and digested 
, rules to be observed in 

taking - 104, 109, 

Fox-glove, a most valuable 

medicine in inflammatory 

complaints - 
Fractures of the limbs 

of the small bones 

— ■ of the ribs 



French apple, cures epilepsy 
Fro st-wort, useful in kings' ev. 
Frozen limbs, management of 
Fumitory, useful in eruptions 

G. 

Galen, how he became con- 
verted - 
Galling, of infants' - 
Gall bladder, use of 
Gamboge, doses of - 
Gaming, a horid practice - 
— melancholy occur- 



468 

666 

190 
6S2 

397 

ib, 

712 
ib. 

066 
510 
773 
100 

369 
660 

74 

766 



667 
460 
470 
471 
670 
ib. 
29 1 
670 



rence of 

— good advice on 

Gangrene, or mortification - 
Garget, useful in rheumatism 
Gargles, how prepared 
Garlic, excites blisters 
Getotian, stomachic 



49 
609 

77 
798 
175 

173 
177 
459 
670 

671 
ib. 



GENERAL INDEX, 



XXIX 



Gillenia, common, emetic - 672 
Ginseng, demulcent and sub- 
stitute for tobacco - 672 
manner of prepar- 
ing for exportation - 673 
Glands, their use - - 55 
Gleet, treatment of - - 416 
Glossary - - - 841 
CJlyste", or clyster, simple 

and em ■ lient 
common, 



stimulating, 



836 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 

ib. 
837 



ai odyne, 

t irp< nl.ine, 

r»o irisliing, 

mode of administering ib. 

Golden thread, a tonic bitter 674 
Gonorrhoea, - - 415 

Goose grass, useful in gravel 

complaints, ^ - 674 

Gout, - .409 

doctor, anecdote of ib. 

Gratitude, the most exalted 

virtue, - 
Gravel, - 

Greene, General, his death 

a'nd character, - 
Green sickness 
Grief, injurious to health 

-, deep, cause of insani- 



ty and death, 
, its best remedv, 



203 
364 

305 
503 
144 

145 

147 

622 
425 



Gripes, in infants, 

Grog blossoms, 

Ground Holly, useful in gravel, 

674 

Ground Pine, useful in rheu- 
matism, &.c. - - 674 

Ground Pink, remedy for 
worms, - - - 675 

Guinea pepper, - - ib. 



Gun shot wounds, 


457 


Gum pills, - 


817 


IT. 




Hamilton, honorable Paul, his 




description of button snake 




root, - 


647 


of the pleurisv root, 


707 



of the squirrel ear, 724 

his mode of adminis- 
tering the May apple, 691 

Archibald, lieut. his 

death and character, 648 

Harriet, her unhappy fate, 132 
Hartshorn, spirits, doses of 798 
Hare lip, management of 610 
Hart's tongue, remedy in di- 
arrhoea, - - - 675 
Harvey, his sublime sentiments, 



Hatred, destructive to mind 

and body, 
Head, description of 
injuries of 



— water in the 



Head-ach 

Hearing, difficulty of 
Heart, description and use of 
— , grand organ of circu- 



50 

158 

59 

466 

630 

329 

332 

66 



lation - 67 

Heart-burn - -> 392 
Hearts'-ease, useful in cuta- 
neous affections 
Heart snake root, an emetic 

and diaphoretic - ib. 
Hectic fever - - 354 
Hellebore, remedy in cuta- 
neous diseases - - 67'6 
Hemlock, useful in many ob- 
stinate cases - - 677 
Hemorrhoids or piles - 367 
Hemorrhoidal ointment - 838 
Henbane, useful in convulsions 678 
Herb bennet, good for ague 67*9 

trinity, for eruptions ib. 

Hernia, or ruptures - 44S 

Hiccough - 3S9 

Hill, Dr. his effrontery - 719 
Hippocrates, his desire to cure 

covetousness - - 1^5 
Hip joint, rheumatic affec- 
tion of 838 
Hives, or croup - - 6.^2 
Hoar-hound, good for coughs 682 
Hoarseness - - 290 
Hog-bed, promotes the menses 679 
Holwell, Col. his account of 
the black-hole in Calcutta 94 






GENER \I- INDEX. 






Hooded widow herb, antidote 

to canine madaesi 
Hope, the source of human 

happiness 
its great influence 

on the state and disorders 

of the body 
ill-ETOunded - 



Hop beer, how made 

Hops, anodyne and anti-sep. 

Horse-radish, stimulant 

Hosack, Dr. a distinguished 
botanist - 

Hospital, a cheap plan re- 
commended to planters - 

ought to be establish- 
ed in our sea port towns - 

Houseleek. useful in burns &. 
stings of insects 

Hunger, painful sensation of 
explained 

Hunter, Dr. slept comfortably 
under snow 

Husbands, affection of some 

cruelty of some 

Hydrophobia 

Hvdro-cephalus, or water in 
the head 

Hygieinc, or the art of pre- 
serving health 

Hypocondriac disease 

Hypocondriacs, ludicrous ca- 
ses of - - 

Hypocrisy 

Hyssop, useful in asthma, Sj.c. 

Hysteric fits 



679 

133 

139 

141 

630 

ib. 

ib. 

639 
46 
47 

633 

74 

118 
129 
173 
439 

630 

87 
381 

382 
200 
683 

377 



Idleness the bane of virtue 
Ice-plant, useful in fits 
Imagination, force of 139, 
Imperforated anus 

vagina 

Imperial drink 
Impiety, consequences of - 
Impuden ting 

Incubus, or night mare 

in hemp good for rheu- 
mal 



physic, safe emetic . "*V 

tobacco, good lor colic 

turnip, good for COUghs 



Indigent sick, often neglected 755 
Indigestion or dyspepsia 
Indigo weed, emetic and ea 

thartic 
Indolence, source of disease 
Intants, management of 
diseases of 



Infection, how to arrest 
Inflammation of the brain 

. of the lungs 

liver 



♦is I 
115 
589 
605 

321 
322 
325 
326 
327 
329 
564 
567 
315 
318 



115 
683 
B21 , 
611 
ib. 
770 
J09 
186 
390 

633 



stomach 

intestines 

kidneys 

bladder 

breasts 

womb 

eyes 

pleura 

throat 

Inflammable air, how to cor- 
rect - 
Inflammatory fever 
Influenza - 
Infusion of roses 

of oak bark 

of galls 

of Peruvian bark - 

of Colombo 

of gentian - 

Ingenhouz, Dr. his remarks 
on the properties of plants 
Inhalations - 289, 359 
Injections for gonorrhoea - fi 
Injuries of the head, &.c. 
Intemperance, vice of 
a miserable refu 



93 
364 

821 

ib. 

ib. 

824 

825 

ib. 

99 



466 

168 



from misfortune 

reclaimation from 



172 
174 

Intermittent, or ague and fever 2 1 8 
Intestines, use of - 72 

Intoxication, symptoms of 432 

1 — how to treat - 433 

Inversion of the womb 
Ipecacuanha American,emetic 68 l 
doses of - 798 



GENERAL INDEX. 



XX\l 



Iron,carbonateof,useful inTic 

Douloureaux - - 340 

Iron filings, how exhibited 825 

Issues - 475 

Itch - - - 426 

lotion, how prepared 831 

Ives,Professor, attests the vir- 
tues of blood-root, in cer- 
tain cases - - 645 
Ivy ... 685 



J. 



Jalap, doses of - 798 

Jamestown, or Jimson weed, 

useful in many complaints 685 
Jaundice, or yellow gum, 429 

infantile - - 615 

Jealousy, horrid effects of 135 
Jefferson,President, his death 

and character - - 372 

Jerusalem oak, vermifuge 685 
Joan, queen of Naples, mur- 
ders her husband - 136 
Jones, Hon. Dr. asserts the ef- 
ficacy of cotton in scalds 442 
Joy, excessive, often fatal 122, 143 
Juniper an excellent diuretic 685 



K 



Kidneys, use of - 78 

inflammation of - 327 

Kingston, Sir Win. his cruel 

mode of taking revenge 159 
King's evil - - 428 

Knee, dislocation of - 466 



L 



Labour - - - 53a 

Laborious labour - - 546 

Lacedemonians, politeness of 186 
Laceration of the parts - 561 
Lafiteau, Father, first discov- 
erer of ginseng, in Amer- 
ica - - 673 
Lambkill, for itch - 6S6 
Lassitu(|f,prognostic in fevers 277 
Lavater's remarks on females 128 



Laudanum, doses of 

how prepared 



- 79S 

- 829 
Lavenderthrift,for sore throat 686 
Laurel, for diarrhoea - ib. 
Laxative medicines - 805 
Leeches, mode of applying 

and preserving, and check- 
ing the discharge of blood 764 
Legs, description of -51 

— — fractures of - - 467 

Lemonade, how prepared - 770 
Lemon tree, anti-septic - 686 

how to preserve the juice ib. 

Lettuce, garden, an excellent 
anodyne - - 687 

wild, a powerful diuretic 688 

Lichen, useful in coughs ib. 

Life-root, remedy for gravel ib. 
Ligaments, description and 

use of - - 52 

Lightning, to recover persons 

apparently killed by - 435 

Lime water, how prepared 830 

doses of - 802 

Lime-kiln, dangerous effects of 98 
Lind, Dr. on the influence of 

the mind over the body 140 
Liver, description and use of 76 

inflammation oi' - 322 

Lobelia, useful in venereal 689 
Lochial discharge - - 559 

Lockjaw - 386 

Longings - 236,522 

Loosene«s,or cholera infantum 6517 

in pregnancy - 5 23 

Love defined - - 125 

influence of - 126,127 

■— propitious, conducive to 

health - - - 130 

■ ' — ■ disappointed 131,132 

Lover,false,a detestable char- 
acter - - - 137 
Louisa, affecting history of 130 
Low spirits - - 381 
IiUmbago - - 338 
L'iesvenerea,orconfirmedpox 418 
LHngs, description and use of 66 

inflammation of - 321 

Lying-in-women, diseases of 558 



XXXII 



OfiNERAL INDEX. 



M. 

Madder, useful in visceral ob- 
structions - - 639 

Mac Pheeters, Dr. celebrates 
black mustard, as emetic in 
malignant fever, 8th blank 
page. 

M'Bride, Dr. finds blood root 
useful in hvdrothorax - G 15 

Magnesia, doses of 

Magnolia, good in rheumatism 090 

Maiden hair, useful in coughs 000 

Malignant fever - - 447 

letter from Louisiana 

to the author respecting 447 

Cartwright's essays 

on, noticed - - 478 

symptoms of - 479 

three distinct stages of ib. 

treatment of 4S0, and 

5th blank page. 

animal and vegetable 



putrefaction, agency of in 
producing, 4th and 5th 
blank page. 

bayous, do. 14th do. 

prevention of, 15th do. 



MaNgnantorputridsore throat 609 
3Iallow, useful in dysentery 

and gravel - - 691 

Mandrake, an excellent pur- 
gative - - - 691 
Manna, doses of - - 798 
Marsh, trefoil, tonic bitter - 691 
Marsh mallow, goodemollient 692 
Marsh rosemary, for sore 

throat - - - ib. 

Master-wort, tonic - - 692 

Materia Medica - -637 

May Apple, purgative - ib. 

Mayrant, Col. celebrates 

Samson snake root as a 

remedy for dyspepsia 
May weed, stomachic 
Mease, Dr. deserving of high 

praise 
Measures and weights table 

of 795 

Measles - - - 346 



720 ! 
692 

- 639 



Meconium, observation on - 

Medicines, table arid doses of 7:>*i 
— approved manner oi 



loth blank 



admiiusterin 
page 

Medicine Chest, plan of 
Medicine, the importance of 
possessing some knowledge <>t 

necessary caution in 

the use of 

subject to abuse 

-the necessity oftaking 



- 847 
38 

42 

38 



agreeably to directions - 762 
Membrane, description of 55, 58 



Menstruation 

cessation of 
painful 
suppression of 

profuse 



Mercurial pills, bow prep. 
————solution 
ointment 



Mezereon, useful in venereal 
and cutaneous affections - 

Midriff, description St. use of - 

Miliary fever 

eruptions 

Milk fever 

blotch 

Milk, or silk weed, useful in 
gravel &c. 

Milkwort,usefulin coughs and 
colds - 

Mind or soul, observations on 

Mindererus spirits, how prep. 80H 

- 693 

- 825 

- 532 

- 694 



491) 
499 
501 
502 
507 
827 
ib. 
83S 

692 

71 
3 is 
572 
662 

610 

693 

69.1 
64 



Mint, allays vomiting 
Mineral Tonics 
Miscarriage 
Misleto, useful in fits 
Mitchell, Professor, deserving 

high commendation - 639 

Modesty, its great influence 183 
Mole, or false conception 582 
Moore, Dr. cites a ease rela- 
tive to imagination - 5 2 1 
Moorwort, remedy for toe itch 6!) 4 
Mortification, or gangrene 459 
Moschettoes, bite of - 437 
Motherwort, us-eful in nervous 
affections - - 694 



GENERAL INDEX. 



XX X1U 



Mountain tea, promotes omen- 
s' rual discharge - 694 | 
Mouthroot, tonic bitter - ib. \ 
Mugwort, good stomachic - 695 j 
Mui berry tree, an excellent 
purgative - ib. 

wine, how made - 696 

Mulled wine, to prepare - 778 

Mullein, good for piles - 696 

Mumps, treatment of - 314 

Muscles, description of - 52 

Mustard, excellent stimulant 69G 

"hey, how made - 777 

Music, powerful effects of - 157 

Mutton broth, how made - 775 

N. 

Narcotics, observations on - 818 

Navel-cord, or string, man- 
ner of tying - 542, 591 

presentation of - 552 

Neapolitan, manifests un- 
bounded love for his wife 129 

Nervous fever - - 241 

head-ach - - 331 

Nerves, description and use of 53 ji 

Nettle-rash, treatment of - 425 

Nettle-stinging, an excellent 
stimulant - - 697 

Night-shade, useful in rheu- 
matism and in tic doulou- 
reaux • - 

■ deadly, used in 

palsy, epilepsy, &c 

Nigbt-mare, or incubus 

Nipples, sore 

mode of pre- 
venting - 

Ni're, doses of - 

Nitric acid, diluted - 

lac ammoniac, how 

prepared 

Nitrous lozenges, how.pvep'd 

Nose, bleeding from 

Nostrils, description &. use of 

rums, dangerous conse- 

quences of - 39, 

Nurses' Guide 

Nurse, duty of 

, caution to 759,762, 

5 



ib. 
ib. 

390 
565 

566 

798 

828 

813 

815 

351 
62 

2f)9 
755 
756 
766 



Nursing infants - - f00 

Nutrition, proper for children 593 

0. 

Oak, astringent, tonic, and an- 
tiseptic - 699 
Oak, poison, good for palsv 700 

"- 502 

- 837 

- ib. 

■ ib. 

- 838 

- ib. 

■ ib, 

■ ib. 

■ 729 



Obstructed menses 
Ointment, simple, 
saturnine 



basilicon 

mercurial 

hemorrhoidal 

tar 

itch 

thorn-apple 

Omentum or caul, description of 76 
Onions, remedy in liver com- 
plaint and croup - - 700 
Opiates, caution in the use of 319 
Opium, doses of - 798 
Opodeldoc, how prepared - 831 
Orange-tree, anti-scorbutic - 702 



wine, how made 
Original imperfections 
Ovaria, ovaries, situation and 

use - 

Oxygen, or pure air 

P. 

Pagan religion, account of - 
Painful affection of the face, 

or tic douloureaux 
Pain of the ear 

head 

stomach 



b. 

t;09 

79 
91 



146 

339 

332 
329 
385 
Pains, after,of lying-in-women 559 

false in pregnancy - 527 

of the back, thighs, &. 

abdomen, in pregnancy - 5?6 
Painful menstruation - 501 

Palate, elongation of - 313 

Palmer, Mr. anecdote of - 411 
Palpitation of the heart 269, 888 

in pregnancy 5:3 

Palsy, treatment of - - 379 

Pancreas, or sweet bread, its 

use - - 77 

Panado, how made - 773 

Papau, purgative - - 702 



XXXIV 



G F.N BUAL INDEX. 



Papoose root, useful in ob- 
structed menses and dropsy 702 
Paraphimosis - -415 

Parents, caution to - - 602 

Paragoric elixir, doses of - 798 

how prepM 829 

Parrot, killed, by eating the 

berries of pride of China 71-1 
Parsley, leaved, yellow root, 
a good stomachic - 702 

— ■ wild, useful in gravel 703 

Passions, the active forces of 

the soul - - - 124 

Patent medicines, why dan- 
gerous - - 39, 209 
Patriotism, definition of - 195 

Themistocles - 196 

■ of French soldier 197 

— of English sailor ib 

— 1 — of Americans - 198 

Peach tree, a mild cathartic 703 
Pectoral drink, how made - 771 

— mixture or emulsion, 

doses of - - - 802 

Penny-royal, promotes the 

menses - - - 704 

Peppermint, allays vomitting ib. 
Pepper, red, stimulant - 705 

Peripneumony, or inflamma- 
tion of the lungs - 321 
Peritoneal inflammation - 569 J 
Perspiration, produced by ex- 
ternal applications 234, 267 
Petechial fever - - 241 
Phiiemon, died coughing - 1 13 
Phrenzy, or inflammation of 

the brain - - - 302 

Philopoemon, the great, taken 

for a servant - - 189 

Phymosis - - - 415 

Physic, Dr. his excellent ad- 
vice in hemorrhage of the 
extremities - -45 1 

Piles 
Pills, mercurial 

purgative - - 806 

of sugar of lead, and 

ipecacuanha - - 822 

camphor &. assafoetida 820 

Piok root, excellent vermifuge 706 



Pins, swallowing of " 
Piss-wort, promotes urine and 

menses 
Placenta, or after birth, mode 

of extracting 
Plantain, antidote against the 

bite of venomous insects - 
Plaster, blistering, how made 
•, warm and stimulating 



Pleurisy, treatment of 

— root, remedy in cold 



and pleurisy 
Plurality of children 
Plutarch's observations on 

bashfulness 
Poison, swallowed - 

oak, useful in paraly- 



tics, 



antidote for 



Poke weed, useful in rheum. 
Polygonum, promotes urine 
Polypody, mild laxative 
Polypus, in the womb 
Pomegranite, mild astringent 
Poplar tree, good tonic, &.c. 
Poppy, white, anodyne 

syrup of - 

modeof cultivating k 



collecting the juice 
Potato fly, mode of collecting 
Potato, sweet, nutritious 

wild, purgative 

pudding, how made • 

Potter, professor, bis remarks 

on stimulants, as used in 

fevers - 
Pox, treatment of - 
Prejudices, ill consequences 

of - - 40, 
Pregnancy, signs of 
1 force of imajrina- 



11! 

553 

70 6 

S3 2 
S18 

706 

550 

1ST, 

436 

70S 

ib 

ib. 

709 

710 

578 

710 

ib. 

ib. 

711 

ib. 
712 

71 1 
712 
776 



lion in 



diseases of 



Preliminary observation! 

Preternatural labour 

Prickly ash, remedy in rheu- 
matism, &c. 

pear, remedy for corns 

Pride of China, remedy for 
worms, scald head, Slc. - 



254 

418 

764 

515 

521 
57 

712 

7i.; 



GENERAL INDEX. 



*iXV 



Progress of labour - 

Prognostics of fever _ - 

Prometheus, his story of in- 
temperance, 

Prostrate glands, situation &. 
use of - 

Ptolemeus, cries for joy 

Puceoon, good for jaundice 

Puerperal fever 

Pulse, its action described - 

Purgative infusion, bow prep. 

powders - 

electuary, doses, St 

bow prepared - 802, 



— pills 



Purging, or diarrhoea 

, of infants - 

Putrid fevers 
sore throat 

Q- 



538 
271 

170 

79 
142 
715 
572 

273 

805 

ib. 

806 
806 
401 
592 
241 
309 



Quacks, cause of their increase 39 

Quaker girl's attraction - 193 
Quaenofthe meadows, diuretic 715 
Quince tree, mucilaginous ib. 

Quinsv. or inflammatory sore 
throat - - - 306 



K. 



Radish, anti-scorbutic - 715 

Raleigh, sir Waller, forbear- 
ance of - 156 
Ramsay, Dr. his melancholy 

death - - - 457 

Raspberry dissolves tartar on 

the teeth - - 715 

Rattle snake root, remedy for 
croup and cold - 716 

violet - - 717 

Raschachius, sudden death 

of,from grief - - 145 

Rash nettle - - 425 

Rattle snake, bite of - 436 

Red cedar, substitute for savin 7 1 8 
Red gum - - - 615 

Regimen, importance of in 

sickness - 46, 755, 766 

Religion,promotes health 199,208 



extremes in,to be avoid- 



purifies and enhances 



ed 



our enjoyments - 
Remittent, or billious fever 
Respiratiomprognostic of dis- 
ease 
Resuscitation of persons ap- 
parently dead 
Revenge, horrid instance of 
advice to the Romans 



respecting - _ - 

• Bolea's way of taking 



Rheumatism 
Rheumatic tincture,how prep 
Rhubarb, wild, purgative 
Ribs, description and use of 
Rice milk, how made 

caudle, do. 

pudding, do. 



Rickets 
Ring worm 
Rose or erysipelas 
Rose, damask, mild laxative 
— willow, remedy in gleet, 



200 

204 

225 

275 

434 
159 

160 
161 
335 
829 
718 
51 
772 
774 
776 
635 
427 
618 
718 



£tc. 



Routs, dangerous tendency 

of 
Rue, produces blisters, Sec. 
Ruptures - 443, 

Rush, professor, esteems wine 

a preventive of disease 

■ his death and character 

Rust of steel, doses of 



718 

93 
719 

612 

740 

264 
799 



Sage, was supposed by the an- 
cients, to prolong life - 719 
Sago jelly, how prepared - 771 
Sailor, American, patriotism 

of 198 

Sailors, deserve kind treat- 
ment - - - 47 

too inattentive to health 239 

Saliva, use of - - 63 

Sal ammoniac volatile,doseof 799 

crude, solution of - 831 

Salt of tartar, dose of 799, 812 
Saline julep, or mixture, do- 
•ses of - - 802 



XXX VI 



GENERAL INDEX. 



807 

7 20 

ib. 

\b, 

721 

881 
1 27 

1 19 
848 

-J 1!) 

! 18 
720 



Saline, how prepared 
Samson snake-root, remedy 

in dyspepsia 
Sanicle, American, for can- 
cers - 
Sarsaparilla, good for rheu- 
matism - 
Sassafras, purifies the blood 
Saturnine, or lead water, how 

prepared 
Scald head 
Scalds and burns - 
Scarlet fever 
Sehirrus or cancers 
Sciatic - - 

$cj >fula, or king's evil 
Scu!! cap, for hydrophobia 
Scurvy 

anti-scorbutic 7 -1 

- - 432 

etory vessels, their use - 55 

Seminal weakness — -117 

. • in - 

. pl< as ire 60 

■ us and issues 

- 
Dr. Win. father of 

ity 

- 

r, bis death 
Ibed 

: in" 

- 

1 pared 
functions of explain- 

- 

of - - 424 

. ands 7 2^ 
il in 
ma - - " <1>- 

I murdered - 154 

propermanner of treat- 

- 45 
i 

■ dial 111) 



- 



Sleep, after dinner, whethei 
advisable - 1** 

talking or walking in 

signs of, in fever 

Sleeplessness 

Slow fever - - 2 11 
Small- pox - - -844 
Smell, one of the senses - (, 2 
Smith, professor, discovers 
the utility of blood-root in 
polypus - ( " 
Snakes or serpent.-, bite of 18 ! 
S, .utiles of infants - 6l4 
Soap wort, valuable in jaun- 
dice, kc. - 722 
Socrates, maxim of - 106 
Solander, Dr. his advice to 

travellers in cold weather 116 

Solution of arsenic, doses of 79*6 
how prepare' 



-510 



of crude salammoniac 831 

of kali - - 833 

Somnambulism and somnil- 

- 122 
315,608 



1 oquism 
Sot c eyes - 
— ' — nipples 
throat 



30G, 
- 64 



- 241 

- 703 

- 550 

- 63 






Sou', immortal 

Sorrel, antiscorbutic 728 

Southern wood, stomachic - ib 

South sea tea, diuretic - ib. 

Spaniards, their cruelty to 
the Indians - 1 59 

Spanish woman, her extraor- 
dinary hope - -141 

Speech, blessing of - - 6 • 

Spence, t)r. attests the effi- 
cacy of fox glove in con- 
sumption - - 667 

Spikenard, good in gout - 723 

Spirit of mindererus, how pre 
pared - 80S 

of turpentine, mode of 

- 

of - 799 

V, - 

77 

. 

- 



GENERAL INDEX. 



XXXVU 



Spotted fever - -241 

Sprains and bruises - 46 1 

Spruce laurel, useful in vene- 
real - 724 
Squirrel ear, antidote for the 

bites of serpents - ib. 

Star grass, an intense bitter ib. 
Stevenson, Dr. his remarks on 
bowel complaints - 869 

his mode of treating 

a hypocondriac - 382 

Stillborn infants, mode of re- 
covering . _ 590 
Stimulant purgative pills - 806 
Stimulants, how to exhibit -818 
Stings of inse. ts - 437 
Stink weed, for cutaneous 

eruptions, &c. - . 724 

Stomach, description & use of 71 
Stools, prognostic in diseases 280 
St. Anthony's fire - - 350 

Strangury - - 364,523 

Stra^berry,cooling&.Iaxative724 
Stroke of the sun - - 302 

Structure of human machine 49 
Sumach, common, anti-vene- 
real - 725 ' 
Sulphur, doses of - 799 | 
Sudorific drops, or bolus - 809 
Sundew removes freckles 72 5 
Superstitio",sourceof delusion 200 
Suppression of urine 364,523 1 
Sutures, mode of applying 456 ! 
St. Vitus's dance - 636 
Swallow wort, good for cold 725 
Swallowing of pins - 441 
Sweating, immoderate - 220 ! 
Swelled leg - - - 5G3 
Swellingof feet in pregnancy 525 



■of head in infants 

— of breasts in do. - 

— of scrotum in do. 



Swine pox 
Swooning or fainting 
Sympathy 



606 
ib. 

- 607 

34S 

- 558 
70,76 



Table of medicines for family 
Use - \ 79G 



Table of weights &. measures 795 
Tali aferro,Hon.John,his rem- 
edy for whitlow - 447 
Tansy, vermifuge - - 725 
Tape worm - - 586 
Tapioca jelly, how made - 771 
Tartar emetic, doses of - 800 
Tartar on the teeth, how to re- 
move and prevent - 334 
Tar water, how prepared - 831 
Taste, one of the senses - 63 
Tea, properties of . 112 
Teeth, management of . 334 
Teething - 624 
Temperance,promotes health 107 
[171, 175 
Tendons, description &. use of 53 
Tetany or lock jaw - 386 
Tetter or ring-worm - 427 
Thatcher, Dr. deserves praise 639 
Theodosius, emperor, his an- 
ger subdued by music - 157 
Thighs, description of - 51 
dislocation of - 465 

fracture of - 467 

Thomas, Dr. attests the effica- 
cy of cayenne in putrid sore 
throat - - - 311 

of charcoal to stop 

bleeding of the nose 
Thorax or breast, description 
of 

Thorn apple,remedyinmania, 
epilepsy, &c. 

case of a child swallow- 
ing the seed 

Thoroughwort, useful in fevers 

Throat root, for sore throat - 

Throat, sore 

Thyme, good aromatic 

Thrush, or sore mouth - 

Tic douloureaux 

— symptoms of 

treatment of 



Tincture of steel, doses of 
of myrrh, 

of rhubarb 800, 

of bark 

of eol'imbo 

of foxgiove 



352 

65 

726 

728 
729 
730 
306 
729 
620 
339 

ib; 

ib. 
800 
629 
829 

ib. 

ib. 

lb. 



,\xxvin 



GENERAL INDEX. 



of cmntharides - 82!) 

■-, rheumatic, - - ib. 

— — of laudanum - ib. 

Tinea, or scald head - 127 

Toast water, how made - 771 

Tobacco, for colic, dropsy, Sec. 731 
Toeitch,good for toe or ground 

itch - - 735 
Tongue, description St use of 64 
appearance of. an im- 
portant prognostic - 278 
Tongue-tied how remedied - 610 
Tonics, class of - 823 
Tonic powders, and pills - 826 
Tooth-ach - 333 
Tooth-ach-tree, for rheuma- 
tism and venereal - 735 
Tooth rash - - 6l6 
Topical bloodletting - 473 
Touchwood, excellent styptic 735 
Tourniquet, how to apply 45 1 
Travellers in winter, caution to 1 18 
Treacle posset, how made 773 
Trefoil water.emet. &. cathar. 733 
Troup, 1 [on. (« . M.his deafness 

1 <! (If) 

cured - •'■>- 

Tulip bearing poplar, tonic 738 
Turmeric, diaphoretic - ib- 

Turlington's balsam, how pre;. 
Turners cerate - - 838 

Twins,or plurality of children 550 
Typhus fever, treatment of 241 
Typhoid pneumonia, or epi- 
demic - 300 
U. 
Ulceration of the navel - 607 
Ulcers, common, * 450 
■ ill-conditioned - 680 
Ureter, description & use of 78 
Urethra, description of - 79 
Urine, prognostic in fever 279 

difficulty in voiding 364,523 

incontinence of - 36,3 

suppression of - 366 

Unicorn roo+, useful in cholic 736 
Uterus, description of " 7* 

V. 
Vaccine disease - - 311 

Vas^na, or neck of the womb 78 
— * protrusion of - 574 



Valerian, wild, useful in ner 

vous disorders 

, Vanity, effects of 

j cure of 

j Vapours, or low spirits 
Vegetable substances, how col- 

ID 
tected and preserved 
Vegetation of plants, coi 

impure air 
! Veins, theii 
Venereal disea: e 

prevention <>( 



Venesection, or bleeding how 

performed 
Vine, grape, cultivation of - 
Violet rattle-snake soot, re- 
medy for scrofulous tumors 
., sweet, mild laxative 



Virgins 1 bower, useful in cu- 

taneous affections 
Virginia, or black snake root, 

promotes perspiration 
Volatile sal ammoniac, mode 

of administering - 

— liniment, how prep'd 



Vitriol, white, doses of 
Vitriolic solution, doses of 802, 

— how prepared 



Vitalain 

Voltaire, his conversion 
Vomiting and purging,or cho- 
lera morbus 
Vomiting, in infants 

W. 
Wakefulness, or inability to 

sleep 
Wake robin, for blistering - 
Walnut, white, cathartic 
Warm bath, virtues of 4 t, 58, 
how to be re<ru- 



isl 



09 
54 

41 I 

472 
737 

748 

ibi 

ib. 

ib. 

819 
831 

800 
822 
822 
91 
210 

400 
621 



- 230 
7 19 
750 

267 



lated 

Warm is. discutient liniments 
plaster 



Warts and corns 
Washing of infants 
Washington, Gen. his death 
and characti r - 

-, Mrs. L. her mi- 



'267 
831 

416 



- 59! 



raculous reco* 
Water cresses, anti-scorbutic 



307 
750 



ti EXE UAL INDEX. 



XXXlX 



Water trefoil, anti-scorbutic 
Water, fanpure,how to correct 
AY ater gruel, how made 
Watery head 

■ rupture 

Wayne, Gen. his death 
Weakness of the stomach - 
Weaning - 
A\ eems, Dr. his prescription 

his death 

A\ elis, dry, danger of 
A\ iiiHow - 
White swelling 
AVI iles, or sexual weakness 
While gum - - - 

White caudle, how made 
White bryony, purgative 
White wood, tonic 
Whooping cough 
Willow, .(stringent and tonic 
Wistar, Dr. attests the effica- 
cy of nitric acid in liver 
complaints 
— — his death and cha- 
racter - 
Wine, « xcellent preventive & 

remedy of diseases 
— : — use of, is economy 

abuse of, injurious 

receipts for making - 

adulteration of, how to 

detect - 
cautions in administer- 
ing in fevers 

9 whey, how prepared - 

Wjnterberry, tonic 



750 
111 
112 
630 
613 
410 
393 
598 
398 
ik 
08 
446 
431 
510 
616 
773 
750 
ib. 
63 4 
750 



324 

305 

737 
ib. 

738 
740 

745 

253 
777 
751 



Wintergreen, for itch - 751 

Womb, or uterus, descrip. of 78 

falling down of - 576 

inversion of - 562 

cancer of _ 580 

polypus in the - 578 

■ inflammation of -567 

hemorrhage from - 55S 

AVood betony, good in rheu- 
matism - 751 
AVoodhouse, Professor, his 

death 
AAorms 
AVorm-seed, vermifuge 



- 70$ 
585, 629 

- 751 

- lb. 

- 454 

- 465 



AA r orm-wood, stomachic 

AVounds 

AY lists, dislocation of 

Y. 



Yarrow, astringent, remedy 

for bruises and cancers - 751 
Yeast, utility of, in nervous 
fevers ... 247 

corrects foetid ulcers 680 

- receipt for making - 681 
477 



Yellow fever 



15th blank page. 
Yellow gum 

Z. 



prevention of, 



615 



Zimmerman, Dr. his judi- 
cious mode of treating re- 
ligious melancholy - ^oi 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, 



Contemplating the numberless diseases to which man is 
liable, and which may cause him to drag out a protracted life 
of distress, or suddenly cut him off* in the bloom of his exist- 
ence, and amidst his usefulness, we must adore the Divine 
excellence which has given us in medicine the means of coun- 
teracting their dreadful effects. 

As might have been expected, the attention to an art, rising 
in importance over all others, has ever kept pace with the 
general progress of intellectual improvement, commanding 
for it the respect and encouragement of every enlightened 
people. 

With the Greeks, especially, the wisest and most polished 
of all the ancient nations, medicine was held in the highest 
estimation. Its votaries were cherished and revered by them 
while living, and in some instances, carrying their enthusiasm 
so far as to deify them after death. It is not indeed easy to 
conceive a more noble character, than a great and amiable 
practitioner of medicine, who has expanded his mind to the 
utmost extent by the brilliant attainments of science, and mel- 
lowed the dispositions of his heart by the habitual exercise of 
benevolence towards the afflicted objects of his care. How 
exemplary are Physicians of this description! Such was 
Hippocrates, the father of medicine. Such was the pious, the 
enlightened Sydenham. Such was the benevolent Jones, of 
Savannah. Such was the enlightened Rush: and such are 
many others who have emulated their virtues and rivalled their 
fame; among whom, I have the high satisfaction to enumerate 
of my particular friends, the late Drs. Craik, of Alexandria. 
^\eems, of Georgetown, Steveuson, of Baltimore, and Dr, 
Chapman, of Philapelphia. 
6 



38 PRELIMINARY 0B8ER\ \IH>\->. 

But unhappily, all those who profess our arl do not resemble* 
those bright examples. Medicine, more than any other 
thing;, is subject to abuse and debasement, \>\ the sordid and 
mischievous "tricks and devices" of empiricism. Like noxious 
weeds impostors rise up at first, from the rank si.il of their 
own effrontery; but they owe much of their subsequenl growth 
to the protection which they derive from the want of that 
information widely diffused, which would at once detect, and 
"laugh into scorn" their idle claims, and arraign to conviction 
their dangerous tendencies. They live but by tolerance. The 
slightest examination of their pretensions would drive, the herd 
iuto their holes and hiding places, and consign their widely 
sdrcud fume to utter oblivion. 

It is strange, that so little popular curiosity prevails with 
regard to medicine, particularly when the public mind is so 
actively alive to subjects certainly of less moment. Talk to 
the generality of mankind about property, and you would sup- 
pose they were all lawyers, they reason so sensibly on the 
various points of mown ct. Ilium: but touch them about that, 
which is of more worth than all property, I mean health, and 
they are silent as mules. Did not experience evince the fact, 
we should think it impossible that in things of such high con- 
cern, men could be so preposterously decVived! so careful oi 
the dross, and yet so the gold. 

What can be more deeply interesting than the investigation 
of that beautiful organization which bas,, emphatically, been 
pronounced "God's master work?" What more important than 
acquiring the knowledge of preserving this admi abiemecliiR- 
ism? And what more pleasant and useful than to investigate 
the medical plants of our extensive country, whereby we may 
remedy those painful maladies which ; human fra 

Hall' the attention and the time -devoted to the minor politics 
ig out of our party dissensions, assisted by very little of 
that overboiling zeal given to the acquisition of pro] 
would, if appropriated to medical studies, enable any t 
of tolerable capacity to practise with safety and advantage in 
those cases of simple disease which are most common to our 
climate, and to determine between the "arrant quack" and the 
modest, well-educated, andjudici 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 39 

Assuredly, some care might be profitably directed to mcdi- 
< inc. Why will not the intelligent citizens who are scattered 
throughout the country, dedicate a part of their "liberal 
leisure" to it? Of all the sciences it is the most inviting, and 
that which opens the largest treasures to its cultivators. No 
one can lend his mind to it without receiving "usurious interest." 
Medicine is the digest of human knowledge. It is the great 
reservoir into which every stream of science pours its tribute, 
which in return spreads its fertilizing water over every field 
that brings forth its "ripe and abundant harvest." 

The want of a popular medical education, we have remark- 
ed, promotes the success of empirics. To what else can the 
amazing increase of these creatures be ascribed? Would they 
dare to quit the shades of their native insignificance, if they 
thought they were to encounter the blaze of criticism, or to be 
inspected and scrutinized by the torch of truth? No: the ter- 
rors of such a process, were it practised, would exterminate 
the race, or leave to them only a "beggarly account of empty 
boxes." 

We repeat, that empirics are nurtured and sustained exclu- 
sively by the prejudices of mankind in their favour, arising 
from their inability to judge rightly of their merits. For, can 
it be presumed that any one acquainted with the subject, would 
repose the slightest confidence in the nostrums of the most 
stupid, illiterate, dishonest, and vagrant of society, who are 
confessedly destitute cr( even the elements, the mere alphabet 
of medicine. 

Who can believe, that these nostrums, as generally asserted 
by their proprietors, are applicable equally to a variety of dis- 
eases, opposite to each other as the poles, and that too, under 
every difference of age, constitution, temperament, habit, 
season, and climate? 

Is it to be credited, that skill can be possessed in a profes- 
sion the most complex, without any preparatory devotion to 
it? Reason and experience combine to assert the impossibility. 

The powers of eloquence or poetry may be an inheritance; 
but medicine is not intuitive. Whoever acquires it, that is, 
that thorough l.iioirlcdgc of it, which confers "surpassing skill" 
nust undergo a slow, toilsome and arduous probation. 



lO PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

Its temple is raised on the summit of the loftiest eminence, 
and the path which leads to it winds in tedious tortuosity, 
barrow, intricate, and perplexed; but strewed, at its different 
Stages, with flowers to tempt, and hung at its termination w ith 

fruits to reward. Few, very few, have ever reached it. 'I lie 
majority of those Avho set out on the enterprise become soon 
discouraged, and either linger by the way, or are lost in its 
mazes. 

The energies of genius, assisted by unwearied diligence, cau 
only hope to surmount the difficulties and to gain the prize. 

But candour must still allow that the empiric strengthens, 
in some degree, his credit with the public, by sometimes per- 
forming great and imposing cures. Such instances, however, 
of occasional success, bring with them no solid claims to con- 
fidence. They are indeed calculated to excite distrust w inn 
properly viewed, Their cures, which arc; admitted to be lew 
arc alone registered and promulgated. Nothing is ever said 
of the failures or the deaths produced. No regular and impartial 
I is kept, nor any striking adjustment of balances: but, 
What must be the fatality of a practice conducted in a wa\ so 
rash and [(discriminate, without the guide of either principle 
or experience? The nostrums employed are uniformly com- 
ngredients of the greatesl activity, principally of the 
, a i arsen me mbUnuUe, calomel, &c. and 

which can never be neutral in their operations. Whenever 
red they assume a side in the pending contest, and 
e::ert all their might either for the patient or the disease, till 
one or the other yields, 

The preceding is a faithful picture of empiricism — of its 
swaggering pretensions, of its danger, and its uncertainties; a 
plain and unvarnished tale, in which naught is extenuate or set 
down in malice. 

But with the too prevalent inclination for nostrums, we re- 
gret the strange aversion that exists, and which proceeds from 
the same neglect of medicine, to some of the most efficacious 
remedies. Tartar is denounced as a certain destroyer of the 
stomach; mercury, because it lodges in Ike bones; arsenic, as 
rancorously poisonous, &c. &c. Thus are those powerful 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 41 

and salutary agents, when in the hands of a judicious physician, 
stigmatised by the false views of vulgar prejudice. It has been 
wisely and truly declared by high authority, "that all medi- 
cines in large doses are poisons, and that poisons in small doses 
are the best medicines." This is no paradox. The efficacy 
of a remedy must be proportioned to its force, provided it be 
administered with discretion, and its operation properly re- 
strained. On the contrary, the weakest medicine becomes 
poisonous when given in an undue quantity. 

In the use of medicines we should be careful to adapt them 
to the nature of the disease, and the condition of the patient's 
system at the time, for the salutary properties of a remedy are 
not positive, but entirely relative to the peculiar circumstances 
of the case. 

A remedy, therefore, may do harm, or prove beneficial, 
according to the degree of judgment exercised in its employ- 
ment. This position might easily be illustrated and enforced 
by a variety of examples. We shall mention, however, only 
a few most pertinent. 

What then is more sanative in its effects than the Peruvian 
bark in the treatment of intermittent fever, or gangrene; or 
more deleterious if given in an excited system? Where is 
there a readier cleanser of a foul stomach than emetics? yet 
in inflammations of that organ, nothing would prove so perni- 
cious. The same remark applies to cathartics, "nature's sca- 
vengers of a gorged alimentary canal." 

With regard to our lancet: what could we do without it? 
How quell those dreadful insurrections of acute disease which 
every where ravage our country? But indispensable as it is 
in such cases, yet there is, perhaps, no remedy, which is more 
mischievous when wrongly applied. 

Who has not experienced the soothing restorative operation 
of opium, that divine medicine, which has not with too much 
(force been called, "magnum Dei donum" the great gift of God; 
and who has not known its demonical influence when impru- 
dently employed? 

In this way we might proceed through every class of the 
Materia Medica, deriving proofs to fortify our statement, a-nd 



42 PRELIMINARY OnsERVATIo 

f.o warn us of the danger of abasing remedies. Enough, how- 

. has been said. We trust the admonition will not I 
jlected. 

To apply, as we have indicated, the various medicines ol 
which we are possessed, is the s< mcccssful practice, 

and constitutes the wide difference between the discriminating 
physician and empiric. 

The practice of the one is governed by principles slowlj 
and cautiously dedueed from the contributions of long experi- 
ence and diversified observations; that of the other is the 
result of daring experiment, sanctioned only hy the chances 
and calculations of the lottery. In the revolutions of the 
wheel, and amidst, a thousand blanks, a prize may come out! 
Thus, an important cure by an empiric, like an enormous 
prize, seizes public attention, and is sounded abroad by the 
"'clarion of fame,' 1 while the evidence of the murderous prac- 
tice, like the blanks of the lottery, is hushed in silence or 
buried in forget fulness. 

Itmaybe proper to observe here, that, in using all active 
medicines, we should begin v. ith the smallest doses, increasing 
them gradually, until the quantity suited to the strength of 
the constitution be discovered. For there are instances of 
constitutions on which one-fourth, and even one-tenth, of 
what would not affect others, will act powerfully. 

As the system speedily accommodates itself to the action of 
medicines, we should never continue one medicine too long 
at a time. When we find it is losing its efficacy, it should be 
changed for some other of the same class, and after a short 
interval the patient may, if he choose, return to his first 
medicine. By thus varying the i . as the system be- 

comes accustomed to their action, we shall be enabled to 
cure diseases which otherwise would not have yielded; as 
obstinate intermittent*, wherein I have frequently employed 
the bark without effect: but on changing it for either the 
solution of arsenic, or vitriolic pills, * a cure has generally 
taken place, and when ii did not, by exciting a slight mercurial 
action in the system and immediately following i ; with one 

Dispcnsa'. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 34 

ht the other of the above medicines, I have pretty constantly- 
succeeded. On this account medicines should never be made 
loo free with, as preventives of disease', unless there be evi- 
dently a morbid predisposition lurking in the system: for, 
by thus wantonly familiarising ourselves to medicine when 
there exists no necessity for it, we shall stand a very good 
chance to be disappointed of its proper effects, in the season 
of our nee.!. 

Bitters, those especially made with spirits, like other cor- 
dials, have no doubt their use at times, as in damp weather, 
which hangs so heavily on the springs of life: but to use them, 
or mint slings, or drams, as some do every morning, even the 
brightest, when dumb nature herself is smiling, and every bird 
and beast are uttering their artless joy, is a species of suicide. 
It is a most wicked attempt to substitute artificial joys in place 
of those most pure and natural. Such an impious fighting 
against God and Nature, generally ends as might be expected. 
The wretched self destroyers seldom live out half their days. 
For the same delightful exhilaration, produced by one antifog- 
malic last year, requires two this year, and in that increase, till 
the habit of intemperate drinking is confirmed. How melan- 
choly is it that rational beings should act so madly, and that 
the all bountiful Creator cannot intrust us with his good things, 
without our shameful abuse of them! Thus it is, that men 
turn into poisons those pleasant beverages given for cordials, 
to raise their depressed spirits, to invigorate their flaccid 
nerves, and to enable nature to repel the various attacks of a 
humid or infected atmosphere. 

Among the many remedies of disease, none perhaps hold? 
a higher place than the bath, in its different forms. The cold 
hath, by its sudden shock, is peculiarly fitted to invigorate the 
system, and to re-animate its circulations and secretions. Hence 
its acknowledged reputation in all cases of weak and relaxed 
habits, particularly those of the studious and sedentary. 

It ought however to be remembered, that, like every other 
remedy, it belongs but to one set of diseases. In affections of 
the viscera, obstructions and inflammations, it is hurtful. It 
alter leaving the bath, the patient do not feel a kindly glow on 



44 PRELIMINARY OBSUVATIOHS. 

the surface, he has good cause to fear thai the angel of health 

v. a| uot there before him u /o move the waters."' On going into 
the plunging bath, as it is called, it were better to dash in at 
once head foremost. The shock in this way is more instanta- 
neous, and the distribution of the blood more salutary than 
when it is driven, as by wetting the feet first, from the extre- 
mities to the head. It is on this principle that the shower hath 
possesses advantages superior to the plunging. Immediately 
on coming out of the bath the body should be rubbed dry w tth 
flannel or coarse cloths, and moderate exercise taken. 

Besides the advantages of frequent cold bathing, its partial 
use is no less salutary in all cases of local action. In periodical 
headache, and indeed in most complaints of the head, the 
affusion of cold water, though a simple, is a very effectual 
remedy. 

If persons subject to the quinsy and sore throat, instead of 
muffling their necks, would bathe them two or three times a 
day in cold water, they would find their account in it. When 
the healthy resort to the cold bath, on account of its purifying 
and pleasant effects, thej may continue in it for some lime: 
but to strengthen and give elasticity to the solids, every thing 
depends upon the sudden shock. — The time of day for bathing 
is a matter of indifference, provided it be not immediately 
after a full meal, or when the body is warm and in a state of 
free perspiration. 

The warm bath, about the temperature of the blood, has 
nearly all the advantages of the cold bath, without, being liable 
to so many objections. Some indeed tell us, that it weakens 
the body, but so far from doing so, it may justly be considered 
as one of the most powerful and universal restoratives u ith 
which we arc acquainted. Instead of heating, it cools the 
body, diminishes the pulse, and takes oft its unnatural quick- 
ness, according to the length of time the bath is continued. 
Hence tepid baths are of great service, when the body has 
heen overheated, from whatever cause, whether by severe 
bodily or mental exercise. In all these cases, its happily 
compos;:: and recuperative virtues seem to be owing to its 
tendenc> to promote perspiration, and to relax spasm. 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 4& 

Warm bathing can hardly be sufficiently commended, for its 
sovereign effects in promoting cleanliness, and consequently for 
curing all diseases of obstructed perspiration from foul skin. 

It is much to be lamented that so many poor children should 
become the victims of their parents' laziness, and neglect of the 
most sweet and healthful virtue, cleanliness. For would they 
devote a little of their mispent time, and money, to the more de- 
cent clothing and frequent washing of their children, there could 
be no doubt that the little innocents would enjoy ten thousand 
times more comfort than they can possibly have while covered 
with filth, and tortured with scald heads, blotches, itch, and ver- 
min. In fine, having seen the fatal termination of so many dis- 
eases, in my opinion easily curable by the bath, I cannot dis- 
miss this important subject without earnestly recommending it to 
every gentleman to provide for bis family the convenience of 
bathing, as not only one of tbe greatest luxuries, but the best 
preservatives of health in these warm climates. 

It is essential to health, luxuriously, to refresh the person by 
bathing and washing off the impurities of the skin; and equal care 
should be taken to remove all filth out of the chambers of the sick, 
and frequently to change their linen and bed-clothes, which, when 
saturated with foetid perspirable matter, must prove extremely 
unpleasant and hurtful to the patient. 

And here I cannot but breathe the most fervent wish that the 
agriculturists of the south and west would be persuaded to insist 
more rigorously on cleanliness in the persons of their slaves. 
that the constitution of the African is more firm than ours, and 
better fitted to sustain the toils of warm climates, is very certain; 
but it is equally true that his daily labours, with the sudden chan- 
ges of weather, often put his constitution, good as it may be, to 
trials which loudly call for every aid that humanity can possibly 
afford him. Of these aids, next to plenty of wholesome food., 
cleanliness is one of the greatest. It is, indeed, a medicine both 
Of body and mind. The poorest slave, however degraded his 
condition may be, has still left a portion of mind, which can nev- 
er be totally insensible to his outward appearance. Cover him 
With rags and filth, and you not only injure his body by ob- 
structing perspiration and corrupting the fluids, but you attack 
7 



it) PRELIMINARY OBMSRVATIo 

him in his mind. Knowing that he appears rile and loathsofll 
others, he becomes much more so to himself ; and this idea em- 
bitters reflection, depresses his spirits, and in conjunction with 
other causes, often brings on diseases which press him to an un- 
timely grave. Whereas, by ordering him frequently to bathe 
and by affording him three changes of apparel, of which our 
might always be clean, he would be greatly refreshed and c< 
forted, both in mind and body. Thinking his appearance decent 
in the eyes of others, he becomes well pleased with himself, and 
looking on his imc Itabit, however cheap and simple, as an evi- 
dence of his master's affection and value for him, he feels al once 
the touch of an honest pride in himself, and of friendship for 
his master, which lightens his task and sweetens all his toils. 

Fut, if cleanliness be of such importance to the healthful, how 
much more so to the sick slave. When sinking under the heal 
and burden of his labours, can it be good policy to suffer him to 
be put, like a mere animal, into % narrow dirty cabin; there left, 
with scarcely a child to hand him "a tup of cold water" with 
no food but dry bread, and breathing the foetid atmosphere oi 
a sultry, filthy, habitation! In such circumstances, what but a 
miracle can save him from destruction? 

Having been frequently an eye witness of such scenes, of 
which the owner himself was, perhaps, ignorant, I feel it my 
duty to advise him, not only for humanity, but interest sake, to 
erect for his slaves, especially if he have many, a cheap, coarse 
kind of building as an hospital. This building should be fixed 
on some spot, enjoying, in the highest degree, the double ad- 
vantage of good water and air. It ought to consist of but one 
large room, quite open to the top, well aired by doors and 
windows, and with a plank floor, that it may be frequently wash- 
ed and kept perfectly clean. Some good-tempered, notable, 
old woman of the family, should be appointed to attend the 
sick and supply the proper nourishment. Id this cheap and 
simple way many a valuable slave might, we arc certain, he 
saved to his owner, which alone were an ample reward, withoul 
counting the present comfort of such humanity, or the future 
blessings of Him, who has promised, that every act oi' 1 
oven to the poorest slave, shall he remembered ™ if done td 



PBELIMINA&T OBSERVATIONS. 4^ 

himself. To the truly wonderful effects of this regimen, em- 
bracing cleanliness, fresh air, good nursing and diet, I, myself, 
can bear the most public and unequivocal testimony. 

In the year 1805, when the Summer and Autumnal fever raged 
with uncommon violence and mortality in Savannah, having 
considerable practice among the shipping, I was induced, chiefly 
from motives of humanity, to open a private hospital for seamen- 
Viul though I had usually from twenty to thirty patients during 
the sickly season, I lost but one of all who had been taken into 
die hospital at an early stage of the disease. This extraordinary 
success, I ascribe in a great measure to the virtues of the regi- 
men above recommended. And in support of the plan recom- 
mended, I will venture to assert, that hardly an instance can be 
quoted, of the recovery of seamen, when left neglected, or 
badly attended, in the confined boarding-rooms, or steerages of 
the ships, where they were attacked. 

The very happy result, of the little hospital system above 
stated, cannot but excite the most earnest wish for a similar 
establishment, in Savannah, on a much larger scale. Such an 
institution could not fail to prove a great blessing to the state, 
but more so to the town, where numbers of useful citizens, 
especially seamen, are annually swept off. 

It affords me pleasure to state, that since the appearance of 
this friendly hint, in the first edition of this work, the humane 
citizens of Savannah, have actually established a public hospital, 
and have found it abundantly productive of the good effect* 
predicted. Fortunate would it be, if similar institutions were 
erected in all our seaports. In addition to the -ofter whispers of 
humanity, gratitude now lifts her louder voice; for surely our 
gallant sailors, principally the objects of such hospitals, have 
given glorious proofs in the late awful contest, that they de- 
Berve every mark of attention that a great nation in the pleni- 
tude of munificence can bestow. 






OF THE STRUCTURE 



OF 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 



How poor, how rich, how abject, how august; 

How complicate, how wonderful is man! 

How passing wonder He who made him such! 

Who center'd in our make such strange extremes^ 

From different natures, marvellously mixed! 

An heir of glory! a frail child of dust! 

Helpless immortal! insect infinite! 

A worm! a God! — I tremble at myself, 

And in myself am lost. Yofng. 



■"/ am fearfully and wonderfully made, Lord" exclaimed 
David, on surveying the admirable mechanism of his own frame. 
Indeed, so complicated and curious is the structure of the 
human frame, that no person, who contemplates it, can possibly 
avoid joining with the pious Psalmist. 

That illustrious physician of antiquity, Galen, is reported in 
his youth to have been a Sceptic, but on witnessing a dissection, 
and examining the mechanism of the human body, the divine 
wisdom and design running through all its parts, he was struck 
with such a sense of the great Architect, that he immediately 
became a convert, and during his life devoted himself to the 
worship of the Deity with all the fervour becoming an enlighten- 
ed and grateful mind. Having himself happily caught the first 
spark of Divine light from a survey of this wonderful machine, 
he earnestly recommends to others the study of it as the noblest 
employment of the faculties, and one of the surestguides to ra- 
tioua.1 devotion. His thoughts on this subject, though emanating 



5fo OF T1TR 8TRUCTVRB • 

from a heathen, are well worth the attention of all Christians.— 
"Those treatises," says he, "which display the excellencies 
the great Creator, compose one of the noblest and m 
ceptablc hymns. To acquaint ourselves with his sublime per- 
fections, and point out to others his infinite power, bis unen 
wisdom, and his boundless benignity — this is a more substantia] 
act of devotion, than to slay hecatombs of victims at his altai 
kindle mountains of spices into incense.'" 

Now, as one object of the "Medical Companion" 1 is to tr< 
of the art of preserving this divine piece of workmanship in a 
healthy state, nothing can impress us more, forcibly than th< 
absolute necessity of being made acquainted with its parts, and 
the laws that govern them, without some knowledge thereof, 
it appears no more possible to take the right care of it, or to keep 
it in good order, than to perpetuate the regular motion of a 
clock, or time-piece, without a familiar acquaintance with its 
mechanism. 

The study of Anatomy, as it leads to the knowledge of na- 
ture, needs not, says the illustrious Cheselden, many tedious 
descriptions, nor minute dissections, what is most worth know- 
ing being soonest learned, and least subject to difficulty, while 
dividing and describing the parts more than the knowledg 
their uses requires, perplex the learners, and make the science 
tedious, dry, and difficult. 

Upon this principle, the following anatomical description d 
the human body is conducted-, and to render it perfectly mtelh- 
gible to the uninformed readers, technical terms have, as much 
as possible, been avoided. 

"When a master builder," says the celebrated Mcrvey, whose 

sublime sentiments on this theme are at once so elegant and 

appropriate, that I have taken the liberty frequently to use them, 

"undertakes to erect a magnificent edifice, he begins with the 

' less decorated, but more solid parts, those which are to .*,, . 

to contain the rest." This order we will follow in conaidenng 

- structure of the human frame. 

The Banes are the hardest an. > M parts of the human 

est into a variety of moulds, enkrgedot contracted 

, Qfsia rfculated ength.to 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 6l 

support the whole body. The manner of their articulation is 
truly admirable, and remarkably various; yet never varied with- 
out demonstrating some wise design and answering some valuable 
end. They contain marrow, which makes them less brittle, and 
are covered with a membrane, or thin substance like a blad- 
der, called periosteum, except on the skull, where it is called 
pericranium, which is exquisitely sensible in an inflamed state, 
being plentifully supplied with nerves and blood-vessels. Its use 
is to sustain the vessels which enter the substance of the bones 
with their nourishment. The head, designed for the residence 
of the brain, is framed in exact conformity to this important 
purpose, ample to receive it; strong to uphold it; and firm to 
defend it. 

The Ribs, turned into a regular arch, are gently moveable 
for the act of respiration. They form a secure lodgment for the 
lungs and the heart. 

The Back-bone is intended not only to strengthen the body, 
and sustain its most capacious store-rooms; but also to bring 
down that appendage of the brain, which is usually termed Spinal 
marrow. 

The Jlrms, pendent on either side, are so exactly proportioned 
to each other, that the equilibrium of the structure may not 
be disconcerted. These being the guards which defend, and 
the ministers which serve the whole body, are fitted for the most 
diversified and extensive operations; firm with bone, yet not 
weighty with flesh; and capable of performing with singular 
spedition and ease, all manner of useful motions. To these 
are annexed the hands, and all terminated by the fingers; whicb 
arc not, like the arms, of the same length, and of equal bigness, 
but consisting of various little bones, and a multitude of muscles, 
what shape can they not assume? what service can they not 
perform? 

The Thighs and Legs are alike substantial and stately columns; 
articulated in such a manner, that they administer most commo- 
diously to the act of walking, yet obstruct not the easy posture 
of sitting. The legs swell out, towards the top, with a gentle 
Urojection; and are wrought off, towards the bottom, with neat 



52 OP THE BTBUOTCRB uK 

diminutions. Which variation lessens their bulk, and at the s 
lime increases their beauty. 

The Feet compose the firmest and neatest pedestal; infinitely 
beyond all that statuary or architecture can accomplish; capable 
of altering; their form, and extending- their size, as different cir- 
cumstances require. Besides performing- the office of a pedestal, 
they contain a set of the neatest springs, which help to place 
the body in a variety of graceful attitudes, and qualify it for a 
multiplicity of advantagpous motions. The undermost part of 
the heel, and the extremity of the sole, are shod with a tough, 
insensible, sinewy substance. This we may call a natural, san- 
dal. It never wears out, never wants repair, and always prevents 
that undue compression of the vessels, which the weight of the 
body, in walking or standing, might otherwise occasion. 

While many animals creep on the ground, while all of them 
arc prone in their posture or their aspect, the attitude of man 
is erect, by far the most graceful, with an air of dignity, and 
bespeaking superiority, and by far the most commodious, fitting; 
us for the prosecution of every grand scheme, and facilitating 
the success of all our extensive designs. It is likewise attended 
with the greatest safety; being, if not less than any other posi- 
tion exposed to dangers, more happily contrived to repel or 
avoid them. 

The Cartilages approach much to the nature of hones, being 
smooth and elastic. In them there is no sensible cavity to contain 
marrow, nor are they covered with any membrane to render 
them sensible as the bones are. They serve to make the bones, 
whose extremities they cover, move freely in their joints. They 
also contribute, in a great measure, to the formation of several 
parts, as the wind-pipe, nose, ears, and breast. 

The Ligaments are tough, compact substances, more flexible 
than cartilages. They have no conspicuous cavities, neither 
have they any sensibility, lest they should suffer upon the motion 
of the joint. They serve to unite the several limbs, and prevent 
their parting from each other, as happen in dislocations. 
• The Muscles are distinct portions of soft, red, flesh, with 
strong tendinous heads and tails designed for insertion. They 
ire composed of the slenderest fibres, yet indued with incrcdi- 



THE HUM AN MACHINE. 5$ 

Lie strength? fashioned after a variety of patterns, but all in 
the highest taste for elegance, convenicncy and usefulness. 
These, with their tendons annexed, constitute the instruments 
of motion. The former, contracting their substance, operate 
somewhat like the pulley in mechanics. The latter, resembling 
the cord are fastened to a bone, or some portion of flesh; and, 
following the muscular contraction, actuate the part into which 
they are inserted. This, and all their functions, they exercise, 
not like a sluggish beast of burden, but quick as "lightning. 
A nerve or more in each muscle sets them at work, diffusing 
the power of sensation through the body, or, returning upon 
an impression from without, giving all needful intelligence to 
the soul; so that flesh and nerves are the principal constituents 
of a muscle. Inwardhj they supply the several movements of 
the active machine: Outwardly they render its appearance plump, 
well proportioned, and graceful. 

The strength of the muscles is astonishing in all persons, but 
especially in cases of frenzy, and in certain extraordinary cha- 
racters, who, by the use of a few muscles only, will easily raise 
a weight much greater than that of their own bodies. 

The Tendons, although much smaller than the body of the 
muscle, are composed of the same number of fibres. They are 
not capable of contraction, but serve like ropes to pull when the 
fleshy fibres act, for the commodiousness and firmness of inser- 
tion, and the direction of motion. 

The use of the tendons is to avoid a large quantity of flesh 
nea-r the joint, to prevent clumsiness in particular places, and for 
the better admitting of that friction, which, in less compact parts 
would have been injurious. 

The Nerves are surprisingly minute, white cords, derived from 
the brain, running to every part of the body. They perform two 
distinct ollices; conveying sensation from all parts of the body 
to the brain, and carrying the commands of the will from that 
seat to all the different parts of the body. Most of the muscles 
of the body producing motion are in the guidance of our will; 
some of them, however, entirely independent of it, as those of 
the heart and vessels which carry oa the circulation of the blood; 



54 OP THE STRltTMtE ()» 

and some arc partly under the direction of our will, and partly 
independent of it, as in respiration. 

But all the muscles, the involuntary, as well as the rolu 
enabled to act only by their communication with the brain; 
for when that is cut oiT* by the of the connei 

nerve, whatever impression is made on the pari ran no longer be 
fe , the orders of the will to that part can no longer be obeyed, 
and the pan itself can no longer move. 

The Arteries are strong elastic lubes, which arise from the 
heart, and thence, striking out, as they go into numberless smal- 
ler canals or branches, distribute the blood to every pari of the. 
body. These being wide at their origin, less< I ng as they 
branch themselves, check the rapid motion of the blood. To 
sustain this shock, they are indued with uncommon strength; by 
performing this service they oblige the crimson current to pass 
into the narrowest defile?, and distribute itself into all quarters. 
The blood thrown lVom the heart dilates the arteries, and their 
own elastic force contracts them; by which means they vibrate, 
in proper places, very perceivably against, the finger; bring ad- 
vices of the utmost importance to the physician; and very much 
assist him both in discovering the nature of and pre- 

iing for their cures. The larger arteries, w herei er the body 
is formed for bending, are situated on the bending side; lest, 
being stretched to an improper length by the inflection, their 
dimensions should be lessened, and the circulating fluid retard- 
ed. They are not, like several of the considerable veins, laid 
so near the surface as vo be protrusive of the skin; but are de- 
posited at a proper depth in the flesh. This situation renders 
them more secure from external injuries. 

The Veim arc tunes or vessels accompanying the. artet it 
are appointed to receive the blood from their extremities, and 
rcconvey it to the heart. Small at their rise, and enlarg'm 
they advance, they are void of any pulsation. In these, fhe 
pressure of the circulating fluid is not near so forcible as in the 
arteries; for which reason their texture is considerably slighter. 
In many places they have valves, because the slow motion of 
the blood in the veins, and their weaker contractile power, un- 



THE HUMAN HACHINE. 55 

assisted by a force adequate to that of the heart, have great 
need of such an invention to insure its return to the heir,. 

The Secretory vessels are minute tubes in the different organs 
serving to separate and strain off the different fluids from the 
general mass of blood. 

The Excretory vessels, tubes also belonging to the different or- 
gans, carry off the humours that are separated. 

The Glands, commonly called Kernels, are small bodies of 
finely interwoven vessels, whose office it is to secrete or sepa- 
rate fluids from the blood for particular uses, as spittle in the 
mouth, bile in the liver, milk in the breast, &c. Glands, when 
obstructed, become large and indurated, from which scirrhus 
and cancers are produced. 

The Membranes are thin tunicles or fine webs like a bladder, 
appointed to enwrap the fleshy parts; to form a connexion be- 
tween some; to line the cavities, and make a separation between 
others. 

The Fibres are simple threadlike bodies, serving to form other 
parts; hence some are very hard, as the boney ones; and others 
soft, as the fleshy parts. 

The Skin, like a curious surtout, exactly fitted, envelopes the 
whole, formed of the most delicate net-work; whose meshes are 
minute, and whose threads are multiplied even to a prodigy. — 
The meshes are so minute that nothing discernible to the eye 
passes them; though they discharge every moment myriads of 
superfluous incumbrances from the body. The steam arising 
from the warm business transacted within, is carried off by these 
veal, though imperceptible, funnels; which constitutes what we 
usually call insem'Me perspiration. A single grain of sand, ac- 
cording to Mr. Lewenhouk, will cover no less than one hundred 
mid twenty-five thousand of these funnels, or what has been 
prettily styled "cutaneous chimneys." The threads are so mul- 
tiplied, that the point of the smallest needle cannot pierce any 
single part without causing an uneasv sensation, and an effusion 
o^ blood; consequently without wounding, even by so small a 
Buncture, both a nerve and a blood-vessel. 

The outermost covering of the body is that soft whitish tegu- 
ment which rises in the pustle of a blister, and is called scarf 



5G of tfif, sTRifTrnr, or 

skin. The next, or true skin, is thai reddish and exquisitely 

tender pari which appears when the blister is broken, and the 

dead skin taken oil'. The first is void of sense, and intended 
to screen the second, not only Irom the stroke, of injuries, but 
even from the impressions of the air, which, mild as it may fee] 
to the sheathed, would be too rough and sharp for the naked 
nci \ • 

The natural colour of the cuticle is white The appan 
black or brown colour in the African or Indian, is entirely ow- 
ing- to the mucuous substance under it. 

The skin unites in itself two very essential functions. It is 
the organ of the sense of die touch, and the chann< ! of perspi- 
ration. For this purpose, innumerable nerves and vessels are 
dispersed throughout the skin, which are in the continual act 
of feeling, and at the same time, of secreting and volatilizing 
noxious particles. It has been proved by accurate experiments. 
that the healthy individual daily and insensibly perspires up- 
wards of three pounds weight of superfluous and impure hu- 
mours. It may therefore, be confidently asserted, that no part 
of the body is provided with so many important organs, hy 
which it is connected with almost every operation performed 
in animal life, as the skin. T>y this organization, we are placed 
in immediate connexion with the surrounding atmosphere, which 
particularly affects us through the skin, and exerts its influence 
on our health. We farther feel, directly through that medium, 
the qualities of the air, heat, cold, pressure, and rarefaction. 

Important as the skin is to external life, it is no less so to the. 
internal economy of the body, where it appears to be peculiar- 
ly designed to preserve the grand equilihrium of tin; different 
systems, by which the human frame is supported in its vital, 
animal and sexual functions. If any stagnation, accumulation, 
or irregularity arise in the fluids, the skin is the great and ever 
ready conductor, through which the superfluous particles are 
separated, the noxious volatilized, and the fluids, stagnating in 
their course, effectually attenuated; a canal being at the same 
time opened for the removal of those humours, which, if they 
could get access to the vital parts, such as the heart and brain, 
would cause inevitable destruction. By the proper exercise of 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. £7 

tliis organ, many diseases may be suppressed in their early 
h have already taken place, may be most 
effectually removed. No disease whatever can be healed with- 
out the co-operation of the skin. The nature and constitution 
of* this organ most certainly determine either our hope or ap_ 
prehension for the safety of the patient. In the most dangerous 
inflammatory diseases, when the prospect of recovery is gloomy, 
a beneficial change of the skin is the only effort by which na- 
ture, almost overcome, relieves herself, and ejects the poison in 
a surprising manner, frequently in the course of one night. The 
greatest art of a physician, indeed, consists in the proper man- 
agement of this extensive organ, and in regulating its activity, 
where occasion requires. To mention only one circumstance; 
it is well known to those who have experienced the beneficial 
effects of a simple blister, that its stimulous, like a charm, has 
frequently relieved the most excruciating pains and spasms in the 
internal parts. 

When the sensibility of the surface is impaired; when the 
myriads of orifices designed for the continual purification of 
our fluids, are obstructed, if not closed; when the subtle ner- 
vous texture is nearly deprived of its energy, so that it becomes 
an impenetrable coat of mail, is there any reason to wonder that 
we are so often harrassed by a sense of constraint and anxiety, 
and that this uneasiness, in many cases, terminates in gloom and 
melancholy? Ask the Hypocondriac,. whether a certain degree 
of the cold, paleness, and spasmodic sensation in the skin, does 
not always precede his most violent fits of imbecility; and whe- 
ther his feelings be not most comfortable when the surface of 
his body is vigorous, warm, and perspires freely? In short, the 
degrees of insensible perspiration are to him the surest barom- 
eter of his state of mind. If our skin be disorganized, the free 
inlets and outlets of the electric, magnetic, and other matters, 
which affect us at the change of the weather, are inactive. — 
Thus the origin of extreme sensibility, towards the various at- 
mospheric revolutions, is no longer a mystery; for, in a healthy 
surface of the body, no inconvenience will follow from such 
changes. M' we farther advert to those acrimonious fluids. 



55 • F T H E 5 T R U C T l' R E F 

which, in consequence of an i perspiration, 

are retained in the body, and which affecl the nble 

nerves and membranes, we shall the better comprehend how 
cramps and spasms, the forturinj uma- 

tism, andthe great variety of cutaneous dise late 

become so obstinate and general. The just , on of tlin 

fluids", andthe circulation of the blood, are als ained, in 

no small degree, by the skin; so that, if th 
languid, the whole momentum of the blo< towards 

the interior pails. Thus a continual plethora, or ft the 

blood, is occasioned-, the head and breast rally oppr< 

cd; and the external parts, especially the lower extremities, 
feel chilly and languid. 

May we not infer, from what has been advanced, that the use 
of baths is too much neglected, and ought to be universally in- 
troduced? 

Bathing is considered an excellent remedy for alleviating both 
mental and bodily affections. It is not merely a cleanser of the 
skin, enlivening and rendering it more (it for performing its of- 
fices; it also refreshes the mind, and spreads over the whole 
system a sensation of ease, activity, and plea ii like- 

wise rem nation in the larger, as well as in the smaller 

vessels, gives an uniform, free circulation to the blood, and pie- 
serves that wonderful harmony in our interior organs, on th*; 
disposition of which our •health and comfort so much depend. 
A person fatigued or distressed in body and mind, will de- 
rive more refreshment from the luxury of a tepid bath, and may 
drown his disquietude in it more effectually, than by indulging 
in copious libations to Bacchus. 

There subsists so intimate a relation between our interior and 
exterior vessels, that almost every error or irregularity in the 
organs within, shows itself first on the surface of the body, par- 
ticularly on the face. How often are we struck with the 00 
tenance of a person who thinks himself in perfect health, but 
whose illness, the result of some morbid cause, concealed in 
the body, justifies, in a few days, the serious appi we 

entertained at our last interview? Nature 



THE HUMAN IACHINB. 59 

that the first appearance of internal irregularities should be u> 
ted by tlie countenance; but to what do we generally apply 
this index? We refuse to avail ourselves of her beneficent in- 
timation; and the continued use of pernicious substances, instead 
of promoting the object we have iu view, ultimately tarnishes 
and impairs that beauty which we meant to adorn and preserve. 

The secret venom circling in her veins, 

Works through her skin, and bursts in bloating stains, 

Tier cheeks their freshness lose, and wonted grace, 

And an unusual paleness spreads her face. Granville. 

We imagine it in our power to improve the skin, without at- 
tending to the purity of the fluids, though it is indebted to them 
for its very existence; and yet we should smile at a person, who 
should attempt to cleanse an impure tongue by constantly scrap- 
ing it, when a disordered stomach was the real cause of that 
impurity. 

The Cellular Membrane, so called from its numerous cells, 
adheres very closely to the skin, running between the muscles 
in general, and between their several fibres in particular; and 
communicating with the membrane which lines the inside of the 
breast and belly. All its cells communicate with each other 
throughout the whole body, so that from any one part the whole, 
may be filled with air, as is evident in beasts, from the butchers 
blowing ii]) their lean meat with air when newly killed, and in 
emphysema, where the air from a broken rib, getting into one 
of the cells, forces its way into all the rest, distending the body 
to a flight ful size; as also, in general dropsy, wherein all the 
cells, tilled with water, may, by puncture, be emptied in the 
course of a night. In health this membrane is tilled with an 
oily substance, giving an agreeable rotundity to the limbs. It 
is also the seat of biles, and contributes to keep the inner part6 
warm and pliant; aud, by filling the interstices of the muscles, 
renders the surface of the body smooth and plump. 

The Head, that majestic dome, being the seat of the brain, in 
which the soul is supposed to reside, resembles the GeneraVg 
lent in an army, or the MomreK's in a city. It has a eommuni- 



00 OFT H E 8 T R U ( T B B F 

cation establislied with all, even the mosl remote pails of the 
m; having outlets and avenues, for the ready despatch of 

couriers to all quarters, and for the receptiqn ( ; intellfc- 

■ on every interesting occasion. It is furnished with 1 >dg- 

>entinels of varion ters, ami ap- 

point to various offices, to expedite their operations, whether 
employed in reconnoitering what passes without, or examining 
what claims admittance within. The whole turns upon ;i curious 
pivot, most nicely contrived to afford the largest and freest cir- 
cumvolutions. This stately capitol is screened from heat, de- 
om cold, and, at the same time, beautified by a copious 
growth of hair. 

The Great Creator, profusely gracious to mankind, has 
made usan inestimable present of the to be the inlets of 

innumerable pi and the means of administering the most, 

valuable comforts. High in the bead, bright and conspicuous 
as a star in the brow of evening, is placed the eye. In this ele- 
'< situation, like a centinel posted in hjs watch lower, it 
commands the mosl enli t. Consisting only of sim- 

ple fluids, end thin tunicles, it conveys to our apprehen- 

sion all the graces of blooming nature, and all the glories of the 
ns. How prodigiously wonderful, that an image 
of the highest mountains, and a transcript of the most diversified 
landscapes, shall enter the small circlet of the pupil! How 
surprisingly artful, that the rays of light, like an inimitable 
pencil, should paint on the optic nerves, paint in an inst;:. 
time, paint in the truest colours, and exuded lineaments, every 
species of external objects. 

The Eye is so tender, that a slight accident, scarce per 
ble by some other parts of the body, proves very injuriou 
its delicate frame. It is guarded, therefore, with the mo^t soli- 
citous care; with a care evidently proportioned to i'.s nice tex- 
ture, and extensive usefulness. It is entrenched deep in the head 
and barricaded on every side with a strong fortification of bones. 
The wisdom and goodness of the ( r in the a 

ishing apparatus of nr.. the eye is furnished, to 

produce all the necessary and convenient motions in the situation 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 61 

where it is placed. The eye-brows serve to defend this deli- 
cate organ from too strong a light; and as the incursion of the 
smallest fly would incommode the polished surface, it is farther 
de fended by two substantial curtains (eye-lids) hung on a most 
slender cartilaginous rod, which secure it from floating dust and 
from every troublesome annoyance. In sleep, when there is no 
occasion to exercise the sense, but an absolute necessity to pro- 
tect the organ, these curtains spontaneously close, and never fail 
to lie shut. On the inside of these curtains or eye-lids, lie 
glands, which secrete a limpid fluid, that lubricates the eye-ball, 
as often as we wink, or, as it were, oils its wheels, and fits it 
for a course of unwearied activity. 

The Ear consists of an outward porch and inner chambers, 
with tools of the most admirable contrivance, and finished work- 
manship. The porch is that cartilaginous substance, standing 
somewhat prominent from the head, covered with a tight expan- 
sion of the skin, and wrought into irregular bends and hollows; 
which, like circling hills, or surrounding rocky shores, collect 
the wandering undulations of the air, transmit them with vigor- 
ous impulse, to the finely stretched membrane of the tympanum, 
or drum of the ear. The avenue, or narrow entry, is secured 
from the insinuating attempts of little insects, by a morass of 
bitter and viscous matter, disgustful to their taste, and embar- 
rassing to their feet. The hammer and the anvil, the stirrup and 
the drum; the winding labyrinths, and the winding galleries; these 
and other pieces of mechanism, instrumental to the power of hear- 
ing, are, beyond description, curious. 

Amazingly nice must be the formation, and inconceivably ex- 
act the tension of the auditory nerves, since they correspond 
with the smallest tremours of the atmosphere, and easily distin- 
guish their most subtle variations. With the gentle gales that 
fan us, or even with the ruder blasts that assault us, these deli- 
cate strings are but little affected. Whereas, they are perfect 
unisons with those fine, those significant agitations of the air 
which the acutest is unable to discern. These living chords 
tuned by the touch of an Almighty hand, and diffused through 



02 OP THL >TRl ( Tl UT, Off 

the echoing aisles, and sonorous cells, receive the in)] 
of sound and propagate them to the brain. These give t 
tence to the charms of music, and reciprocate the rational en- 
tertainments of discourse. The eye perceives onlj tire objects 
before it; whereas the ear warns us of transactions ibove us, bo 
hind us, all around us. The eye is useless amidst the gloom 
ni^ht, and cannot carry its observation through the bolted door 
or the closed window-shulterv but the ear admits intelligence 
through die darkest medium; and the minutest cranny. Hence, 
when, we cannot sec a friend, because of an interposing parti- 
tion, yet, by the friendly aid of this organ, we can leara thai lie 
is in the adjoining room by his voice, or that he is near by Ivifi 
steps. The eye is upon duty only in our waking hours; but 
the ear is always expanded, and always accessible; a courier 
which never tires, a centry ever in his box, To secure a re- 
source, in case any misfortune should disable one of the hearing 
or g< eing organs, our all gracious Maker, has given us thtplicatet 
of each. 

As tnere are tremulous concussions impressed upon the air, 
discernible only by the instruments of hearing; there are also 
odoriferous particles wafted by the same aerial vehicle, which 
are perceivable only by the smell 

The JS'ostrils are wide at the bottom, that a large quantity of 
efllu-via may enter; narrow at the top, that when entered, they 
may close their ranks, and act with greater vigour. Fine, be- 
yond all imagination, arc the streams exhaled from foetid or fra- 
grant bodies. The very kiest microscopes, which discover 
thousands and tens of thousands of animalcules in a drop of pu- 
frified wafer, cannot bring one individual among aS these evan- 
escent legions 10 our sight. They sail in numberless Squad 
close to our eyes, close by our cars; yet arc so amazingly at- 
tenuated, that they elude the search of both. Hfe\ ertheles!= 
"judiciously are the olfactory nets'laid, and so artfully their mesh- 
es seized, that they catch these vanishing fugitives. Thej 
catch the roaming perfumes, which fly off from the opening lid 
ney-suckle, and take in the stationed sweets which hover rotund 
the expanded rose. They imbibe alt the balmy fragrance oi 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 63 

spring, all the aromatic exhalations of autumn, and enable us to 
Qjanquet even on the invisible dainties of nature. 

Furnished with these several organs, 

***** not a breeze 

Flies cPcr the meadows, not a cloud imbibes 

The setting sun's effulgence, not a strain 

From all the tenants of the warbling shade 

. Iscends, but wJience our senses can 'partake 

Fresh pleasure, Akenside. 

Anotlvcj 1 capacity for frequent pleasure, our bountiful Creator 
nas bestowed in the power of taste; by means of which the food, 
that supports our body, feasts our palate; first treats us with a 
pleasing regale, then distributes its beneficial recruits. The ra- 
zor, whetted with oil, becomes more exquisitely keen; so the 
saliva, flowing upon the tongue, and moistening its nerves, quick- 
ens them into the liveliest acts of sensation. This sense is cir- 
cumstanced in a manner peculiarly benign and wise; so as to be a 
standing, though silent plea for temperance. 

The sight, smell, and taste, are not only so many separate 
sources of delight, but a joint security to our health. They are 
t the vigilant and accurate ittspectors which examine our food, and 
inquire into its properties, pleasant or disagreeable, wholesome 
or noxious. For the discharge, of their offices, they are excel- 
lently qualified, and most commodiously situated; so that nothing 
van get admission through the mouth, till it has undergone the 
scrutiny and obtained the pasport of each. 

To all these, as a most necessary and advantageous supple- 
ment, is added the sense of feeling; which renders the assem- 
blage complete. While other senses have a particular place of 
residence, this is diffused throughout the whole body. In the 
palms of the hands, on the tips of the fingers, and indeed through 
all the extreme, parts of the liesh, it is most quick and lively. — 
The whole army of Xerxes drawn out in battle array, with his 
million* of supcrnumery attendants, were bat like a few glean- 
er straggling in the field, if compared, either in number or order,' 



64 OF THE STRl CTURE OF 

with those nervous detachmnnts, which pervade the textur 
the skin and minister to the aet oi' feeling. 

The crowning gift, improving the satisfaction, and augment- 
ing the beneficial effects of all the senses, is speech. Speech 
makes me a gainer from the eyes and ears of other people; from 
the ideas they conceive, and the observations they make. And 
what an admirable instrument for articulating the voice, and mod- 
ifying it into speech is the tongue! The tongue has neither bone 
nor joint; yet fashions itself, with the utmost volubility, into 
every shape and every posture, to express sentiment, or consti- 
tute harmony. This little collection of muscular fibres, under 
the conducting skill of the Creator, is the artificer of our words. 
By this we communicate the secrets of the breast, and make our 
very thoughts audible. By this we instruct the ignorant, and 
comfort the distressed; we glorify God, and edify each other. 

Who would not bless for this the gift of speech, 
And in the tongue's beneficence be rich? 

But still) what is this mansion of flesh, though so exquisitely 
wrought, compared with the noble and immortal inhabitant, 
which resides within? 

###### u That intellectual being, 
Those thoughts, which wander through eternity.'''' 

The Mind, or Soul, of much higher character than that of 
the perishable frame with which it. is at present connected, has 
neither nerves, nor the ?icrvous fluids. These are only its agents, 
in this its imprisoned state. When the " silver cord" is broken, 
which connects mind and matter together, vitality ceases. 
The body then, with all its artful and numerous vessels, fibres 
and nerves, and other exquisite machinery, undergoes decomposi- 
tion, and is turned into its original elements; but the immortal 
soul, having shaken off this coil, is destined for a new resi- 
dence; to flourish in eternal youth; to outlive the wreck of 
elements and the crush of worlds. It is embodied even in its 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. G5 

residence ifl another world. " Thou fool," says the Philosopher 
and Apostle, " that seed which thou sowest is not quickened ex- 
cept it die. — " And that which thou sowest is not that body which 
shall be, but God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and to 
every seed its own body. So also is the resurrection of the 
dead. The body is sown in the earth in dishonour, it is raised in 
glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; it is sown a 
natural body,, it is raised a spiritual. — Behold I show you a 
mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed. 
In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump; for 
the trumpet shall sonnd, and the dead shall be raised incorrupti- 
ble, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on 
incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality." Man, 
therefore, is not what he will hereafter be. What we discover 
of him here below, is only the gross foldage, under which lie 
crawls upon the earth, and which he must shortly cast otf. 

The animal body has up other relation than to this earth. The 
spiritual body will have enjoyments which " ear hath not heard, 
nor hath it entered into the Jieart of man to conceive.'''' New senses 
will be disclosed, multiplying perfections in an almost infinite de- 
gree. Man's sphere will be aggrandised, and he will become 
equal to superior intelligences. Revelation informs us it will be 
so; and the parable of the seed is the most expressive and phi- 
losophic emblem of this wonderful prc-ordinalion. 

The senses, as they are brought into subjection to the soul, will 
no longer rule over her. Separated from ilesh and blood, there 
will remain in her none of those earthly affections resulting from 
tliem. Transported into the regions of light, the human under- 
standing will present no ideas to the will, but those of the highest 
good. It will then have ho other than lawful desires, and God 
will be their constant and ultimate end. It will love him from 
gratitude; fear him from a principle of love; and adore him as 
the supremely amiable being, the eternal source of life, perfec- 
tion, and happiness. 

The Thorax, or breast, is situated between the belly and neck. 
The lion! part is commonly called the breast; the posterior part 
the back; and the latteral parts the right and left sides. 



Gli 



ov tii »: siiti »iik l. or 



Before wo take not ice of the internal parts, it mn\ be proper- 
to speak of the mamma- or breasts. 

These are two glandular bodies, of a round oval figure, most 
remarkable in women. The period of their growing full in (lie 
female, i6 about the age of fourteen or fifteen, and thai of their 
decreasing, filly. The breasts are composed of a vast multitude 
of minute vessels to secrete the milk from the blood. These 
vessels, as the y approach the nipple, fall into, and form eigh! or 
ten larger pipes, connected together with admirable skill, that, in 
ease of any obstruction or accident in any one or more of them, 
the milk might not. be obstructed. 

The swelling of the breasts, during the time of gestation, is 
owing to the consent between them and the womb. 

The cavity of ihc breast is lined by a line smooth membrane, 
named pleura, and contains those two grand organs, the hear! and 
lungs. 

The Lungs are divided into two larger portions, called lobes; 
the one on the right, and the other on the left side. 

The vessels which enter the lungs, are the trachea, or wind* 
pipe, by which we draw in Ihc air; the pulmonary artery, which 
comes from the right ventricle of the heart; and the pulmonary 
vein, Avhose trunk opens inlo the left ventricle of the heart:— 
Each of these divides into two hranehes. 

The lungs differ from every other part of the body in ties re- 
spect; the wind-pipe, in iis minutes! ramifications, passes through 
all parts of its suhstanee, terminating every where in air vesicles, 
for the grand purpose of respiration, which keeps it in a contin- 
ued state of action and re-action. Hence, when the lungs are 
diseased, their motion is not only increased by the respiration be- 
ing quickened, hut they suffer violent concussion by the means of 
coughing. This circumstance renders disorders of the lungs, 
more peculiarly difficult to cure 

The Hear! is a strong, active, indefatigable, muscular body, 
of a conical figure, included in an exceedingly strong membra- 
nous bag, called the pericardium, or heart-purse, and situated in 
the cavity of the chest. Il has two separate ca> ities, called ven- 
tricles, out of which issue the two large arteries of the humah 






TUB HUMAN MACHINE. G? 

i>ody, one called pulmonary, or artery of the lungs, the other 
aorta, or large artery of the body, from which all the other arte- 
ries go oil, as branches of a tree from its trunk, dividing them- 
selves into minute ramifications in their progress. Near the 
mouths of these two ventricles arc two other hollows, which, 
from their similitude to dog's ears, arc called auricles, into which 
the veins, returning from all parts of the body with the blood, 
empty themselves, through two large trunks or channels. It has 
two motions, called systole and diastole; the former is when it 
contracts itself, and thereby forces the blood into the arteries. — 
The diastole is when it relaxes itself, and receives the blood from 
the veins. The ventricles of the heart arc each capable of re- 
ceiving an ounce of blood or more, and therefore, being full in 
their diastole, we may suppose that they throw out at least one 
ounce of blood each systole. The heart contracts about four 
thousand times in an hour, more or less, according 16 the different 
temperaments, sexes, ami ages; and, therefore, there pass through 
the heart every hour, four thousand ounces, or two hundred and 
fifty pounds weight of blood. Now the common opinion is, that 
the whole mass of blood does not exceed twent \ -live pounds, 
and, therefore, according to this allowance, a quantity of blood 
equal to the whole mass, passes through the heart ten times in an 
hour, thai is, about an ounce every second. If the heart contract 
eighty times in a minute, then twenty-five pounds weight of blood 
pass through its ventricles once in five minutes, or twelve times 
.ii an hour. The farther the blood moves from the heart, its ve- 
locity decreases as the artery divides into more branches, so, 
much so, that the blood moves 5233 times slower in some capil- 
lary arteries than it does in the aorta or great artery. The blood 
is received from the arteries into the veins, where it still move* 
more slowly as it returns to the heart again. The arteries ar# 
;o the veins as ;>24 to 111, and consequently the blood moves 
•ii the veins above 71 10 limes slower than it does in the aorta. 

The heart is the grand organ of the circulation of the blood, 
and, consequently, of life. Impelled by this beating engine, part 
of the blood shoots upward; and sweeps, with a bounding im- 
petus, into the head. There it impregnate* the prolific fields o? 



68 OF THE STRUCTURE Ol 

the brain; and forms those subtile tpiritow dews, which impart 
sense lo every nerve, and communicate motion to every limb. — 
Part flows downward; rolls the recking current through all the 
lower quarters; and dispenses the nutrimental stores, c\ en to the 

meanest member, and the minutest \ easel. 

Observe, how the stately Thames, and the lordly Potomac re- 
fresh the forest and groves; water the towns which croud their 
banks; and make the meadows they intersect, laugh and sing. — 
So, only with an incomparably richer thud, and with infinitely 
more numerous streams, this human river laves the several regions 
of the body, transfusing vigour, and propagating health through 
the whole. The living flood never discontinues its interchange- 
able tide; but, night and day, whether we sleep or w r ake, still 
perseveres to sally briskly through the arteries, and return softly 
through the veins. 

Such astonishing expedients are used to elaborate the chyle, to 
blend it with the blood, and to distribute both through the body, 
that the animal constitution is perfectly maintained. In youth, its 
bulk is increaseii; in age, its decays are repaired; and it is kept 
in tcnantable condition for the soul during the space of seventy or 
eighty years. 

The doctrine taught by the immortal Harvey, the discoverer 
of the circulation of the blood, is, that all the veins of the body 
falling into two trunks, viz. the ascending and descending cava, 
empty themselves into the right auricle of the heart. The right 
auricle unloads into the right ventricle of the heart, which throws 
ihe blood through the pulmonary artery, into the lungs, by its two 
tranches, which go to the right and left lobes. 

From the lungs the blood is brought back by the pulmonary 
veins, into the left auricle, and thence it passes into the left ven- 
tricle, from which it is distributed through the body by the aorta, 
or large artery and its brandies. These terminate in the veins of 
the body, which collect the blood and bring it back to the heart, 
by the two cava, or large veins. 

In other words, the blood is conveyed from the left ventricle of 
the heart, by the aorta and its branches, to the minutest and most 
remote parts of the body, and then, passing from the extremities 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 69 

of the smallest arteries into the incipient veins, circulates through 
them into their larger branches, and so on into the right auncle 
of the heart, thence into the right ventricle, whence it is forced, 
with the fresh supplies that it receives from the chyle in passing 
through the subclavian vein, into the pulmonary artery, and, af- 
ter circulating through, and being acted upon by the lungs, in its 
passage through them, is returned by the pulmonary vein, into 
the left auricle and thence into the left ventricle, and so on, the 
same round, until death concludes the progress. 

There is in the consideration of the organs performing the 
circulation of the blood, an air of grandeur that seizes forcibly 
on the mind, and penetrates it with the highest admiration. 

We perceive that the blood, every time it is returned to the 
right ventricle of the heart, is directly dispersed through the 
lungs, and immediately reconveyed to the heart, before it is per- 
mitted to begin a new circulation. In the study of nature through- 
out all her work, however complex the machine, the utility of 
each part ever claims the admiration of the speculative mind. 

The observation is beautifully illustrated on the present occa- 
sion, and " I believe it will be admitted by every one," says the 
ingenious author of the Medical Extracts, " that the blood, after 
having performed one round, throughout the animal economy, 
undergoes some new and important change in its transit through 
the lungs, especially requisite to support a second circulation. 
This change is certainly the oxygenation of the blood, and we 
should expect if oxygen be the natural stimulus to the heart and 
arteries, that their pulsation would be in proportion as the blood 
had access to this principle." 

That animal heat depends upon the action of the arteries, and 
the circulation of the blood in general, is very natural to imagine; 
because whatever increases the velocity of the circulation, 
whether exercise, friction, or disease, also increases the internal 
heat; whereas fainting, hemorrhage, and whatever produces a 
weak ami languid circulation, also diminish the heat of the body. 

When a ligature is put around an artery, so as to prevent the 
blood from being carried to any particular limb, that limb be- 
comes colder than it was, and docs not recover its natural heat, 
10 



70 OF THE STRUCTURE <» i 

until, by removal of the ligature, or the expansion of the brand 
which go off from above the ligature, the usual quantity of hlooJ 
is circulated through the limb. 

With a new-born infant, the first tiling is to in/use into its nos- 
trils "the breath of life;" for until the lungs he expanded', and 
the venal or purple blood changed into arterial or crimson, 
in that organ, the heart does not contract, nor the arteries \ ihrale; 
like a clock not wound up, though sound in all its parts, remain- 
ing entirely at rest. In the clock, if we wind it up, the main- 
spring applying its powers, all the wheels are immediately put 
into motion, and it marks its hours and minutes; so, likewise, in. 
the animal machine, the blood in the lungs having imbibed the 
vital principle from the air, the heart acquires its actions, the 
brain its energy, the nerves their sensibility, aud the other sub- 
ordinate springs of life presently resume their respective func- 
tions. 

No organ can be severely affected without affecting the heart, 
and disturbing its functions; nor can the heart be in the smallest 
degree affected, without disturbing every function of the animal 
economy. 

But the heart is not only affected by what injures the body, but 
also by what ruffles the mind. Rage occasions frequent and for- 
cible contractions; sorrow, slow and languid ones; and there arc 
instances of violent passions suspending the contractions of the 
heart altogether, and occasioning death. The heart isnotonly 
affected by whatever hurts the body or mind of the person, to 
whom it belongs, but also by what hurts the bodies or minds of 
others. But the extent of this kind of sympathy differs greatly 
in different persons. In some it embraces children, friends, re- 
lations, countrymen, and in a certain degree;, the whole human 
race; in others, it seems to be entirely confined within the limits 
of their own bodies, or at most, reaches with a blunted sensibilP" 
ty, no farther than to those whom they conceive to he their own 
offspring. While the blood is in circulation, various liquors are 
separated from it by a process called secretion, all these secre- 
tions being necesaary for the health and preservation of animal 
•life. When it is taken from the veiu by the usual mode of bleed- 






THE HUMAN MACHINE. 71 

<ng, and left to itself, it soon congeals, and appears to be com- 
posed of two distinct parts, Called crassamentum, or solid, and 
serum, or liquid. In a mass of healthy human blood, about one 
half is crassamentum, which hath the red colour to itself. The 
serum in a healthy state is almost colourless; at other times it is 
yellowish, or of a greenish hue, while the top of the crassamen- 
tum has different degrees of firmness, and puts on different ap- 
pearances, with respect to colour, according to the constitution 
and health of the subject, from which it is taken. A due pro- 
portion of the respective parts of the blood is necessary to per- 
fect health. 

The Diaphragm, or Midriff, is a large, thin, broad muscle, that 
divides the breast from the belly. 

The uses of the midriff are, first, to assist in respiration; for, 
in taking in the breath, it js pressed downwards, and in expira- 
tion, it rises upwards into the cavity of the breast; secondly, to 
assist the necessary motions of the stomach, intestines, liver and 
spleen; and for assisting the expulsion of the faeces, the urine, 
the foetus in parturition, and of the secundines or after birth. — 
It marks our passions by its irregular actions, as sighing, yawn- 
ing, coughing, laughing. It is affected by spasms as in hiccough. 

The Abdomen, or Belly, lies between the breast and pelvis 
which is formed by the juncture of the haunch bones. 

The belly contains many of the principal parts of the human 
body, as the stomach, the intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kid- 
neys, bladder, &c. On its inside, it is lined with a membrane 
called peritoneum, which is capable of a very great extension; 
and afterwards can contract itself to its ordinary size, as we see 
in pregnancy, dropsy, corpulency, and repletion. 

The Stomach may be considered a dilatation of the oesophagus 
or gullet, as it is a continuation of the same tube. Its figure near- 
ly resembles the pouch of a bag-pipe, and has two orifices, the 
one above from the gullet, through which it receives the crude 
aliment, the other below, whereby it conveys the partially di- 
gested food or chyle into the duodenum. 

Before the food enters the gullet, it must of necessity pass over 
ihe orifice of the wind-pipe; consequently must be in very immi- 



72 



OF THE STRUCTURE OF 



nent danger of falling npon the lungs, winch would, if n<>1 entire 
ly obstruct the breath, yet occasion violent coughing, and great 
inconveniencics To obviate this evil, the all-foreseeing Con- 
triver has placed a moveable lid, or hung a cartilaginous draw- 
bridge; which, when any of the smallest particle of food advances 
to enter the stomach is pulled down, and shut close; but the very 
moment the morsel is swallowed, it is set loose and stands open 
By this two-fold artifice, the important passage is always barred 
and made sure against any noxious approaches; yet is always 
left free for the necessary accession of air, and commodious for 
the purpose of respiration. 

When the malster prepares his grain for the transmutation of 
the brew-house, he suffers it to lie several hours steeping in the 
cistern, before it is fit to be spread upon the floor, or dried on 
the kiln. The meat and drink likewise must remain a consider- 
able time in the stomach before they are of a proper consistence 
and temperature, either for the tender coats, or the delicate ope- 
ration of the bow r els. For w r hich purpose that great receiver is 
made strong to bear, capacious to hold, and so curiously contri- 
ved, as to lay a temporary embargo upon its contents. Here they 
are lodged in the very centre of warmth, and concocted by the 
most kindly combination of heat and humidity. Here they are 
saturated with other fermenting or diluting juices; and are knead- 
ed, as it were, by the motion of the stomach, and compression of 
the neighbouring parts. So that every the minutest fragment is 
separated; the whole is reduced to a tenuity abundantly finer than 
the exactest grinding could effect; and all is worked up into the 
smoothest, most nicely mixed pulp imaginable. From hence it is 
dislodged by a gentle acting force, and passes by a gradual tran- 
sition, into the cavity of the intestines. 

The Intestines form one continued canal from the stomach to 
the anus, which is usually five or six times the length of the in- 
dividual. It is curiously convoluted in the abdomen, and is ex- 
tremely irritable. Although one entire tube, anatomists have di- 
vided it into the small and great intestines. The small intestines 
are called duodenum, jejunum, and ilium; the larger are the caecum, 
colon, and rectum. 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 73 

The duodenum, so called, because it is generally twelve inches 
long in adults, is the widest and shortest of the small intestines. 
At a short distance from where it joins the stomach, it receive* 
two ducts, the one from the liver, bringing the bile, and the oth- 
er from the pancreas, or sweet bread, bringing its liquor to com- 
plete the digestion of the food. The second gut is the Jejunum, 
so called, from its being usually found empty, its numerous lacteal 
vessels having absorbed the chyle. 

The Ilium is the third and last of the small' intestines. The 
great length of the small guts is evidently for the convenience of 
a greater number of lacteals, that the chyle which misses their 
orifices in one place may not escape them in another. 

The Caecum, or blind gut, is a pouch, as it were, of the Co- 
lon, about three inches long, and called blind, from its being out 
of the direction of the passage of the food. 

The Colon is the greatest and widest of all the intestines, about 
eight or nine hands' breadth long, and by lying so contiguous to 
all the bowels, it communicates all the benefits of the injections 
thrown into it. 

When the Colon is affected, there is a sense of weight though 
the pain is not very acute; whereas in the small guts there is not 
any sense of weight, but an acute pain. Sometimes a pain in the 
colon attended with fever, the pain extending to the ribs, gives 
a suspicion of pleurisy, though the colon only is affected. The 
colon is narrower on the right side than elsewhere, whence colic 
pains arise more frequently, and are more severe in this part. — 
The excrements are long retained here, and often are much in- 
durated before they pass farther on. 

The Rectum, or straight gut, is about a hand's breadth and a 
half long. It begins where the last curvature of the colon ends, 
and is terminated at the fundament. At its termination it is sur- 
rounded by circular muscular fibres, called the sphincter ani, to 
retain the faeces. 

The intestines are not left to move at random in the cavity of 
the abdomen, but are artfully tied down by a membranous web, 
which prevents their circumvolutions from being entangled in 
each other, at the same time allowing a gentle, but animated 
motion. That part of it connected with the small intestines is 



** or i 11 i. s j u v » i v R i. o ; 

called mesentery, the other par! fastened to the colon, m 
All the intestines have in their inner membrane an almost infinite 
number of very small glands, whose, office it is to discbarge in'" 
the intestines a liquor for the attenuation of (lie chyle, for lubri 
eating the intestines, and in the large, guts to soften the faeces, thai 
they may be evacuated without pain. The intestinal canal s< 
to complete the first digestion, strain off the chyle, and carry oil 
the faeces. 

Had the intestihes been straight and sliort, the food might have 
gone through them, Avithout resigning a sufficient quantity of its 
nourishing particles. Therefore this grandest of all the vital 
ducts is artfully convolved, and greatly extended, to afford an 
opportunity of sifting more thoroughly whatever passes, and of 
detaining whatever may serve its purposes. Though the ali- 
mentary substance can never mistake its way, yet it may, through 
some accidental impediment, attempt to return backward. In 
ibis case a valve intervenes, and renders what would be extreme- 
ly pernicious almost impracticable. 

Upon a survey of the, use of the stomach and intestines, we 
cannot avoid being struck with wonder at its apparent simplicity 
answering so many salutary purposes. As soon as wc take our 
food, it is received into a place in ail points calculated to render 
it fit for yielding its nutritious contents. At first, the food taken 
into the stomach, retaining its peculiar properties, irritates the 
coat of that organ, and occasions a contraction of its two orifices. 
The food thus confined, then undergoes a constant agitation by 
means of the abdominal muscles, and of the. diaphragm, and by 
the motion of the fibres of the stomach itself. By these move- 
ments, every part of the food is exposed to the action of a fluid 
secreted in the stomach, called the gastric juice, which gradually 
dissolves and attenuates the food, and prepares it for its passage 
into and farther change in the intestim 

The painful sensation of hunger, which is the irritation of tin 
gastric juice on the coat of the stomach, or a sensation of a de- 
fective supply of chyle in the arterial system, being removed by 
the food, we soon feel a mild and undescribable delight, first, from 
the stimulus of the aliment; and secondly, from the distension of 
ibis, and the increased action of other par's 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 75 

The aliment having remained during two or more hours in the 
stomach, is converted first into a greyish pulp, which is called 
chyle. This fluid passes out of the right orifice, the fibres of 
which relax to allow it to escape; while the grosser and less al- 
tered particles remain in the stomach till they acquire a sufficient 
fluidity to pass into the intestinal canal. As the digested food 
enters the duodenum, it stimulates the common duct of the gall- 
bladder, from which it receives a full supply of bile and of saliva, 
secreted from the pancreas. 

The Chyle, drawn off by all the secretory orifices, is carried 
along millions of the finest ducts, and lodged in several commo- 
dious cells. As a traveller, by taking proper refreshments on the 
road, is better qualified to pursue his journey; so the chyle, di- 
verted to those little inns, is mixed with a thin, diluting watery 
substance, which renders it more apt to flow, and more fit for 
use. Hence it is conveyed to one common receptacle, and mounts 
through a perpendicular tube. When provision or ammunition is 
transmitted to an army, it generally passes under an escort ofable 
troops. As this is the immediate support and principal nourish- 
ment of the whole system, its conveyance is guarded with pecu- 
liar caution. The perpendicular vessel that conveys it, not hav- 
ing sufficient force of its own, is laid contiguous to the great ar- 
tery, whose strong pulsation drives on the creeping fluid, enables 
it to overcome the steep ascent, and unload its precious treasure 
at the very door of the heart. Here it enters the trunk of a 
large vein, secured by a valve, admirably constructed to prevent 
the refluent blood in case it should offer to return, and opening a 
free, safe, and easy avenue to introduce this milk, this manna of 
nature. 

The Blood, through every stage of its simple circuit, having 
sustained great expenses; being laid under contribution by every 
gland in the whole system; and having supplied myriads of the 
capillary vessels with matter for insensible perspiration, must be 
very much impovcrislied; but is most opportunely recruited by this 
accession of chyle. 

Besides the uses above specified, appropriated to the stomach 
and intestines, there is another very considerable bestowed, par- 



~6 OF THE STRUCTURE O I 

ticularlyon the former, by which impressions arc diffused to al 
most every part of the machine, and from which all the sensible 
parts receive very peculiar and extraordinary advantages; namely, 
conveying action to differenl parts, and feeling ihc effect from 
these sympathetically and instantaneously. For instance, a glass 
of wine or brandy, received into the stomach of a person ex- 
hausted with fatigue and ready to faint, gives instantaneous spirits 
and fresh vigour. This must proceed from the affection of the 
nerves of the stomach, and their sympathy with the rest of the 
body, as there is not time for the liquor to be conveyed into the 
blood in the usual manner. 

The Stomach universally sympathises with other parts of ihc 
body. A blow on the head occasions vomiting. A disordered 
stomach often excites a head-ache. The head-ache, which is apt 
to come after drinking too much wine, or other strong liquors, 
certainly proceeds from the stomach, and sometimes is diminished 
or entirely removed by a dram. A stomach disordered by indi- 
gestion is often accompanied with flushings in the face, palpita- 
tions at the heart, difficult breathing, dejection of spirits, uncom- 
mon sensibility, and with giddiness. 

The Omentum, or Caul, is a fine membrane like net- work, lard- 
ed with fat. It is situated under the peritoneum, and immediate- 
ly above the intestines, on the surface, resembling an apron tucked 
up. It serves to lubricate the intestines, that they may the easier 
perform their peristaltic motion, to cherish and defend them from 
cold, and to assist in the formation of the bile. It serves also to 
temper the acrimony of the humours, and probably, to give nou- 
rishment to the body, as all the other fat is supposed to do, when 
it is incapable of being nourished any other way. 

The Liver, situated immediately below the diaphragm or mid- 
riff, on the right side, reaches as far back almost as the spine, or 
hack-hone, and rests upon the right kidney. It: is the largest 
gland in the body, and is divided into two unequal parts, called 
lobes. Except for the vessels, which are very numerous, the 
liver would be very soft, and like a piece of congealed blood. 

The great use of the liver is to secrete the bile. It is the scat 
of various disorders, inflammation, a! cirrhus, &c. and in 



THE HUMAN MACHlNEw 77 

rhost of them, the countenance hath a pale colour, or a yellowish 
one with a green cast. There is one circumstance not much at- 
tended to with respect to the situation of the liver; its large or 
right lobe occupies the whole half of the belly, where it lies 
from the spine to the inside of the ribs, laying over the upper 
part of the kidneys. Now this position of the liver is not often 
considered, for when one has a pain in the small of the back, it 
is said to be in the kidneys; but if it be a little higher up in the 
back, it is seldom, if ever, thought to be in the liver, though 
it most undoubtedly may, as its posterior edge lays on that part, 
on the right side. 

The Gall Bladder, or receptacle of bile, is fixed to the under 
side of the liver. Punctual as a porter in his lodge, it waits, 
ready to pour its acrimonious, but salutary juices on the aliment^ 
as it advances from the stomach; which dissolve its remaining 
viscidities, support the peristaltic motion of the intestines, and 
greatly assist in Completing the digestion. 

Such is the importance of the bile in our constitution, and the 
ill consequence of an error in it, that every aid is desirable, by 
which our knowledge of its nature can be promoted. When 
there is a defect of bile, it disposes the body to various diseases; 
as melancholy, indigestion, and obstruction of the viscera, &c. 
When there is a redundancy of bile, or it offends the stomach by 
its acrimony, it causes chilliness, shivering, and great anxiety. — 
It is certain, that in fevers the bile is not only plentifully gene- 
rated, but peccant in its quality; and if not duly evacuated, must 
be productive of many disagreeable symptoms; hence the im- 
portance of a soluble belly in febrile disorders. 

The Pancreas, or Sweet Bread, a large gland, situated near the 
stomach, serves to secrete a liquor like the saliva, which is dis- 
charged, by a short duct into the duodenum. 

The Spleen is situated under the cartilages of the left short 
ribs. In its natural and sound state, it is about six or seven inches 
long, about three in breadth, and one in thickness. It often be- 
comes scirrhous and considerably enlarged in persons who have 
been frequently attacked with intermittent fever. Its use is not 
p.iecisclv known". 
11 



^8 OF THE STRUCTURE OF 

The Kidneys are two oval bodies; situated in the loins, conti- 
guous to the two last, short ribs; the right under the liver, and 
the left under the spleen. They separate the urine from tin- 
blood. 

The Ureters are tubes about the size of goose quills, and about 
a foot long; rising from the kidneys, and entering the bladder 
near its neck. They form to themselves, as it were, valves 
that, upon the contraction of the bladder, the urine is ejected 
through the urethra, its proper passage. 

The Bladder is a membranous and fleshy sack or bag, capable 
of contraction and dilatation, situated in the lower part of the 
belly. Around its neck, which is longer in men than in women, 
there goes a small sphincter muscle, to contract the orifice, that 
the urine may not be involuntarily discharged. The use of the 
bladder is to receive the urine, perpetually secreted into it from 
the kidneys. 

The Uterus, or Womb, between the urinary bladder and the 
rectum, or straight gut, is placed, by Divine Wisdom, in a situ- 
ation of great security, called the pelvis or basin, being guarded 
on all sides by the strong bones that form the basis of the trunk. 
In figure, it very much resembles a pear, its broadest extremity, 
which is called its bottom, is uppermost, and its small part, the 
neck, is downwards. The womb, when impregnated, hath a 
very small cavity, but becomes larger as pregnancy advances, 
and, in the time of delivery, has its mouth wonderfully dilated, 
so as to give passage to the child. 

About the age of puberty, the blood vessels of the uterus be- 
come distended, and secrete monthly a fluid called menses, cata- 
menia, and vulgarly, flowers, courses. 

The Vagina, or Neck of the Womb, extends from the mouth 
of the uterus to the pudendum or external parts. In women it 
enlarges, and, like the uterus, in the time of birth, dilates very 
much. Just within the vagina is the orifice of the urethra, winch 
is shorter, wider, and straightcr than in men. 

Besides the womb and vagina, there are two other contrivances 
supposed to perform particular functions, in the propagation and 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 79 

formation of our species, tlie one called ovaria, from their re- 
taining small round substances of the nature of eggs, the other 
fallopian tu'ies, from their discoverer, Fallopius. 

The Fallopian Tubes are situated on the right and left sides 
of the womb. They rise from its bottom by a narrow beginning, 
and dilate in the form of a trumpet to their extremities at the 
ovaria. Their cavity, where they open into the womb, will 
scarcely admit of a hog's bristle; but at its widest part, it will 
take in the end of one's little finger. The tubes are about four 
or live fingers' breadth long. 

They serve to convey from the ovaries the rudiments of the 
foetus to the womb, where they are further developed and per- 
fected. 

The Ovaria, or Ovaries, are two small bodies, situated on each 
side of the fundus uteri, or bottom of the womb, behind the fal- 
lopian tubes. At the age of puberty they are full and plump, 
and continue so until the menses are about to depart. They con- 
tain from ten to twenty or more pellucid eggs, supposed to con- 
tain the primordia of the foetus. 

The Testes, or Testicles, are two oval glandular bodies, seated 
in iiic scrotum, which serve to secrete the semen from the blood. 
The scrotum, or external covering, is made up of the scarf skin, 
true skin, and immediately under the latter, is a thick cellular 
texture closely adhering to it. It is likewise composed of many 
fleshy, or muscular fibres, by means of which the scrotum is con- 
tracted, and is rsckoned a sign of health. 

The Prostate Gland is situated at the neck of the bladder; 
and is about the bigness of a walnut. By some it is supposed to 
secrete a fluid merely to lubricate the urethra, and by others it 
is deemed subservient to the process of generation. 

The Urethra is a canal or pipe of the thickness of a goose 
quill, and about twelve or thirteen inches long, which begins at 
the neck of the bladder, and terminates at the end of the penis. 
Its inner membrane furnishes a mucilaginous liquor, 'serving to 
defend il against the acrimony of the urine. 



80 OF THE STRUCTURE OF 

The Penis is composed of two spongious bodies, part of the 
urethra, the glands or nut at its extremity, and its integuments. — 
The spongious bodies take their name from bring porous like 
sponge, and capable of being distended and enlarged by the 
blood penetrating their substance, as in cases of erection. The. 
integuments of the penis make a hood to the glands or nut of the 
yard, called prepuce or foreskin. The small ligament, by which 
it is tied to the under side of the nut, is called fraenum. The use 
of the prepuce or foreskin, is to keep the nut soft and moist, and 
to preserve its sensibility. The amputation of it constitutes cir* 
cumcision, a practice recommended by Moses to the Jews. 

We shall now conclude the anatomical part of the human body* 
and trust enough has been said, concise as it is, to give to the un- 
informed readers just conceptions of the most important parts of' 
the human machine, and its natural action. 

We sec the greatest multiplicity of parts, yet the most perfect 
harmony subsists between them all. No one hinders, but each 
assists the operation of another, and all conspire to the benefit 
and preservation of the whole. Most judiciously has the great 
Apostle touched this subject; and most happily applied it to 
illustrate the reasonableness, and enforce the practice, both of 
personal and social duties of private content, and public concord. 

The body, he observes, is not one member, but many, to each 
of which some peculiar and needful office is assigned; so that 
the foot, though placed in the lowest order, and destined to serve 
on the very ground, has no reason to reckon itself a worthless 
outcast; or to say, Because I am not the head, I am not of the 
body. Neither has the head, in its exalted station, and amidst its 
honourable functions, any cause to despise the inferior limbs; or 
to say, with contempt and self-sufficiency, / have no need of 
you. — If there were no feet, what would become of the locomo- 
tive faculty? or how could the body convey itself from one place 
to another? If there were no hands, what should we do for the. 
instruments of action? or how could the animal frame be de- 
fended and accommodated? Nay, the parts, ichich seem to be 
less honourable, are necessary. Even those which form the se- 
diments, or throw off the dregs, are of importance to life and 






THE HUMAN MACHINE. SI 

<jts comforts. Should those be obstructed in their action, the most 
raging torment ensues; and should the obstruction continue, 
death is the inevitable consequence. — By this wise adjustment, 
tliereis no schism in the body, no separate or interfering ends pur- 
sued by the members, but the safety and support of each are 
the one undivided care of all. 

Wise, wonderfully wise and eminently gracious, is the regula- 
tion both of spontaneous and involuntary motion. Were this re- 
gulation reversed, what deplorable ineonveniencics would take 
place; nay, what unavoidable ruin must ensue! Deplorable ineon- 
veniencics; if the discharges of the bowels, or evacuations of the. 
bladder, were quite independent of our leave. Unavoidable ruin; it' 
the action of the heart required the co-operation of our thoughts, or 
the business of respiration waited for the concurrence of our 
will. 

The will, in some cases, has not so much as a single vote. In 
others, she determines and commands like an absolute sovereign; nor 
is there a monarch upon earth so punctually obeyed, as this queen 
of the human system. If she but intimate her pleasure, the spi- 
rits run, they lly to execute her orders; to stretch the arm, or 
close the hand; to furrow the brow with frowns, or dimple the 
cheek with smiles. How easily, as well as punctually, are these 
orders carried into execution! To turn the screw, or work the 
lever, is laborious and wearisome: but we move the vertebra, with 
all their apparent chambers; we advance the leg, with the whole 
incumbent body; we rise from our scat; Ave spring from the 
ground; and, though much force is exerted, though a very con- 
siderable weght is raised, we meet with no difficulty, we com- 
plain of no fatigue. 

That all this should be effected without any toil, and by a bare 
act of the will, is very surprising: but that these motions should 
be made, renewed, continued, even while we remain entirely igno- 
rant of the manner in which they are performed, is beyond mea- 
sure astonishing. Who can play even a single tunc upon the 
piano, without learning the difference of the keys, or studying 
the rudiments of music? Impossible! Yet the mind of man 
touches eotry string of the Human machine with the most masterly 



II OF THE STRl'lTI M, (> ' 

skill, though she knows nothing al a ling the nature o| 

her it. the process of hi VV> vi 

we run, we leap 
and perform a multitude of motion erlj unable t< 

h nerve should be active; what mu I, or 

what tendons approximate. 

Put a German flute mio the hand even of a on; 

without a master to instruct him, he is at a less to make the in- 
Btrun Elk; much less is he able to sink and soften the 

sound, to exalt and extend it just as he pleases. Ye\ we are w li 
taught in the method of forming,regulaiing,and varying the voire. 
Naturally, and with un] fluency, we give it the lan- 

guishing cadence of Borrow, or the sprightly airs of joy; the 
lov faltering accents of fear, or the elated tone, and rapid sallies 
of anger. We can never sufficiently admire this multiplicity of 
animated organs; their finished form, and their faultless order. — 
Yet I must confess myself struck with greater admiration at the 
power, the Indy mysterious power and sway which the soul ex- 
ercises over them. Ten thousand reins a: e put into her hand; 
she is not acquainted with their office, their use or their name; 
she lias not learned so much as to distinguish one from another, 
neverthel II, conducts all without the leasl per- 

plexity, or the least irregularity; rather with a promptitude, a 
consistency, and a speed, which notl can equal! Since 

health depends upon such a numerous of mo\ ing or- 

gans; since a single secretion stopped, mi . the salutary 

state of the fluids, or a put an end to 

the vital motion of the solids; with what holy fear should wc \ 
the time of our >,g here below! trustin utinualpre 

vation, not merely to our own care, but to that, om band 

which formed the admii line: thai the same hand which 

formed it, may super! i tend its agency and support its b< 

V> hen we consider the extensive contrivance and delicate me- 
chanism — what plans of geometry have ; what opera- 
tions of chemistry are performed; in a word, what miraqh 
art and elegance are e ', us with the 
necessary recruits and the several delierht ■ not 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. 83 

abundant reason to cry out with the inspired writer, "jfifow dear 
. U inilo me, Godl" thy counsels of creating wisdom! 
Thou hast not been sparing, hut even lavish of thy indulgent de- 
signs! Thou hast omitted no expedient which might establish 
my rase, enlarge my comforts, and promote, yea complete, my 
bodily happiness! and is not this a most endearing obligation to 
glorify the blessed God with our bodies, as well as with our spirits? 

The mechanism of our body; the connexion and subserviency 
of all its parts to a common purpose; the exquisite contrivance 
of its organs, consisting of such various minute vessels, inter- 
woven with wonderful art, have led anatomists, in all ages, to 
acknowledge an infinite, wise and powerful Maker. Among the 
most precious remains of antiquity, are those commentaries of 
Galen, written on the uses of the several parts of the human bo- 
dy, as hymns and offerings of praise to the great Creator. 

Is it, indeed, otherwise conceivable how such consistency and 
harmony could have taken place in the different parts of our 
wonderful frame? How they could have been so exactly fitted 
to each other, and to the exterior objects which have an evident 
relation to them, and the system they compose? Could the bones, 
which in all amount to four hundred, and the muscles still more 
numerous, and each so well disposed lor motion, be adjusted 
without a superior knowledge in mechanics? The eye, so ad- 
mirably adapted to light, and appropriated to vision, was it form- 
ed without a knowledge of optics? or the ear without the sci- 
ence of sounds? Even our inclinations and passions, those sources 
of so much apparent ill, are by the Deity providentially rendered 
the means of our preservation, both as individuals and a race; 
and the selfish and social affections, like centripetal and centri- 
fugal forces, conduct us with proper force, to the end intended 
by our Maker to be produced by them. Yet the love of life 
and all its enjoyments, the fear of death and all its dreadful har- 
bingers, and the social affections and all their endearments, would 
not have been sufficient security for our carrying on the vital mo- 
tions with that constancy and uniformity necessary to the preser- 
vation of life, if thus engaged these motions had depended upon 
our will and choice. Reason would have deliberated concerning 



'">' OV Til li STK I OTU U B Ol 

them with too much slowness, and volition would have executed 
often with a dangerous and fatal caprice. For, if the heart had 
been subject to the soul's authority, as much as the voluntary 
muscles are; if its motions could have been suspended or stop- 
ped with the same facility, death would then have cost us no painful 
pang; and, whenever the body was tortured with disease, and the 
mind in anguish from grief or disappointment, a remedy so easily 
applied might have been too frequently resorted to, and yel more 
unfortunate beings might have rushed uncalled into the presence 
of Him who stationed us for the w isesl reasons here on earth, — 
The preservation of life, therefore, greatly depends on our vital 
motions being entirely subject to the wise government of the Au- 
thor of our lives, who charges I Iimself with the immediate care 
of them and of us. All this, when attentively considered, must 
a fleet us with a sense of God's goodness; who, respecting the 
imbecility of man's nature, hath been pleased, by appetites and 
passions, to excite him to acts of self-preservation; where the 
* ioience of these might have been hurtful, no less than the slow- 
ness and instability of reason, hath taken our safety under his 
more immediate direction. To attribute contrivances like these, 
and even understanding itself, to unintelligent causes, rather than 
to the all wise Parent op NATURE, seems an incomprehensible 
perversion of reason and philosophy. That mind must be strong- 
ly prepossessed and bewildered with false science, which rather 
seeks for the cause of these involuntary motions in dead matter, 
organization, chance, necessity, something that, without know- 
ledge or power, acts wisely ajid powerfully, than in the great 
fountain of power, wisdom, and animation. 

If chance could be supposed to produce a regular determinate 
action, yet it is beyond the highest degree of credulity, to sup- 
pose it could continue this regularity for any time. Mut we find 
it remains through life, independent of our will; and the same in- 
cessant vital actions have been carried on from the commence- 
ment of the world. It is thus that the sun's influence upon tl*e 
earth hath ever been regular. The production of trees, plants, 
and herbs ever uniform. Every seed produces now the same 
fruit it ever did. Every species of animal life is still the same. 



THE HUMAN MACHINE. gy 

Could chance continue this regular arrangement? Could any- 
thing continue it, but the hand of an Omnipotent Creator? 

The human body is exalted to a most intimate and personal 
union with the eternal Son of God. He who decorated the 
heaven with stars, and crowned the stars with lustre; He vouch- 
safed to be made flesh, and was found in fashion as a man. Nay, 
this is even now the apparel of that divine and adorable person. 
He is clothed with our nature; he wears our very limbs; and 
appears in the dress of humanity, even at the right hand of God, 
and at the head of all the heavenly hosts. 

What think you of another privilege mentioned by the Apostle? 
" Your bodies are the temple of the Holy Ghost." Not your souls 
Only, but your very bodies are the shrine in which tlie high and 
sioly one, that infiabileth eternity, condescends to dwell. He, who 
sitteth between the cherubim and walketh in the circuit of the 
skies, is pleased to sanctify these earthly tenements for his own 
habitation. And is not this a much grander embellishment, than 
all their matchless contrivance and masterly workmanship? 

Nor must I omit the dignity — the transcendant dignity, which 
is reserved for these systems of flesh at the resurrection of the just. 
They will- then be refined and improved into the most perfect 
state, and the most beauteous form; surpassing whatever is re- 
splendent and amiable in the most ornamental appearances of 
material nature. They will be purer than the unspotted firma- 
ment; brighter than the lustre of the stars; and, which exceeds 
all parallel, which comprehends all perfection, they will be made 
like unto Christ's glorious body; like that incomparably glorious 
body which the blessed Jesus wears in his celestial kingdom, 
and on his triumphant throne. 

When we add all these magnificent prerogatives which are re- 
vealed in Scripture, to all those inimitable niceties which are dis- 
played by anatomists, what thankfulness, what admiration can 
rqual such a profusion of favours? 

Say why was man so eminently rais'd 
Amid the vast creation, why ordain'd 
Through life and death to dart his piercing eye. 
12 



66 OF THE STRVCTrREOFj^i 

With thoughts beyond the limit of his frame? 

But that the Omnipotent might send him forth, 

In sight of mortal and immortal powers, 

A^ on a boundless theatre, to run 

The great carreer of justice; to exalt 

His generous aim to all diviner deeds; 

To chase each partial purpose from his breast, 

And through the tossing tide of chance and pain, 

To hold his course unfaltering, while the voice 

Of Truth and Virtue up the steep ascent 

Of nature, call him to his high reward. 

The applauding smile of Heaven. — Akensioe. 



ON 



HYGIEXNS; 



OR, 



THE ART 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 



Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense, 

Lie in three words — Health, Peace, and Competence. 

But Health, consists of temperance alone, 

And Peace, Virtue, Peace is all tny own Pope. 

In the preceding chapter I have treated of the structure of the 
Human Body. I shall now show, that by due attention to the 
" Non-naturals," air, food, exercise, sleep, evacuations, and passionsj 
we may go far to preserve this fabric in good health from the cra- 
dle to the grave. Nay, so wonderful is the body in its resources, 
its powers of renovation-, and so sovereign are the virtues of the 
Non-naturals, that thousands are the instances of persons who, 
after having their health apparently ruined by an abuse of them, 
have, on returning to a wise and temperate use, entirely reco- 
vered their health, and attained to a most active and happy old 
age. Hence the reason mankind are so often sick, is because they 
so often err in the use of these the appointed preservatives of lite 
and health. 



88 ON HYGIEINE, OR THE AKI 

To inculcate this truth more universally, I have introduced 
these disquisitions on the art of preserving health, and, to render 
them more acceptable to my readers, have enlivened them with 
appropriate illustrations, hoping thereby to make impression 
lasting as they are important. 



OF AIR. 

Tliou cheerful guardian of the ruling year, 
Whether thou wanton'st on the Western gale, 

Or shak'st the rigid pinions of the North, 

Diffuses life and vigour through the tracts 

Of air, through earth and ocean's deep domain. 

Without thy cheerful active energy 
No rapture swells the breast; no poet sings; 
No more the Maids of Helicon delight. 
Come then with me, O! Goddess heavenly gay!. 
Begin the song; and let it sweetly flow, 
And let it sweetly teach thy wholesome laws; 
"How best the fickle fabric to support 
Of mortal man: in healthy body how 
A healthful mind the longest to maintain." — Armstrong.. 

As soon as an infant enters the world, the air rushes into its 
lungs, the circulation of the blood through that organ commences, 
and its life from that moment depends " on tlie breath tluit is in its 
nostrils" which is incessantly taken in and thrown out of the 
lungs. While the child remained in the womb, it required no 
external air, because it existed in the blood which was received 
from its mother through the umbilical cord, or navel string. But 
as soon as the infant is born, the air is inhaled, and the circula- 
tion is determined through the lungs, which ever after continues 
in that way — and hence the necessity of breathing, which can 
never cease but with life. 

Since, then, air is the main instrument of vitality, both to man 
and all creatures, it certainly must be a most pleasing and profita- 
ble study to acquire correct ideas of this great element. 



OF TIMESERVING HEALTH. 89 

By the unlettered part of mankind, the vast atmosphere which 
.surrounds our globe, to the depth of two and thirty miles, is 
supposed to be one simple, colourless, invisible mass, without anv 
essential difference of qualities, and without weight. But it is a 
gross mistake; for instead of being a simple uniform element, it 
is composed of several parts, some of which are widely different 
from each other. We have, too, numberless proofs of its weight; 
like other bodies falling to the earth, and becoming more dense 
as it approaches its centre. Every one knows that air on the 
tops of high mountains is much thinner than it is below in the val- 
leys, but the weight of air is susceptible of demonstration by 
positive experiment. 

Having exhausted a thin glass flask, and suspended it at one 
end of a balance, which being nicely counterpoised by weights 
in the other scale; this done, admit the air into the flask, into 
which it will rush with a noise, and though the flask was balanced 
before, it will now, upon admission of the air, preponderate. If 
the flask hold a qaurt, it will be found that the weight of the air 
it now contains is about seventeen grains, so that a quart of air 
weighs about seventeen grains. 

We will mention another experiment, easily put into practice, 
Some water being poured into a saucer, burn a bit of paper in a 
tea-cup, which by rarifying, will exhaust and make a vacuum in 
the cup. Then while the paper is yet burning, turn it hastily 
down, paper and all, into the saucer, and the air without will 
press the water up from the saucer into the cup. The 
water will stand within the cup in a column; and if the 
cup were thirty-two feet high, and the air within it perfectly 
exhausted, the water would rise to that height in it, as we 
have said before. This satisfactorily accounts for the rising 
of water in pumps, or the standing of the quicksilver in the 
barometer. 

If further proof be necessary to show the weight of that great 
ocean of air, which constantly surrounds us, let a man take; a 
thick glass tube, such as is put over lamps, and place it upright on 
a table having a small hole in it for an air pump. Then let him place 
his hand closely over the top of the tube, while a friend with the 



50 ON HVBIKINK , OR Till', All I 

pump extracts the air, and he shall find that as the air on the in- 
side is removed, the air on the outside will press his hand down 
with much violence. Nor will he he surprised at this pressure of 
the air, when he comes to learn that a column or pillar of air, of only 
one inch diameter, and thirty-two miles high, which is the depth 
of the atmosphere from its top above the clouds to the ground, 
weighs about fourteen pounds. If the hand of the person, w huh 
covers the top of the tube, measure ten inches square, the pres- 
sure on it will be about one hundred and forty pounds— sufficient 
in all conscience to crush every bone in the hand. By the same 
token, a square foot of such a column of air would weigh near 
two thousand pounds, and as a common sized man measures about 
fourteen square feet, it is a fact, as curious as it is awful, that 
every such person bears constantly on his body a weight of four-' 
teen tons, or twenty-eight thousand pounds of air. Some per- 
sons may doubt this from the conclusion that such a weight would 
crush every man to pieces. So it would, if it were to press sole- 
ly on any particular part. But this conclusion instantly falls to 
the ground, when it is recollected, that this pressure of the air 
is uniform and equal all around him, the air pressing as strongly 
from below as from above; from one side as from another; thus 
causing the various pressures most exactly and admirably to 
counterpoise each other; of this we see a wonderful instance in 
the case of fishes in the ocean. One of these animals at a great 
depth under water, would be crushed to atoms, it all that heavy 
clement pressed only on his hack. But the Goo who made him 
has so kindly attended to his safety, as to cause the water that 
surrounds him from below to press upwards as strongly as that 
from above to press downwards. There is another reason why 
our bodies are not so sensible of the tremendous weight of air, 
which thirty-two miles deep presses upon us; it is simply this, 
all bodies are full of air; and the air within pressing against 
that without, preserves even the most delicate bodies uninjured. 
\ bladder, or even a bag of oiled paper, if filled with water, 
remains perfectly unhurt, though a hundred fathoms below the 
surface of the sea; because the water within furnishes a full re- 
sistance to the water without But take away this resistance* 



OF PRESERV1NGHEALTH. 91 

lVom within, and you shall find that the slightest pressure will 
bring the two side3 together. 

According to the late discoveries in Chymistry, the atmos- 
phere consists of three different species of air — namely, pure. 
respirable, or dephlogisticated air; azotic, or phlogisticated air; 
and fixed, o*r carbonic acid air. 

The proportion of the first, namely, pure or vital air, consists, 
according to the French Chymists, who have given it the name 
of Oxygen, of 27 or 28 in the hundred parts; the second, the 
Azote of the French, of 72 or 73 in the hundred; and the third, 
namely, the Carbonic acid air, of about one part only in the hun- 
dred. 

Oxygen is much better adapted to the respiration of animals 
than common atmospheric air. If two animals be enclosed in 
vessels, one of which contains pure Oxygen and the other com- 
mon atmospheric air, in proportions equal to the size of the ani- 
mals, the former in the Oxygen will be found to live six or seven 
times as long as the latter in common air. It is properly this 
Oxygen which we inspire, and which is the grand support of 
animal life. Persons apparently dead, or in a state of suffoca- 
tion, have been instantly restored to life, by its influence; aud 
from the corresponding testimony of several respectable physi- 
cians, it appears to have been employed with advantage in many 
obstinate diseases. The celebrated Ingenhouz, therefore, gave 
it the name of vital air. It promotes combustion in a very high 
degree. A candle will burn in it from six to seven times longer 
than in common air, with a much greater degree of heat, and a 
more brilliant flame. Bodies in a glowing state are immediately 
inflamed, when put into Oxygen gas; and even metals, which are 
not very fusible, are melted in it with the greatest facility. 

. hole, by others called phlogisticated, mephitic, corrupted,' or 
suffocative air is absolutely unrespirable, and not miscible with 
water. It arises from the change which atmospherical air under- 
goes in every process of combustion, putrefaction and respiration, 
^-hether produced by nature or art. 



Q~i N II Y (i I E 1 N E , K t II IE A H T 

Azote enters into no combination with water, but nia\ ba ren- 
dered less hurtful by shaking it with that, fluid. This accounts 
iu some measure for the salubrity of the sea-air. It greatly pro- 
motes the growth of plants, and readily accumulates in apart- 
ments filled with people, or containing articles fresh painted \\ ith 
oil colours, or in which strongly fragrant (lowers are kepi with- 
out having- any accession of fresh air. We should be extremely 
cautious in entering such places, as diseases of the breast and 
lungs are too frequently the consequence of neglect or ignorance 

The Carbonic acid air, or fixed air, is miscible with water, but 
in its pure state is equally unrespirable as the Azote. It derives 
its origin, partly from the vinous fermentation of vegetables and 
some animal substances, and partly from the mild alkaline salts 
and earths combined with acid. Much of this air abounds in 
mines, where it frequently distresses the workmen by its suffo- 
cating effect. It is also observed in most mineral waters, where 
a stratum of it sometimes floats upon the surface of the well. — 
These waters, as Well as fermented liquors which contain a con- 
siderable portion of fixed air, receive from it that well known 
pungency so agreeable to the palate. Hence flat and spoiled 
beer or wine, maybe corrected and restored to its former brisk- 
. by the addition of fixed air evolved from chalk and vitriolic 
acid; or by mixing it with new beer, or Mine in a state of fer- 
mentation. 

As this species of air quickly extinguishes fire, animals cannol 
live in it. 

These three aerial bodies, though blended together, arrange 
themselves, in some degree, according to their specific gravities; 
that is, the proportion of azotic air, which is the lighter body of 
the three, will be found most in the upper part, the oxygen air 
in the middle, and the fixed air will be found most in the lower 
part of the apartment. This occasions a circulation in the air, 
the ratified air will ascend, the fixed air sink, and the colder and 
r air rush into the apartment through every crevice. To 
vender the circulation of the air plain to sense, if the air of a 
n be heated bv a tire, whilst tbo air in the i?ext. room is cold. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 93 

and the door between opened, the hot air of one room being rati- 
fied, will pass through the upper part of the opening of the door 
into the cold room; and on the contrary, the cold air of the other 
room being heavier, will pass into the former through the lower 
■part of the opening. This may be proved by applying a candle 
at the upper and lower openings between the two rooms. The di- 
rection of the flame of the candle will point out the contrary 
currents of air. It is for this reason, that when a fire is lighted in a 
chimney, a strong current of air enters the room, which may be felt 
by applying the hand near the key-hole, or other small openings 
if the door and windows be shut. A fire is said to purify a room; 
but this it does partly by drying the dampness of the room, and 
chiefly by promoting the circulation of the air. The fire does 
not perform such service by purifying the bad air, but by re- 
moving it, and substituting that which is fresh and wholesome. 
Hence it appears that those persons are mistaken, who are over 
anxious to keep air from the apartments of convalescent per- 
sons, studiously stopping, by list, linings, and sand bags, all the 
s-mallest openings tlxat admit fresh air. 

Unless the air were constantly renewed, persons would be ex- 
posed to the most fatal accidents in large assemblies or crowded 
rooms. 

A rout was lately given at a celebrated bathing-place, or spring. 
The room was small and the company very numerous. They 
had not been long seated at the card tables, before a young gen- 
tleman and lady, both in delicate health fell into a swoon. The 
doors and windows were immediately thrown open, to afford 
fresh air, which quickly dissipated the alarm, by reviving the 
young invalids. A physician present, telling one of his medical 
companions how severely he himself had suffered from the air of 
that vile oven, and that he had made up his mind to write a bitter 
phillippic against Routs, was archly answered by his friend: — 
" Let them alone doctor, how othenme should twenty-six physi- 
cians subsist in this place?" 

A further illustration: Take a room thirty feet by twenty-five. 
and thiri; '<, capable of containing one hundred persons. 

STow, since eai .1 consumes about five cubic feet of air in an 

hour, that is. depi a quantity of air of its o.wgen, or vital. 

id 



94 ON HYGIEINE, OR THt ARI 

principle, it would follow, that, as such a room could contain onlj 
twenty-two thousand five hundred cubic feet of air, unless the 
air was constantly renewed, it would be rendered completely 
mephitic or noxious in about/our hours and a half, and it is pro- 
bable that the greater part of the company would be sen ml \ 
incommoded, or even perish long before that time. 

The following affecting narrative is a melancholy confirmation 
of this fact. In the summer of 1756, the British settlement of 
Calcutta, in India, was attacked by the natives under the I iceroj 
Rajah Doulah, a young man of the most violent passions, and 
without the least sense of honour or humanity. After a most ob- 
stinate resistance, the little garrison surrendered themselves pri- 
soners of war, on a solemn promise from the Rajah of the most 
honourable treatment. Rut no sooner had the monster got them 
in his power, than, utterly regardless, of that due to honour, hu- 
manity, and a brave enemy, he barbarously drove them all into ;> 
dark shallow vault under ground, called the black hole, only eigh- 
teen feet square. The number of the unfortunate men, thus eni- 
elly immured, was one hundred and forty-six, with their gallant 
commander, Colonel Holwell, the historian of the following trage 
dy. The humane reader may form some idea of one hundred 
and forty-six poor fellows, many of them badly wounded and 
bleeding, and all worn out with the, fatigue, and covered with the 
dust and sweat of a hard day's fighting, crammed together, on a 
hot sultry evening, into a small dirty hole, eighteen feel square, 
with only two little windows, and those obstructed by strong iron 
bars. 

A prof km sweat quickly broke out on every individual, attended 
with an insatiable thirst, which became the more intolerable as 
the body was drained of its moisture. It was in vain they strip- 
ped otf their clothes, or fanned themselves with their hats. 

A difficulty in breathing was next observed, and every one panted 
for breath. Colonel Holwell, who was placed at one of the win- 
dows, called to the sergeant of the guard, and after strivin 
excite his compassion by drawing a pathetic picture of their 
sufferings, promised him a thousand rupees in the morning, 
vided he could find means to remove some of his people into 
another place of confinement The sergeant, allured by the pr» 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 95 

mise of so mighty a reward, assured him he would use his utmost 
endeavours, and retired for that purpose. 

What must have been the impatience, at this time, of these un- 
fortunate objects? 

In a few moments the sergeant returned, with the woful tidings, 
that the viceroy was asleep, and no man durst disturb his repose! 
The despair of the prisoners now became outrageous. They 
endeavoured to force open the door, that they might rush on the 
swords of the monsters, by whom they were surrounded, and 
who derided their sufferings; but all their efforts proved ineffec- 
tual. They then used execrations and abuse to provoke the 
guard to fire upon them. 

The captain of the guard was at length moved to compassion, 
lie ordered his soldiers to bring some skins containing water, 
which by enraging the appetite, only served to increase the gen- 
eral agitation. There was no other way of conveying it through 
the windows, but by hats; and this mode proved ineffectual, from 
the eagerness of the wretched prisoners who struggled for it in 
fits of delirium. The cry of water! water! issued from every 
mouth. The consequence of this eagerness was, that very little 
fell to the lot even of those who stood nearest the window; and 
the most fortunate, instead of finding their thirst assuaged, grew 
more impatient. 

The confusion soon became general and horrid: all was cla- 
mour and contest; those who were at a distance, endeavoured to 
force their passage to the window, and the weak were pressed 
down to the ground, never to rise again. 

Colonel Holwell, observing now his dearest friends in the 
agonies of death, or dead, and inhumanly trampled on by the 
1 living, finding himself wedged up so closely as to be deprived 
of all motion, begged, as the last mark of their regard, that they 
would for one moment remove the pressure; and allow him to 
retire from the window, and die in quiet. 

Even in such dreadful circumstances, which might be supposed 
1o have levelled all distinction, the poor delirious wretches, ma- 
nifesting a respect to his rank and character, immediately gave 
way, and he forced his passage into the centre of the place, 
which was ie^> crowded, because, by this time, about one thiriT 



96 O N H Y ti I Tv I N F, , U T B B A R T 

of the number had perished, while the rest still pressed to botL 
windows. He retired toa platform at the fartnerend of the room, 
and lying down n))on some <»f his dead friends, recommended his 
soui to the mercy of its Creator. 

Here his thirst grew insupportable; his difficulty in breathing 
increased; and he was seized with a strong palpitation at the heart 

These violent symptoms, which he could not hear, urged him 
to make another effort He forced his way hack to the window , 
<.ied aloud, u Watcrl for God's sake, a little water/" 

K» .i supposed already dead by his wretched compan- 

ions, hut finding him 'still alive, they exhibited another extraor- 
dinary proof of regard to his person. "Give him water," thej 
Cried; nor would one of them attempt to touch it, until he had 
druiik. He now breathed more freely, and the palpitation ceased; 
but ri iding himself still more thirsty after drinking, he abstained 
from water, and moistened his mouth, from time to time, by suck- 
ing the perspiration from his shirt, sleeves, which tasted soft, 
pleasant, and refreshing. 

The miserable prisoners now began to perceive that it w r as air, 
and not water that they wanted. They dropt fast on all sides. 
and a strong steam arose from the bodies of the living and the 
dead, as pungent and volatile as hartshorn. 

Colonel Hoi well, being weary of life retired once more to the 
platform, and stretched himself by the Rev. Mr. Bellamy, who 
together with his son, a young lieutenant, lay dead, locked in each 
other's arms. 

In this situation he was soon deprived of sense, and seemed to 
all appearance dead, when he was removed by his surviving 
Is to one of the windows, where the fresh air brought him 
?^ack to life. The Rajah being at last informed that the greater 
part of the prisoners were suffocated, enquired if the chief were 
alive, and being answered in the affirmative, sent an order for 
their release, when no more than hcenty-three survived, of one hun- 
dred and forty-six, who entered into this prison. 

How many melancholy instances of a similar kind have occur- 
red on board vessels engaged in that most abominable and diabo- 
lical traffic, the slave trade. 






OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 

My soul is sick with every day's report 
Of wrong and outrage with which earth is filled. 
There is no yielding flesh in man's hard heart, 
It does not feel for man. The nat'ral bond, 
Of brotherhood is sever'd, as the flax 
That falls asunder at the touch of fire. 
He finds his fellow guilty of a skin 
Not coloured like his own; and having power 
To enforce the wrong, for such a worthy cause. 
Dooms and devotes him as a lawful prey. 
Thus man devotes his brother; 
And, worse than all, and most to be deplored, 
As human nature's broadest, foulest blot, 
Chains him, and tasks him, and exacts his sweat 
With stripes, that mercy with a bleeding heart 
Weeps when she sees inflicted on a beast. 

Then what is man? and what man seeing this, 
And having human feelings, does not blush 
And hang his head, to think himself a man? 
I would not have a slave to till my ground, 
To carry me, to fan me while I sleep, 
And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth 
That sinews bought and sold have ever earned. 



Cowper. 



To mention no other fact, a strong proof of the necessity of 
the frequent renewal of air may be found in the records of the 
Dublin lying-in hospital. 

In this hospital two thousand nine hundred and forty-four in- 
fants out of seven thousand six hundred and fifty, died in the 
year 1782, within the first fortnight after their birth, which is 
nearly every third child! They almost all died in convulsions, or 
what the nurses call ninth day Jits, because they came on nine 
days after their birth. Many of these children foamed at their 
mouths, their thumbs drawn into the palms of their hands, jaws 
locked; and faces swelled and blue, as though they were choked. 
The last circumstance led Dr. Clark to conclude that the rooms 
were too close and crowded. That benevolent physician con- 



OS OR HTOISIVB, OITII AtT 

trived therefore air-pipes, by which the rooms were complete!/ 
ventilated. The consequence was, a prodigious decrease in the 
mortality. It is almost unnecessary to mention the frequent and 
sudden deaths that have taken place from entering deep ivellSj 

cellars, and other confined places. 

Three poor men at Denton, Maryland, having nearly com- 
pleted a deep well, quitted their work to go home to keep the 
holy-days. However, before they left the well, they covered 
the mouth of it closely. Carbonic acid gas settled at the bottom 
of it. After some time the unlucky well-diggers returned, and 
opening the well, very unsuspiciously let themselves down to 
their work. Two out of the three perished at the bottom; the 
other not going down escaped. 

Lime-kilns, throwing oiflarge quantities of fixed air, are ex- 
tremely dangerous. 

Two disorderly young women, after rambling a greater part 
of the night, crept, early in the morning, into a little hovel, 
contiguous to a lime-hiln, and fell asleep. The kiln being in 
high blast, diilused a portion of vapour through the crevices 
into the hovel; but the poor wretches were too sound asleep 
io he awakened. After some hours, the man, who bad the care 
of the kiln, coming to look after his work, rinding these women 
asleep, endeavoured to awake them, but in vain! They were ta- 
ken immediately to the hospital. The one first conveyed reco- 
vered, but the other perished. 

There is another species of mephitic air, which burns with a 
bright flame, and, if mixed with common air, instantly catches 
lire and explodes; hence it has received the name of "inflamma- 
ble air." 

Mines and coal-pits are frequently infested with this gas, 
which, being ten times lighter than common air, ascends to the 
upper region of the mine; and is called fire-damp. To discharge 
this, the miners are in the habit of crawling on their hands and 
feet, and, with a taper affixed to a long stick, set fire to it, 
which is succeeded by a terrible, and sometimes fatal explosion. 
This air is often generated in the stomach and bowels oi animals 
both living and dead. A lighted candle held near, has often 
-ed it to take fii 



OF PRE. SEK VI NO HEALTH. && 

The inflammable woman of Coventry, as described by Mr. 
VVihner, appears to bave reduced bcrself by dram drinking, to 
such a stale, as to be capable of being set on fire, and burning 
away like a match: so eager, says the learned Dr. Beddoes, 
were the principles of which she was composed to combine with 
oxygen. 

The Russians and Germans are frequently exposed to fainting 
during their cold season, from the noxious air of their stoves, and 
want of due ventilation. As soon as a person is discovered 'in 
this state, without sense and motion, he is instantly carried into 
the open air, and being stript, is rubbed very briskly with snow, 
or cold water, which generally recovers him, if breathing have 
not been suspended above an hour. Faintings, or suffocations 
from the fumes of charcoal, are commonly cured by cold water 
thrown on the patient. 

As the mass of atmospheric air is incessantly corrupted by the 
respiration of men and animals, by the burning of so many natu- 
ral and artificial fires, by the dissolution and putrefaction of in- 
numerable substances, and by various other phlogistic or dis-ox- 
ygenating processes, it would at length become altogether in- 
competent for its original designation, if the all benevolent Crea- 
tor had not provided effectual means for its improvement and ren- 
ovation. Amongst the most powerful of these is the vegetation 
of plants. For this very important discovery, we are indebted 
to Dr. Priestly, who was so fortunate as to make it after he had 
long employed many fruitless attempts to correct impure air by 
artificial means. He found that air rendered deleterious by 
the breathing of animals, which had died in it, was again so com- 
pletely restored by the vegetation of plants, that after the lapse 
of some days, an animal could live in it with equal ease, and for 
the same length of time, as before. 

The ingenious philosopher, Dr. Ingenhouz, remarked, first. 
that most plants have the property of correcting bad air within 
a few hours, when exposed to the light of the sun; but that, on 
the contrary, during tltc night, or in the shade, they corrupt the 
air: second, that plants from their own substance afford a verj 
pure air. or oxygen, when exposed to the rays of the sun; but 



10U ON I! VG1KIN B , K T B ■ A ■ ' 

;i reryimpure air, or azote, at night, or in the shade: third, thai 
not all parts of plants, but only the green stalks of leaves, pro- 
duce this beneficial effect: fourth, that the disengagement of pure 
or vital air does not commence until the sun has been some time, 
above the horizon, that it ceases altogether with the termination of 
day light; and that the disadvantage arising from the impure ex- 
halations of plants, during the night, is far exceeded by the great 
advantage they afford during the day; insomuch, that the im- 
pure air generated by a plant during the whole night, BCarcelj 
amounts to a hundredth part of the pure vital air, or oxygen, 
haled from the same plant in two hours of a serene day. Thus, 
the atmosphere is constantly preserved in that state, of purity, 
which is the most salutary both to animals and vegetables. 

As the vegetable kingdom is renewed in spring, and as vegeta- 
tion in general is most lively in that season, there can be little 
doubt, that the pure vital air is then most copiously evolved by 
means of the light and heat of the sun. Hence it follows that 
the air of spring is more wholesome than that of autumn, 
which is saturated with impure particles. The cold, however, 
and the frequent winds which prevail at a more advanced period, 
prove extremely efficacious in counteracting the baneful effects 
of corruption and putrefaction. 

All strongly scented bodies are more or less pernicious; notonlj 
those of afcetid, but even those of a fragrant smell. The latter, 
if too strong, are particularly dangerous, as a sense of disgust 
does not naturally incline us to avoid them. Hence people who 
carry large nosegays in the hot days of summer, or sleep in rooms 
decorated with flowers, are apt to feel themselves affected with 
liead-achs, vertigoes, faintingfits, and even apoplexies, have been 
produced in persons of a plethoric habit. 

The smell of roses, how pleasing soever to most persons, is 
not only odious, but alomst deadly to others. 

Warm Mr relaxes the body, and occasions a quicker circula- 
tion of the fluids: hence the tender and infirm suffer severely ir 
hot weather; I • ise hysteric and hypocondriaic complaints, 

convulsions, and diarrhoeas. 



OF PRESERVIiM> HCALTH. 101 

Cold renders bodies more compact, the appetite stronger, and 
digestion easier and quicker. On the contrary, the resistance of 
the lluid parts becomes so great, that even the increased powers 
of the solids cannot overcome it, if the cold be too violent. In 
winter the blood is much disposed to inflammations; hence 
stitches in the side, inflammatory sore throats, rheumatism, &c. 
In persons who take little exercise, the fluids are apt to stagnate, 
and the solids to chill during the winter. Upon the whole, how- 
ever, the effects of cold weather may be rendered less hurtful, 
and even salutary to the body, if proper exercise be not neglected. 

Damp or Moist Air suddenly relaxes and debilitates, retarding 
the circulation, checking the perspiration, and depressing die 
spirits. If damp air be accompanied with cold, it tends, by ob- 
structing the perspiration, to throw the retained humours on the 
breast, throat, stomach, bowels, &c. occasioning sore throats, 
pleurisies, sick stomach, diarrhoeas, &c. If damp air be accom- 
panied with heat, it is still worse, by opening the pores, through 
which the moistttre penetrates in the body, and predisposes every 
part of it to putrefaction and dissolution. This accounts for the 
great mortality prevalent during the hot season at Batavia, and 
some of the West India islands. 

Dry and Cool Air, from its elasticity, promotes, in an extraor- 
dinary manner, the serenity and alertness of mind and body, and 
is, therefore, most agreeable and salubrious, both to the healthy 
and infirm. 

Too sudden a transition from warm to cold air, or the reverse, 
is pernicious. But none have ever complained on leaving, how- 
ever suddenly, the sickly air Of the town, for the dry, pure, 
temperate air of the country. After all, the surest sign of good 
air in any place, is the longevity of its inhabitants. 

The most certain marks, by whirh to distinguish whether the 
air in rooms be damp or not, are the following: The walls or 
tapestry change their colour; bread acquires a mouldy surface; 
sponges in the rooms retain their moisture; loaf-sugar turns soft; 
iron rusts; brass and copper acquire a green colour, and wooden 
furniture moulders and crumbles to pieces. 
14 



(Q£ ON HYt.ll.lM-;, ok Till. U1 

In cities the sitting rooms ought, if possible, to be above Ok 
ground floor, or on the second story, well ventilated by conve- 
nient doors ami windows. And as to the bed-rooms, they ought 
assuredly to be in the most elevated stories of the bouse, thai 
they may be as far removed as possible from that mass of azote, 
or deadly air which is so copiously generated in large (owns, 
and which naturally settles near the ground. 

Dr. Caldwell, lecturing on this subject, states that it was on 
this principle he was induced, contrary to the remonstrances of 
his family and friends, to keep his son in the third story of his 
house, during a very sickly season in Philadelphia, and adds that 
he could not avoid being sensibly struck with its happj effects 
in preserving his health. And I am convinced the excellent 
health my family enjoyed, during eight or nine years' residence 
in Savannah, was greatly owing to sleeping in large well aired 
chambers, three stories from the ground. 

The airing of apartments should not be neglected, even in win- 
ter, as fires alone are not suflicicnt to carry oil' the corrupted air 
If possible, we should not sit through the day in a room in which 
we have slept; as the bed clothes, and particularly feather beds, 
very slowly part with the exhalations they have imbibed during 
the night. It farther deserves to be remarked, that all damp va- 
pours are prejudicial; hence, keeping wet clothes in dwelling 
rooms should by all means be carefully avoided 



OF vRESERvnc, HEALTH 1 03 



OP POOD. 

l'or this the watchful appetite was given. 
Daily with fresh materials to repair 
This unavoidable expense of life, 
This necessary waste of flesh and blood. 

Hence the concoctive powers, with various arl 
Subdue the cruder aliments to chyle; 
The chyle to blood: the foamy purple tide 
To liquors, which through finer arteries 
To different parts their winding course pursue; 
To try new changes, and npw forms put on, 
Or for the public, or some private use. Armstrong 



Nature not only points out iht food fit for infancy, but kindly 
prepares it. When the babe, just born into this cold world, is 
applied to its mother's bosom, it is first agreeably affected by 
warmth; next it is delighted with the odour of the milk; then 
gratified by the flavour of it; afterwards the appetites of hunger 
and of thirst afford pleasure by the possession of their objects, 
and by the subsequent digestion of the aliment; and lastly, the 
sense of touch is delighted by the softness and smoothness of the 
milky fountain, which the innocent embraces with its hands, 
presses with its lips, and watches with its eyes. Satisfied, it 
smiles at the enjoyment of such a variety of pleasures. It feels 
an animal attraction, which is love; a gratification when the ob- 
is present, a desire when it is absent, which constitutes the 
purest source of human felicity, the cordial drop in the other- 
wise vapid cup of life, overpaying the fond mother for all her 
solicitudes and cares. 

Lo! at the couch where infant beauty sleeps. 
Her silent watch the mournful mother keeps; 
She, while the lovely babe unconscious lies, 

iles on her slumb'ring child with pensive eyes, 
And weaves a song of melancholy joy. Campbdll 

A mother who abandons the fruit of her womb, as soon as it ij, 

.mm, to the sole cave of an hireling, hardly deserves that tender 

hing ean be so preposterous and unnatural, as a 



10 r i ON HYI , OH Til F. \ RT 

mother abandoning the care of her child. If we search N 
throughout, we cannot find a parallel. Every other animal is th< 

nurse of its own offspring, which thrives accordingly 

Connubial fair! whom no fond transport warms, 

To lull your infant in maternal arms; 

Who, blest in vain with tumid bosom, hear 

His tender wailing with unfeeling ear; 

The soothing kiss, and milky rill deny 

To the sweet pouting lip, and glistVmg eye! 

Ah! what avails the cradle's damask roof, 

The eider bolster, and embroidcr'd woof ! 

Oft hears the gilded coach, unpityM plains; 

And many a tear the tassell'd cushion stains! 

No voice so sweet attunes his cares to rest, 

So soft no pillow, as his mother's breast! Darwin. 

It is in infancy and early age, that the foundation is laid for the 
many diseases arising from indigestion, found in almost every 
family. If children be fed immoderately, the first passages be- 
come too much distended, and the stomach, by degrees, acquires 
an unnatural craving for food, which must be satisfied, whatever b< 
the consequence. These excessive supplies are not only unneces^ 
sary, but produce the most serious and fatal disorders. — There is a 
certain relation subsisting between what is taken in, and what is 
lost by the body. If we eat and drink much, we like- 
wise lose much, without gaining any more by it than we 
might do by moderate meals. Eating too much retards the 
growth, and eventually diminishes the digestive power of the 
stomach. Nature is easily satisfied, and is always best provided 
if we do not obtrude upon her more than she is accustomed to. 
If we have, for sometime taken little nourishment, nature be- 
comes so habituated to it, that we feel indisposed as soon as the 
usual measure is transgressed; and both the stomach and its di- 
gestive powers are thereby impaired. 

It would be impossible to lay down fixed rules, whereb] 
determine the salubrity or insalubrity of aliments, with res] 
to the individual. 

Experience is, indeed, our chief guide upon this subject; foi 
such is the peculiarity of constitutions, that, the same artich 



- t; I PRESERVING HEALTH. 105 

wish and perfectly agree with one person, would 
prove highly pernicious to another. Let us, therefore, in the se- 
lection of our food, adopt that which long and careful observation 
iias confirmed to be salutary, and avoid those tilings, however 
tempting to the palate, which we know to be injurious. 

There are, however, articles of diet obviously improper to 
every one; which, though they may not manifest their ill effects 
immediately, yet. nevertheless, undermine and break down by 
gradual operation, the vigour of our systems, and entail upon us, 
with certainty, a train of chronic disorders, of all others the most 
troublesome and difficult to cure. The articles of this descrip- 
tion are all high-seasoned dishes, and those which are composed 
of a great variety of ingredients. People in health require no 
excitement to the relish of good and wholesome meat; and to 
those in the opposite state, the luxuries of the table are poison. 

The siid effects of luxury are these; 

We drink our poison, and we cat disease. 

Not so, O Temperance bland; when ruled by thee. 

The brute's obedient, and the man is free: 

Soft are his slumbers, balmy is his rest, 

iiis veins not boiling from the midnight feast. 

'Tis to thy rules, bright Temperance! Ave owe 

All pleasures which from strength and health can flow: 

Vigour of body, purity of mind, 

Unclouded reason, sentiments refined; 

Unmis'd, untainted joys, without remorse. 

The intemperate sensualist's never-failing curse. Dodd. 

There are three kinds of appetite: first, the natural appetite — 
which is equally stimulated and satisfied with the most simple 
dish, as with the most palatable; second, the artificial appetite, 
or that excited by bitters, spirits, pickles, and other condiments, 
which remain only as long as the operation of these stimulants 
continues; third, the habitual appetite, or that by which we ac- 
custom ourselves to take victuals at certain hours, and frequently 
without any appetite. Longing for a particular food is likewise 
a Icind of false appetite. 

B} the true and healthy appetite alone, can we ascertain the 
quantity of aliment proper for the individual. If, in that state, 



iOU 



ON HYGIEI3 I . B V II E A B I 



\vc no longer relish a common dish, it is o certain e\ idencc ol itij 
disagreeing with our digestive organs. If, after dinner, wre i< ■• 

ourselves as cheerful as before it, we may Ik- assured thai Wi 
have taken a proper meal-, for, if the proper measure be exceed- 
ed, torper will ensue, with indigestion, and a variety of un] 
sant complaints. 

When the tired glutton labours through a treat, 

He finds no relish in the sweetest meat. 

Then hear what blessings Temperance can bring, 

Those blessings, only, form my cause to sing; 

First Health — the stomach cramm'd from every dish, 

A tomb of roast and boil'd, of flesh and fish, 

Where bile and irind, and phlegm and odd jar, 

And all the man is one intestine war, 

Remembers well the school-boy's simple fare, 

The temperate sleeps, and spirits ligbl as Pope 

A decent, well-furnished and hospitable table, is veiy commend 
able in those who can afford it. It speaks the greatness of then. 
minds, the goodness of their natures, and gaifis the blessing of th< 
poor and needy, where they are charitably allowed to come in 
for a share; but, when feasting runs into excessive luxury and 
vain expense, it reproaches the author of it with prodigality and 
folly; for no money can be so truly said to be thrown awaj 
that which is superfluously spent upon the belly. 

It was a maxim of Socrates, " that we ought to cat and drink 
to live, and not to live in order to eat and drink." Temperance 
is the preservation of the dominion of soul over sense, of reason 
over passion. The want of it destroys health, fortune and con- 
science. 

Chremts, of Greece, though a young man, was very infirm 
sickly, through a course of luxury and i ince; and sub- 

ject to those strange sorts of fits which are called trances. In 
one of these, he thought that a philosopher came to sup aa ith him; 
who out of all the dishes served up at the table, would onb 
of one, and that the most simple: yet his conversation was spi ighth 
bis knowledge great H his countenance cheerful, and his const ilu- 
Wben the philosopher took his 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. f07 

Chremes to sup with him at a house in the neighbourhood; which 
also took place in his imagination; and he thought he was receiv- 
ed with the most polite and affectionate tokens of friendship; hut 
was greatly surprised, when supper came up, to find nothing hut 
milk and honey, and a few roots dressed up in the plainest man- 
ner, to which cheerfulness and good sense were the only sauces. 
As Chremes was unused to this kind of diet, and could not eaty 
the philosopher ordered another tahle to he spread more to his 
taste; and immediately there succeeded a hanquet composed of 
the most artificial dishes that luxury could invent, with great 
plenty and variety of the richest and most intoxicating wines. — 
These, too, were accompanied by damsels of the most bewitch- 
ing beauty. And now Chremes gave a loose to all his appetites; 
and every thing he tasted raised extacies beyond what he had 
ever known. During the repast the damsels sung and danced to 
entertain him. Their charms enchanted the enraptured guest. 
already heated with what he had drunk. His senses were lost 
in cxtatic confusion. Every thing around him seemed Elysium, 
and he was upon the point of indulging the most boundless free- 
dom: when lo! on a sudden, their beauty, which was but a visor, 
fell off, and discovered to his view forms the most hideous and 
forbidding imaginable. Lust, revenge, folly, murder, meagre 
poverty, and frantic despair, now appeared in their most odious 
shapes, and the place instantly became the direct scene of misery 
and desolation. How often did Chremes wish himself far distant 
from such diabolical company! and how dread the fatal conse- 
quences which threatened him on every side! His blood ran 
Chill to his heart; his knees smote against each other with fear; 
and joy and rapture were turned into astonishment and horror. — 
When the philosopher perceived that this scene had made a suf- 
ficient impression on his guest he thus addressed him: "Know 
Chremes, it is I, it is Esculapius, who has thus entertained you: 
and what you have here beheld is the true image of the deceitful* 
ness and misery inseparable from luxury and intemperance. — 
Would you he happy, be temperate. Temperance is the parent 
5f health, virtue, wisdom, plenty, and of every thing that can 
render you happy in this world, or the world to come. It is, in- 
deed, the true luxury of life; for without it life cannot be enjoV 



lUb ON HYi.ii.im;, 0* THE A El 

cd." This said, he disappeared; and Chromes awaking} and iii 
structed by the vision, altered his course of life, became frug 
temperate, industrious: and by that means so mended his health 

and estate, that he lived without pain to a very old age; and v 
esteemed one of the richest, host, and wisest men in Greece. 

Such is the beautiful moral drawn by the pen of elegant and 
instructive fiction; with which, if there be any mind so insensible 
as not to be properly affected, let us only turn to thai st riking reality 
presented to us in the case of Lewis Cornaro. This gentleman 
was a Venitian of noble extraction, and memorable for having lived 
to an extreme old age; for he was above a hundred years old at 
the time of his death, which happened at Padua, in the year 15(55. 
Amongst other little performances, he left behind him a piece en- 
titled, "Of the advantages of a temperate life," of w hich we will 
here give our readers soisc account; not only because it will very 
well illustrate the life and character of the author, but may pos- 
sibly be of use to those who take the summum bonum, or chit i 
good of life, to consist in good eating. He was moved, it seems, 
to compose this little piece at the request, and for the benefit of 
some ingenuous young men, for whom he had a regard; and who, 
having long since lost their parents, and seeing him, then eighty- 
one years old, in a fine florid state of health, were desiruus to 
know of him, what had enabled him to preserve, as he did, a 
sound mind, in a sound body, to so extreme an age. He descri 
to them, therefore, his whole manner of living, and the regimen 
he had always pursued, and was then pursuing. He tells them 
that, when he was young, he was very intemperate; that his in- 
temperance had brought upon him many and grievous disorders; 
that, from the thirty-fifth to the fortieth year of his age, he spent 
his nights and days in the utmost anxiety and pain; and that in 
Short, his life was grown a burthen to him. The physicians, 
however, as he relates, notwithstanding all the vain and fruitless 
efforts which they had made to restore his health, told him that 
there was one method still remaining which had never been tried, 
but which, if they could but prevail with him to use with pe 
vercnec, might free him, in time, from all his complaints; and that 
was a temperate and regular way of living. They added, moreover, 
that unless he resolved to apply instantly to it, his case would. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. ' 109 

soon become desperate, and there would be no hopes at all of 
his recovery. Upon this, he immediately prepared himself for 
his new regimen; and now began to eat and drink nothing but 
what was proper for one in his weak habit of body: but this was 
at first very disagreeable to him. He often wanted to live again 
in his old manner; and did, indeed, indulge himself in a freedom 
of diet sometimes, without the knowledge of his physician; but, 
as he informs us, much to his own detriment and uneasiness. 
Driven, in the mean time, by the necessity of the thing, and re- 
solutely exerting all the powers of his understanding, he at last 
grew confirmed in a settled and uninterrupted course of temper- 
ance; by virtue of which, as he assures us, all his disorders 
had left him in less than a year: and he had been a firm and 
healthy man, from thenceforward, till the time in which he wrote 
his treatise. 

Some sensualists, as it appears, had objected to his abstemi- 
ous manner of living; and in order to evince the reasonableness 
of their own, had urged that it was not worth while to mortify 
one's appetites at such a rate for the sake of being old, since all 
that was life, after the age of sixty-live, could not properly be 
called a living life, but a dead life. "Now," says he, "to show 
these gentlemen how much they are mistaken, I Avill briefly run 
over the satisfactions and pleasures which I myself enjoy in this 
eighty-third year of my age. In the first place, I am always 
well, and so active, withal, that I can, with ease, mount a horse 
upon a flat, or walk upon the tops of very high mountains. In 
the next place, I am always cheerful, pleasant, perfectly con- 
tented, and free from all perturbation, and every uneasy thought. 
I have none of that fastidium vitas, that satiety of life, so often 
to be met with in persons of my age. I take a view of palaces, 
gardens, antiquities, public buildings, temples, fortificationSj 
and endeavour to let nothing escape me which may afford the 
least amusement to a rational mind. Nor are these pleasures at 
all blunted by the usual imperfections of great age; for I enjoy all 
my senses in perfect vigour; my taste especially, in so high a de- 
gree, that I have a better relish for the plainest, food now, than 
1 had for the choicest delicacies formerly, when immersed in a 
life of htxun 



410 ONHYGIEINE,OR THE AHT 

As a principal rule of diet, we ought to take food with art 
easy and serene mind, and to cat slowly. The stomach Buffering 
in this case a very gradual distension, as the food has sufficient 
time to be duly prepared by mastication. To eat of one dish 
only seems most conformable to nature, and is doubtless, the 
means of procuring the most healthy fluids. 

The diet ought not only to be such as is besl adapted to the 
constitution, but likewise to be taken at regular periods; for 
long fasting is hurtful at any stage of life. All great and sudden 
changes of diet are universally dangerous, particularly from a 
rich and full diet to a low and sparing one. When, therefore, a 
change becomes necessary, it ought always to be made by de 
grees. 

When a person has suffered so much from extreme hunger, 
much food must not be given him at once. By full feeding, 
thousands long starved at sea have been destroyed at once 
Such persons should be supplied with liquid food, and that spar- 

i»^iy- 

As soon as the food has entered the stomach, the important of- 
fice of digestion begins. The vigour of the organs exerted on 
this occasion, ought certainly not to be abridged by violent ex- 
ercise; but muscular and robust people feel no inconvenience 
from gentle motion about one hour after the heaviest meal. But 
as the whole process of digestion is of much longer duration 
than is generally imagined, the afternoon hours cannot be em- 
ployed so advantageously to health in any labour requiring strong 
exertions. 

In violent exercise, or an increased state of perspiration, the 
fluids are propelled to the external parts, and withdrawn from 
the stomach, where they are indispensable to assist, the proper 
concoction. 

Exclusive of the quantity and quality of food, great attention 
is due to the kind of it in particular constitutions. Animal food 
in general is more nourishing than vegetable, and, when fresh, 
is likewise more easy of digestion. On this account, it genera] 
ly agrees best with delicate and weak constitutions. 

But the flesh of young animals, with a proportionate quantity 
nf well boiled and wholesome, vegetables, is the best diet adapted 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. Ill 

fo our system. In summer it is advisable to increase the propor- 
tion of vegetable lbod, and to make use of ripe fruit. With re- 
gard to our food, however, in quantity and quality, it should be 
proportioned to our exercise. The labourer, who is perpetually 
toiling from morning till night, could not subsist on food appro- 
priated to those who pursue not the severer exercises of the body. 
His diet must be of the courser kind; such as salted meats or 
iish, cheese, corn bread, potatoes, onions and peas, and these in 
pretty large quantities. 

On the whole, it will be found to be the safest, both in health 
and sickness, to regulate our diet with simplicity; ever bearing 
in mind that a preference is to be given to such articles as our 
personal knowledge has demonstrated to be the most congenial 
to our constitutions and habits. 

In our aliment, an essential part is drink, the use of which 16 
indispensable to the digestion of food. 

Water, the basis of our drinks, should be carefully obtained 
in its highest purity. The best water is that which is pure, 
light, and without any particular colour, taste, or smell. Where 
water cannot be obtained pure from springs, wells, rivers, or 
lakes, care should be taken to deprive it of its pernicious quali- 
ties, by boiling and filtering, but most effectually by distillation. 
Any putrid substances in the water may be corrected by the ad- 
dition of an acid. Thus half an ounce of alum, in p6wder, will 
make twelve gallons of corrupted water pure and transparent in 
wo hours, without imparting a sensible degree of astringency. 
Charcoal powder has also been found of great efficacy in check- 
ing the putrid tendency of water. To the same purpose, vinegar 
nid other strong acids, are Well adapted. 

Whatever kind of drink is used, it ought to be taken always 
in a moderate quantity. Too much drink, even of water, inno- 
cenf as it is, tends to Oppress and weaken the stomach, of course 
"to generate acidities and flatulence. 

Some advise us never to drink without eating something, but 

lie who drinks only when nature requires it, has no occasion to 

•■it every time he drinks. Persons, on the contrary, once accus- 

led to drink more than is necessary, or to make use of hot, 



112 ON tlYGIEINE, OR Til K ART 

stimulating-, and intoxicating liquors, would do well always to 
some bread, or other solid food, along- with them. 

An undue proportion of drink renders the mas9 of blood too 
thin and watery, and occasions a general debility of the body. 
On the other hand, too little drink renders the blood thick and 
viscid, and weakens the digestive powers. Light and well fer- 
mented beer, is a wholesome, and, at the same time, diluent spe- 
cies of nourishment. 

Cider, when properly fermented and pure, is also a pleasant and 
wholesome liquor. On the contrary, when it is new or tart, wo 
cannot recommend it as a salubrious beverage. 

Wme, when pure, and used in moderation, certainly conduces 
to health, especially in weak and languid habits. See Vine, Mat. 
Med. 

Ardent Spirits, when properly diluted, are likewise an excel- 
lent beverage and antiseptic. These liquors are of considera- 
ble service in preventing the bad effects of a moist and cold at* 
mosphere, pestilential vapours, damp military camps, unclean oc- 
cupations, and, occasionally too, of a temporary abstinence from 
food. 

But as the infusion of too great a quantity of oil immediately 
extinguishes the lamp, the light of reason, and the lamp of life 
itself, are frequently suffocated, and put out forever, by an im- 
prudent use of either wine or spirits. 

Tea is considered by some as being highly injurious, while 
others have either asserted its innocence, or even ascribed to it 
extraordinary virtues. When taken in a large quantity, or very 
strong, and at a late hour, it often produces watchfulness; but if 
used in moderation, it greatly relieves an oppressed stomach, and 
pains of the head. It ought, however, to be made of a moderate 
strength, otherwise it certainly affects the nerves. Ilypocondriac 
and hysteric people are much deceived in their opinions of the 
efficacy of tea; for all the evils arising from weak stomachs and 
flatulency, of which they complain, are certainly increased by 
ten, especially if taken in large and strong quantities. The cold 
stomach which they propose to warm by it, is a more phantom 



Off PRESERVING HE ALTlI. ]1 3 

of the brain; for this sensation of cold, is nothing but relaxation, 
which, instead of being removed by hot liquors, is assuredly in- 
creased by them. 

Coffee promotes digestion, and exhilarates the animal spirits; 
but an excessive use of it, like tea, affects the nerves, occasions 
watchfulness, and trembling of the hands. As possessing excel- 
lent antispasmodic virtues, it is a favourite beverage with the 
hypocondriac and hysteric. 

Chocolate is nutritious and wholesome, if taken in small quan- 
tity; but to the corpulent and weak, particularly those with whom 
a vegetable diet disagrees, it is generally hurtful. 



OF EXERCISE. 



###*## By health the peasant's toil 

Is well repaid, if exercise were pain 

Indeed, and temperance pain. By arts like these 

Laconia nursed of old her hardy sons; 

And Rome's unconquered legions urged their way 

Unhurt, through every toil in every clime. 

Toil and be strong. By toil the flaccid nerves 

Grow firm, and gain a more compacted tone: 

The greener juices are by toil subdu'd, 

Mellowed, and subtilis'd; the vapid old 

Expell'd, and all the rancour of the blood. 

Begin with gentle toils, and, as your nerves 

Grow firm, to hardier by just steps aspire. 

The prudent, even in every moderate walk, 

At first but saunter, ami by slow degrees, 

Increase their pace. This doctrine of the wise, 

Well knows the master of the flying steed. Armstrong. 

It was a common saying among the ancients, that acute dis- 
eases are from heaven and chronic from ourselves. To die, says 
Dr. Johnson, is the fate of man; but to die with lingering an- 
guish, is srenerallv his own folly. Inactivity never fails to in- 



114 O N H Y « I K I ft E , 6 R T H fc A K T 

duce an universal relaxation of the contractile fibres. When these 
fibres are relaxed neither the digestion, the circulation- nor tin' 
peristaltic motion can be duly performed. 

It is absolutely impossible to enjoy health where the perspira- 
tion also is not duly carried on; and that can never Ik- the case, 
where exercise is neglected. 

Indolence often originates from a mistaken education in which 
pleasure or flattery is made the immediate motive of action, and 
not iuturc advantage, or what is termed duty. This observation 
is of great value to those who attend to the education of their 
own children. I have seen, savs Dr. Darwin, one or two young 
married ladies of fortune, who perpetually became Uneasy, and 
believed themselves ill, a week after their arrival in the country, 
and continued so uniformly during their stay, yet, on their re- 
turn to London or Bath, immediately lost all their complaints. J 
was led to ascribe this to their being surrounded in infancy with 
menial attendants, who had flattered them into the. exertions the? 
then used; and that, in riper years, they became torpid for want of 
this stimulus, and could not amuse themselves by any voluntary 
employment; requiring ever after either to be amused by other 
people, or to be flattered into activity. 

Dr. Johnson says, "Whenever chance brings within my obscp* 
vation a knot of young ladies, busy at their needles, I consider 
myself as in the school of virtue; and though I have no extraor- 
dinary skill in plain work or embroider}, I look upon their ope- 
rations with as much satisfaction as their governess, because I 
regard them as providing a security against the most dangerous 
ensnarers of the soul, by enabling themselves to exclude idle 
from their solitary moments, and with idleness, its attendant train 
of passions, fancies, chimeras, fears, sorrows and desires.'' 1 

If sedentary employments be intermixed with a due quautitj 
o^ exercise, they will never injure health. 

Weak fibres are the constant companions 6\ tmefivity. No- 
thing but daily exercise in the open air can brace and strengthen 
the powers of the stomach, and prevent an endless train of dis- 
eases, which proceed from a relaxed state of that organ. Wc 
seldom hear the active and labourious complain of nervous 
eases; which are reserved for the sons of idl« 



OF PIIESERVING HEALTH. 115 

#*##** How happy he whose toil 

Has o'er his languid powerless limbs diffused 

A pleasing lassitude. He not in vain 

Invokes the gentle deity of dreams. 

By toil subdued, the warrior and the hind 

Sleep fast and deep. — Their active functions soq» 

With generous streams their subtile tubes supply 

Ere morn, the tonic irritable nerves 

Feel the fresh impulse, and awake the soul. 

Armstrong. 

Idleness is a servile, weak and degenerate habit; that of thq 
mind being worse than that of the body. 

A gentleman states, that, as he was sitting with some friends 
before the door of the Capitol, a beggar presented himself, who 
with sighs, tears and lamentable gestures, expressed his misera- 
ble poverty, saying withal, that "he had about him a private 
disorder, which shame prevented him from discovering to the 
eyes of men. They, pitying the case of the poor man, gave 
each of them something, and he departed. One amongst theni 
sent his servant after him, to enquire what his private infirmitj 
might be, which he was loth to discover? The servant overtook 
him; and desired that satisfaction; and having diligently viewed 
his face, breast, arms, &c. and finding all his limbs in good 
plight, "I see nothing," said he, "whereof you have any such 
reason to complain." "Alas!" said the beggar, "the disease that 
afflicts me is far different from what you conceive of, and is such 
as you cannot see. It is an evil that has crept over my whole 
body; passing through the very veins and marrow of me, in such 
a manner, that no one member of my body is able to take 
proper exercise, or do any work. This disease by some is 
called idleness." The servant having left him, returned with 
(his account; which not a little amused his master and friends. 

As idleness is the rust and bane of all human virtues, so, on 
the contrary, industry and diligence in business are conquerors 
of all difficulties; sweetening labour and pains, and giving satis- 
faction as well as profit, in the accomplishment of what is under- 
taken. When meu work at their play, and play with their work. 



116 ON HYGIEINE, OR TH E A R T 

they invert the order of nature, as well as the Divine command, 
and must expect in the sequel to come home hy Weeping Cr 
because they have laboured in vain, and played the Tool with 
themselves in neglecting to secure to themselves a comfortable 
subsistence. Among the Athenians and ancient Romans, there 
was a law exacting an account from every man how he maintain- 
ed himself and family; and if unable to give a satisfactory answer, 
he was immediately banished with reproach, as a vermin that 
devoured what he had no right to, in being an unproiitahl. 
cence, contributing nothing towards the tranquility of the public 

A gentleman possessed of an estate of about two hundred 
pounds per annum, in land, kept the whole a great while in his 
own hands; but finding, notwithstanding all his care and indus 
try, that he still run behind hand, and at length obliged to sell 
half his estate to pay his debts, let the rest to a farmer by lease 
for twenty-one years, at an annual rent. His tenant thriving, anct 
coming before the expiration of the lease, to pay his rent, he 
'1 his landlord, " if he would sell the land he rented of him?'' 
"Why," said he "wouldst thou buy it?" " Yes," said the far- 
mer, "if you will part with it." "That is very strange," said 
the landlord. "Prithee tell me how it is, that I could not live 
upon twice so much being my own, and you upon half of it, 
though you pa) rent for it, are able in less than twenty years to 
buy it?" "O Sir," said the farmer, "a few words make the 
difference. When any thing was to be done, you said, 'Go and 
do it, 1 and lay in bed or took your pleasure; but 1 always said, 
'Come, let us go and do it,' and both assisted and saw my business 
done myself." 

To show the. absolute necessity of exercise in cold climates, 
annot omit relating the botanical excursion of .Sir .Joseph 
Hanks, Dr. Solander, and others, on the heights of Terra-del- Tvc- 
Dr. Solander, who had more than once crossed the moun- 
tains dividing Sweden from Norway, well knowing that extreme 
cold produced a torpor and sleepiness almost irresistible, conjured 
the company to keep always in motion, whatever pain it mighl 
cost them, and whatever relief they might be promised bj 
- IVhnerrr sits down,-'' said he, "will sleep, and whoever sleeps will 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 117 

wake no viore." Thus at once admonished and alarmed, they set 
forward, but while they were still upon the naked rock, and before 
they got among the bushes, the cold was so intense, as to pro- 
duce the effects that had been most dreaded. Dr. Solander, him- 
self, was the first who found the inclination, against which he 
had warned others, irresistible; and insisted upon being suffered 
to lie down. Sir Joseph Banks entreated and remonstrated with 
him iii vain; down he lay upon the ground, though it was co- 
vered with snow; and it was with great difficulty that his friends 
kept him from sleeping. One of his black servants also began 
to linger. Partly by persuasion, and partly by force, the com- 
pany made them go forward. Soon, however, they both de- 
clared, "they would go no farther." Sir Joseph Banks had re- 
course again to expostulation, but this produced no effect. When 
the black was told that if he did not go on, he would in a short 
time be frozen to death, he answered that he desired nothing so 
much as to lie down and die. The Doctor did not so explicitly 
renounce his life; saying, he could go on, but that he must first 
take "some sleep" though he had before told the company, that 
"to sleep, was to perish." Both in a few minutes fell into a 
profound sleep. After considerable exertions they happily suc- 
ceeded in waking the Doctor, who had almost lost the use of his 
limbs, and the muscles were so shrunk, that his shoes fell from 
his feet; but every attempt to relieve the unfortunate black 
proved unsuccessful. 

Since we have touched upon the subject of cold, we cannot 
forbear inserting the observations of the immortal Darwin. 

Animal bodies resist the power of cold probably by their ex- 
ertions: but if these increased exertions be too violent, so as to 
exhaust the power of the brain, the animal will probably sooner 
perish. Thus the moderate quantity of wine or spirit, repeated 
at proper intervals of time, might be of service to those who 
are long exposed to excessive cold, both by increasing the ac- 
tion of the capillary vessels, and thus producing heat, and per- 
haps by increasing in some degree the secretion of sensorial 
power in the brain. But the contrary must happen when taken 
immediately, and not at due intervals. A well attested story was 
<mre related to me of two men, who set out on foot to travel in 
10 



118 ON IIYUIK INK , OR THE A II T 

the snow, one of whom drank two or three glasses of brandy 
before they began their journey, the other contented himself with 
his usual diet and potation: the one perished, in^pite of evi 

assistance his companion could afford him, and the other per 
formed his journey with safely. In this case the power ol th< 
brain was exhausted by the unnecessary motions of incipient in- 
toxication by the stimulus of the brandy, as well as hy the ex< 
tions of walking, which so weakened the dram-drinker, that the 
cold sooner destroyed him; not having power to produce Buffi 
cient muscular or arterial action, and in consequence sufficient 
heat to supply the great expenditure of it. Hence the capilla 
Vies or smaller vessels of the skin, first ceased to act, and heeanx 
pale and empty; next those which are immediately associated 
with them, as the extremities of the pulmonary artery, as hap- 
pens on going into the cold bath. By the continued inaction of 
these parts of the vascular system, the blood becomes accumu- 
lated in the internal arteries, and the brain is suoposed to be af- 
fected by its compression; because these patients are said to sleep, 
or to become apoplectic, before they die. 

Travellers, benighted in deep snow, might frequently save 
themselves by lying down on the dry ground, and suffering them 
selves to be entirely covered v\ iththe snow, except a small hole I'm 
air. The ground being usually at the 40th degree of cold, that 
is, eight degrees above freezing, and the snow in contact with 
their clothes, thawing and contracting into the snow next to it, 
would form above them a close, dry cover let, that would per 
fectly exclude the external cold, and place them in a situation 
almost as warm as a bed! 

My reverend and worthy friend, Dr. Andrew Hunter, of Wash- 
ington, overcome with the fatigues of a long day's march, durin» 
the revolutionary war, threw himself down with the rest of the 
armv, on the cold frozen ground. His only cover was a blanket, 
and a saddle his pillow. Instantly his wearied senses were lock- 
ed up in sleep so sound, that he never felt the cold snow, which 
presently began to tall in heavy flakes upon him. Next morn- 
ing when he awoke, he was astonished at his situation — a heavj 
fall of snow a loot deep had completely covered him, through 
which the heat of his hreath, melting the snow as it fell, had 



OF P RESERVING HEALTH. 119 

formed a nice opening. Having raised his head, and seeing his 
comrades still asleep, he laid himself down to enjoy a little longer 
his singular bed, which he declared was very pleasant. 

If these facts were more generally known, they might save the 
lives of many valuable citizens. 



OF SLEEP. 

The shades descend, and midnight o'er the world 
Expands her sable wings. Groat Nature droops 
Through all her wcrka. Now happy he whose toil 
Has o'er his languid powerless limbsdil 
N A pleasing lassitude: he not in vain 

Invokes the gentle Deity of dreams. 
His powers the most voluptuously dissolve 
In soft repose: on him the balmy dews 
Of sleep with double nutriment descend. AnMSTaoxc. 

" Tired Nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep," cannot be dis- 
pensed with. It introduces a most welcome vacation, both for 
the soul and the body. The exercises of the brain and the la- 
bours of the hands, are at once discontinued; so that the weary 
limbs repair their exhausted vigour, while the pensive thoughts 
drop their load of sorrows, and the busy ones rest from the fa- 
tigue of application. Most reviving cordial! equally beneficial 
to our animal and intellectual powers. 

Since sleep is so absolutely necessary, so inestimably valuable, 
observe what a fine apparatus Almighty Goodness has made to 
accommodate us with the balmy blessing. "With how kind a pre- 
caution he removes whatever might obstruct its access, or im- 
pede its influence! He draws around us the curtain of darkness, 
which inclines to drowsiness, and conceals every object that 
might too strongly agitate the senses. He conveys peace into 
our apartments, and imposes silence on the whole creation. May 
we not discern in this gracious disposition of things, the tender 



*.** 0"S IIV(i IE 1 N l,, OB THE ART 

cares of an affectionate Mother, who hushes every noise, and ex- 
cludes every disturbance, where she has laid the child of her 
l<5ve to rest? So, by such soothing circumstances, and gentle 
Working opiates, He gweth to his beloved, ship. 

No sooner does the morning dawn, and day-light enter the 
room, than this strange enchantment vanishes. The man awakes, 
and finds himself possessed of all the valuable endowments which 
for several hours were suspended or lost. His sinews are tra- 
ced, and fit for action. Ilis senses are alert and keen. The. ro- 
mantic visionary heightens into the master of reason, and the 
frozen or benumed affections melt into tenderness, and glow with 
benevolence. 

*###### q Bacre( j pest! 

Sweet pleasing sleep! of all the powers the best; 

O peace of mind! repairer of decay! 

Whose balms renew the limbs to labours of the day, 

Care shuns thy soft approach, and sullen ilies away. 

DltVDEN. 

If sleep do not pay the accustomed visit, the whole frame of 
man will in a short lime be thrown into disorder; his appetite 
Cease, his spirits dejected, and his mind, abridged of its slumber- 
ing visions, begin to adopt waking dreams. It is in vain that all 
light is excluded, all sound removed, and books of entertainment 
read, the restless and busy mind still retains its former activity, 
and Reason, that wishes to lay down the reins, in spite of her- 
self, is obliged to maintain them. This is strongly instanced by 
Shakspcare, in the soliloquy of King Henry. 

How many thousands of my poorest subjects 

Are at this hour asleep! Oh! gentle sleep, 

Nature's soft nurse, how hare I frighted thee, 

That thou no more wilt weigh my eye-lids down, 

And steep my senses in forgetfulness? 

Why, rather, sleep, ly'st thou on smoky cribs, 

Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee, 

And hush'd with buzzing night-flies to thy slumlx 

Than in the pcrfum'd chambers of the great. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 121 

And lull'd with sounds of sweetest melody? 

O thou dull god, why ly'st thou with the vile 

In loathsome beds, and leav'st the kingly couch, 

A watch-case or a common larum bell? 

Wilt thou upon the high and giddy mast 

Seal up the ship-boy's eyes, and rock his braitfs 

In cradle of the wild imperious surge; 

And in the visitation of the winds, 

Who take the ruffian billows by the top, 

Curling their monstrous heads, and hanging them 

With deaf'ning clamours in the'slipp'ry shrouds, 

That, with the hurley, death itself awakes? 

Canst thou, O partial sleep! give thy repose 

To the wet sea-boy, in an hour so rude; 

\nd, in the calmest, and most stillest night, 

With all appliances and means to boot, 

Deny it to a King? Then, happy low, lie down! 

Uneasy lies the head that wears a (mown. 

Excess of sleep is not less prejudicial to health than the wan. 
of it. The whole body sinking gradually into a complete state 
of inactivity, the solid parts become relaxed, the blood circulates 
slowly, and remains particularly long in the head; perspiration is 
disordered, the body increases in fat, and rendered incapable of 
being the medium of mental exertion, the memory is enfeebled, 
and the unhappy sleeper falls into ar lethargic state, by which 
his sensibility is, in a great measure, destroyed. 

Sleep, immediately after supper, is apt to occasion the night- 
mare, or a stagnation of the blood, which, by its pressure, produ- 
ces the sensation or idea of this troublesome bed-fellow. It is 
principally the nervous, the debilitated, and those of an impaired 
digestion, who are visited by such terrific dreams. 

The proper duration of sleep, in youth and adults, is usuaily 
settled at six or seven hours; in children and the aged, from 
eight to nine hours. The more bodily weakness we feel, the 
more we may indulge in sleep; provided it be refreshing. If 
people in a state of health be perfectly cheerful in mind and body, 
ivhei! they awake, this is the most certain criterion that they have 



122 ON HYGIK INK, OR THE ART 

slept sufficiently. Though weakly persona may have a dis] 
lion to sleep during the day, they ought not to sleep l"i'- r , s'« 
it tends to increase their languor and relaxation. Whethen 
sleep after dinner be advisable, must be decided by a variet) of 
concurrent circumstances; age, climate, and the. like. 1 low ever. 
a sleep after dinner ought never to exceed a half, or one hour at 
most; and it is also much better sitting, than lying horizontally; 
for, in the latter case, we are subject to determinations of the 
blood towards the head, and consequently to head-ach, and rials 
apoplexy. In the evening we should eat light food, and not re- 
tire to rest till two or three, hours after supper. The mind ought 
to be serene and cheerful previous to going to rest, and we should 
then avoid gloomy thoughts; so that we may as much as possible 
guard against dreams, which always interfere with the refreshing 
influences of sleep. 

Sleep, accompanied cither with talking or walking, called 
somniloquism and somnambulism, is a transient paroxysm and de- 
lirium. When they are induced by an increase of stimuli, whe- 
ther corporeal or mental, blood-letting, gentle cathartics, vegeta- 
ble diet, with moderate exercise, are the best remedies; but 
when they arise from a diminution of customary stimuli, a glass 
or two of wine, a draught of porter, or a dose of laudanum at 
bed-time, and a change of air, will generally succeed. 

The Feather-beds, in which we usually sleep, are certainly not 
as healthy as mattresses in summer. 

But, as many individuals have not sufheient resolution to use 
these, they ought to be particular in having their feather-beds 
frequently shaken and aired. Farther, it is highly improper to 
sleep in beds overloaded with clothes; they heat the blood more 
than is consistent with health, and produce an immoderate and 
enervating perspiration, which still more weakens the organs al- 
ready relaxed by sleep. The custom of sleeping with the cur- 
tains drawn close, is pernicious to health, beciuse the copious 
exhalations, which then take place, cannot be properly dissi- 
pated, and are consequently re-absorbed. It is also very impru- 
dent to cover the head with" the bed-clothes. The old and abom- 
inable custom of warming the bed, likewise deserves to be con- 
demned; as it has a direct tendency to produce debility. 



ill.' PUHSERVING HEALTH. 1 2S 

\ spacidys and lofty room should always be chosen, if practi- 
cable, tor a bed-chamber, and attention paid to the admission of 
hair, even during the night, in warm weather. Lastly, no 
i audio or fire should be kept burning during the night in a bed-room. 



ON EVACUATIONS. 

J>y subtle fluids pour'd through subtle tubes 
The natural, vital, functions are performed; 

By these the stubborn aliments are tamed, 
The toiling heart distributes life and strength, 
These the still crumbling frame rebuild. ARMsrr.oiit- 

The evacuations of the body, from its superfluous, impure, 
and noxious particles, are no less necessary than its nourishment 
The same power which changes and assimilates our food and 
drink, likewise affects the due and timely evacuation of the se- 
cretions. It is an object of the first consequence, that nothing 
remain in the body which ought to be evacuated; and that no- 
thing be ejected, which may be of use to its preservation. Hon 
many persons do we find who complain of bad health, notwith- 
standing every attention they pay to air, aliment, exercise, and 
sleep; while, others enjoy a good state of health, though totally 
careless with regard to these particulars, and all owing to a differ- 
ence in the state of evacuations. If these be disordered, the 
most rigorous observance of dietetic rules is insufficient to insure 
our health; while on the contrary, most of those rules may be 
neglected, for some time, without any injurious consequences, if 
the cvacuatious be regular. Nature removes not only noxious 
matter, or such as is in a state of corruption, but likewise the 
useful tluids, if they become superabundant; for instance, the 
milk, semen, and blood. In such cases, therefore, these must 
be considered as objects of evacuation, equally natural and salu- 
tary. 

Nature expels all crude and acrid substances by those three 
grand emunctories, the kidneys, bowels,, and skin, and accord. 




L24 



ON HVGIEINE, O K T I! K A H T 



mgly as they are disordered, diseases of different degrees of ma- 
lignity and duration will necessarily ensue. Nature also fre- 
quently relieves herself by more unusual channels; such are the 
bleeding of the nose, in plethoric youug men; the hemorrhoids, 
with which persons of a middle age are sometimes troubled; the 
various ulcers common to those whose fluids are in an impure 
state; the excretions of saliva, and the expectoration of others, 
&c. By a premature suppression of the troublesome, but salu- 
tary efforts of nature, great mischief may be produced to the in* 
dividual. 

Many persons perspire much under the arm-pits; others in the 
hands or feet; others again are subject to eruptions in the face, 
or different parts of the body: such canals, however, if nature 
be once accustomed to eject by them certain ill humours, cannot 
be suddenly stopped without considerable danger — cleanlii 
in the strictest sense of the word, is almost the only safe remed] 
to counteract their fatal effects. 



OF THE PASSIONS. 



Passiovs, like aliments, though horn to fight, 
Yet mix'd and soften'd, in his work unite. 
Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling tram, 
Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain; 
These mix'd with art, and in due bounds confin'd, 
Make, and maintain the balance of the mind. 
The lights and shades, whose well accorded strife, 
Gives all the strength and colour of our life. 



Popi 



Passions are the active forces of the soul: They arc its highest 
powers, brought into movement and exertion. Like wind and 
fire, which are instrumental in carrying on many of the benefi- 
cent operations of nature, where they rise to undue violence, or 
deviate from their proper course, their path is marked with ruin: 
so are the passions either useful or destructive, according to their 
direction and degree. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH, 126 

Yes, yes, dear stoic! hide it as you can, 
The sphere of pleasure is the sphere of man: 
This warms our wishes, animates our toil, 
And forms alike a Newton, or a Hoyle; 
Gives all the soul to all the soul regards, 
Whether she deals in planets, or in cards. 

Cawthorv. 



or LOVE. 



Love is a passion by no- rule confinXl, 
The great first mover of the human mind; 
Spring of our fate! it lifts the climbing will, 
Or sinks the soften'd soul in seas of ill; 
Science, truth, virtue, sweetness, glory, grace. 
All are love's influence, and adoro his race, 
Love too, gives fear, despair, grief, anger, strife v 
And all the unnumber'd woes which tempest life. Hu.l 

• Love, the most universal and grateful passion of the heart, is 
not only conducive to health, but contributes greatly to the hap- 
piness of every society in which it is introduced. A warm and 
reciprocal affection, between two virtuous lovers, may be consi- 
dered the sweetest, charm of life. 

Where friendship full exerts her softest power, 
Perfect esteem enlivened by desire 
Ineffable, and sympathy of soul; 
Thought meeting thought, and will preventing will, 
With boundless confidence: for nought but love 
Can answer love, and render bliss secure. 

* * * * What is the world to them, 
Its pomp, its pleasure, and its nonsense all! 
Something than beauty dearer, should they look 
Or on the mind, or mind-illumin'd face; 
Truth, goodness, honour, harmony, and love. 
The richest bounty of indulgent Heaven, 
17 



126 OX II Y ( • OK Til ■■■ «1> I 

Meantime a smiling »und, 

And mingles both their 

The human blossom blows; and every d 

Soft as it rolls along, show* some new ch 

The fathers lustre, and the mothers bloom. Tno mson. 

Love arises from a desire of what is beautiful and fair, and is 
defined to be an action of the mind, desiring thai which is good. 
No one loves before he is delighted with the object, lej it be whal 
it will, by which means it becomes pleasing in our eyes, and be- 
gets a value and esteem in our affections. This amiable pa 
in many respects is very wonderful and unaccountable-, i1 is o 
such power in its operation that it has often taken the diadem 
from kings and queens, and made them stoop to those ol obscure 
birth and mean fortune. It wrests the sword out ol the conquer- 
or's hand, and makes him a captive to his slave. It has such a 
variety of snares to entangle the most wary, that few have at one 
time or other escaped them. 

E-inardus was Secretary of State to Charlemain, and having 
placed his affections much higher than his eondmon admitted, 
made love to one of his daughters, who seeing this man of a brave 
spirit, and a suitable grace, thought him not too low lor her see- 
ins merit had so eminently raised him above his birth. She oval 
him, and gave him free access, so far as to suffer him to laugl 
and sport in her chamber on evenings, which ought to have been 
kept as a sanctuary where relfques arc preserved. It Happened 
on a winter's night, Eginardus, ever hasty in bis approa 
negligent about returning, had somewhat too long continued his 
visit; and in the mean time a snow had Men, wh.ch troubled 
Ihcm both. He feared to be betrayed by his feel , and the lad v 
was unwilling that such prints should be found at her door. 1 >< - 
ing much perplexed, she did an act for her lover, very untisua, 
for the daughter of one of the greatest men upon earth She 
took the gentleman upon her shoulders, and carried him all tin 
len-th of the court to his chamber, he never sett ing a foot to tin 
ground, so that the next day no impression might be seej) of his 
footing. It happened that Charlemain watched at Ins study this 
night, and hearing a noise, opened the window and perceived tins 



UJ PRESERVING HEALTH. 127 

pretty prank, at which he could not tell whether it were best to 
be angry or to laugh. The next day, in a great assembly of Lords, 
and in the presence of his daughter and Eginardus, he asked, 
what punishment that servant was worthy of, who made use of a 
king's daughter as a mule, and caused himself to be carried on 
her shoulders in the midst of winter, through night, snow, and 
all the sharpness of the season. Every one gave his opinion, 
and not one but condemned that insolent man to death. The 
princess and secretary changed colour, thinking nothing remain- 
ed for them but to be flayed alive. But the Emperor, looking on 
his secretary with a smooth brow, said, " Eginardus, hadst thou 
loved the princess my daughter, thou oughtest to have come to 
her father, the disposer of her liberty, thou art worthy of death, 
but I give thee two lives at present; take thy fair portress in mar- 
riage, fear God, and love one another." 

Though the female be the weaker sex, yet some have so re- 
paid the weakness of their nature by an incredible strength of 
affection, that they have often times performed as great things as 
we could expect from the courage and constancy of the most 
generous amongst men. They have despised death, in whatever 
shape, and made all sorts of difficulties give way before its in- 
vincible force, which seemed proud to show itself most strong, 
in the greatest extremity of their husbands. 

Arria, the wife of Cecinna Paetus, understanding that her hus- 
band was condemned to die, and that he was permitted to choose 
the manner of his death, went to him, and having exhorted him 
to depart this life courageously, and bidding him farewell, gave 
herself a stab into the breast with a knife she had hid for that 
purpose under her clothes; then drawing the knife out of the 
wound, and reaching it to Paetus, she said, " Vulnus quod feci, 
Pa'te, non dolet, sed quod tu facies:" Tlie wound I have made, 
Patus, smarts not; but that only ichich thou art about to give thyself?' 
Whereupon Martial wrote the following epigram. 

When Arria to her husband gave the knife, 
Which made the wound whereby she lost her life, 
" This wound, dear Paetus, grieves me not," quoth she, 
>' But that which thou must give thyself grieves me." 



128 ON HYGIEINE, OB THE ART 

Happy they! the happiest of their kind, 
Wham gentler stars unite, and in one fate 
Their hearts, their fortunes, and their beings blend. 
'Tis not the coarser tie of human laws 
Unnat'ral oft, and foreign to the mind, 
That binds their peace, but harmony itself 
Attuning all their passions into Love. THOM80JN 

"It is this," says Lavater, "which has sweetened every billet 
of my life; this has alone supported me, when the sorrows of a 
wounded heart wanted vent. When my best endeavours were 
rejected, when the sacred impulse of conscious truth was ridicul- 
ed, hissed at and despised, the tear of sorrow was ever wiped 
away by the gentle, tender, and affectionate address of a female 
mind, who has an aspect like that of unpractised virginity, which 
felt, and was enabled to efface each emotion, each passion in the 
most concealed feature of her husband's countenance, and by en- 
dearing means, without what the world would call beauty, always 
shone forth in countenance heavenly as an angel." 

Serene in virgin modesty she shines, 

Jlnd unobserved the glorious orb declines. 

Ok blest with temper, whose unclouded ray 

Can make tomorrow cheerful as to day: 

She who we'er answers till a husband cools, 

Or ifslie rules him, never shows she rules; 

Charms by accepting, by submitting sways, 

Yet has Iter humor most wlien she obeys. Pope. 

How delightful that sentiment, which, even in advanced life, 
inspires a passion perhaps more profound than it excites even in 
youth; a passion which collects into the soul all that time has 
robbed from the senses, and stripping life, in its last stages, of 
all gloom, unsociability and indifference, secures us the happi- 
ness of meeting death in those arms which sustained our youth, 
and entwined us in the ardent embraces of love. 

O the sweet powerful influences of love ! It is this that unites 
the interests as well as the hearts oflovers, and gives to each 
the joys and felicities of the other. And it is tjiis which induce 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 129 

the delicate lady to forget belt days, and to smile in poverty, 
and toil with the husband whom siie loves. What charm then 
under Heaven can excel this noble passion? ISo pleasures are 
comparable to those that affect the heart, and there are none that 
affect it with such exquisite delight, as loving and being beloved 
by a worthy object. Ask the husband who is blest with an amiable 
wife, and he will tell you that the most delicious feeling his heart 
ever experienced were those of virtuous love. 

Go gentle gales and bear my sighs along? 

The birds shall cease to tune their evening song; 

The winds to breathe, the waving woods to move, 

And streams to murmur, ere / cease to love. Pope. 

Some angry poets spit all their venom against loving husbands; 
but it no way depreciates virtue. 

Virtue, the strength and beauty of the soul, 
It pleases and it lasts; a happiness 
That even above the smiles and frowns of fate 
Exalts great nature's favourite; — a wealth 
That ne'er encumbors, nor to baser hands 
Can be transferred; it is the only good 
Man justly boasts of, or can call his own. 

Armstrong. 

A Neapolitan, being at work in a field bordering upon the sea 
side, his wife being some distance from him, was seized by 
some corsairs of Tunis, and carried on board their vessel. Miss- 
ing his wife, and seeing a ship at anchor, he soon conjectured 
what the matter was, and throwing himself into the sea, swam 
to the ship, telling the captain, "He was come to take the same 
fate with his wife, for though he understood the hardship and 
misery he must undergo in slavery, his love had conquered all 
difficulties, he neither could nor would live but with her." The 
Turks, admiring the man's unaccountable affection, at their re- 
turn told it to the King of Tunis, who pleasing himself with so 
singular an example of love and constancy, gave them both their 
liben 



130 US EiYGIEINE, OH THE AIM 

Bless'd is the maid, and worthy to b< 
Whose soul, entire by him she loves possess'd. 
Feels every vanity in fondness lost, 
And asks no power but that of pleasing mo< 
Her's is the bliss, in just return, to prove 
The honest warmth of undissembled love; 
For her inconstant man might cease to range, 
And gratitude forbid desire to change. 

Love is a vice only in vicious hearts. Fire, though thepui 
of all substances, will yet emit unwholesome and noxious va- 
pours when it is fed by tainted matter; so love, if it grow in ;i 
vicious mind, produces nothing but shameful desires and crimi- 
nal designs, and is followed with pain, vexation and miser v 
But let it rise in an, upright heart, and bo kindled by an object 
adorned with virtue; it is safe from censure. 

Love, studious how to please, improves our parts 

With polished manners, and adorned with arts. 

It kindles all the soul with Honour's lire; 

Curbs and restrains extravagant desire, 

And to be chaste and kind does still conspire. 

A just heroic passion that can find, 

No room in any base degenerate mind. Drtden. 

In propitious love the heartbeats with joy; vivacity cheen 
the countenance, the eye is brilliant, society is courteS, and all 
the benevolent affections are indulged. But disappointed love. 
on the other hand, is extremely detrimental. It. depresses the 
spirits, enfeebles digestion, takes away the appetite, banishes 
sleep, and not unfrequently produces insanity. History atFords 
many instances of mental derangement from disappointed love— 
The following affecting cases deserve to be mentioned. 

A German lady, of great beauty and accomplishment^ having 
married a Hessian officer ordered to Ammca, and not being able 
to acquire any tidings of him in her own country, er to 

England. Here, she could only learn the destiny of her husband 
from those -hips which had either transported troops to the i 



O F P RESE R V I N G HEALTH. 13J 

inenl or wore bridging back the wounded. Day after day she 
wandered on tiit: beach at Portsmouth, and hour after hour she 
wearied her eyes, bedewed with tears, in the vain expectation 
of seeing him. She was observed at the same spot, ere it was 
light, and watched each motion of the waves until the setting 
-Then her haunted imagination presented him mangled with 
wounds, and the smallest gust of wind seemed to threaten her 
with an eternal separation. After eight months spent in this 
anxious manner, she learned that a vessel bringing some wounded 
I lessian officers had arrived. She kept at some distance, for 
fear of giving too great a shock to her husband's feelings, should 
lie be among them. He was landed with others: she followed 
to the tavern. When she entered the room, he burst into^i flood 
of tears. A lady was supporting him in her arms. What words 

>r painter could represent the tragedy that followed! He had 
married in America, and this person was also his wife. He in* 
treated for "pardon" was past reproach, for in a few minutes 
after he sunk into the arms of death. The lady, whose melan- 
choly history we are recording, rushed from the room, and 
leaving her clothes and money at her lodging, wandered, she 
knew not whether, vowing, "that she would never enter house 
more, or trust man." She stopped at last near Bristol, and 
red the refreshment of a little milk. There w r as something 
so attractive in her whole appearance, as soon produced her 
whatever she requested. She was young, and extremely beau- 
tiful; her manners graceful and elegant, and her countenance in- 
teresting to the last degree. She was alone, a stranger, and in 
extreme distress; she asked only for a little milk, but uttered 
uo complaint, and used no art to excite compassion. Her dress 
and accent bore visible marks that she was a foreigner of supe- 
rior birth. All the day she was seen wandering in search of a 
place to lay her wretched head; she scooped towards night 
a lodging for herself in an old hay stack. Multitudes soon 
(locked around her, in this new habitation, attracted by the no- 
velty of the circumstance, her singular beauty, but, above all, 
suddenness of her arrival. French and Italian were spoken 
10 her, but she appeared not to understand these languages; how- 
eveEj when she was accosted in German, she evidently appeared 



132 ON HYGIEINE, OH I HE ART 

confused, the emotion was too great to be suppressed, she ul- 
tered some faint exclamations in that tongue, and thru, as if Hur- 
ried into an imprudence, she attempted to be also without know- 
ledge of this language. Various conjectures were instantly 
formed, but what seemed passing strange, was, her acceptance 
of no food, except bread or milk, and that only from the hands 
of females. On the men she looked with anger and disdain, but 
sweetly smiled, as she accepted any present from the other sex. 
The neighbouring ladies remonstrated with heron the danger of 
so exposed a situation, but in vain; for neither prayers nor me- 
naces could induce her to sleep in a house. 

Beneath a stack Louisa's dwelling rose, 

Here the fair maniac bore four winter's snows, 

Here long she shiver'd, stifTning in the blast, 

And lightnings round her head their horrors cast, 

Dishevell'd, lo! her beauteous tresses fly, 

And the wild glance now fills the staring eye, 

The balls fierce glaring in their orbits move, 

Bright spheres, where beam'd the sparkling fires of love. 

It may gratify the reader to learn, that it has been ascertained 
since her death, that this fair sufferer was the natural daughter 
of the Emperor Francis of Germany. 

In W , a small village in Saxony, there lived a poor, but 

honest and upright curate, who for many years had enjoyed 
without alloy, the tranquil pleasures of domestic happiness. He 
had a wife, and an only child, a daughter. Content in the sphere 
wherein they were placed, and unacquainted with the turbulent 
passions of the fashionable world, their days flowed quietly on 
in an uniform course of undisturbed felicity. The mother and 
daughter took a joint care of all the domestic concerns, and strove 
by every act of attention and love, to diminish the burden which 
the duties of the good old man imposed on him. Harriet, this 
was the name of his daughter, was in the strict sense of the 
word, the child after his own heart. He was unhappy if she 
were absent even for a few hours; she w r as, therefore, his con- 
stant attendant. — She was about eighteen years old, but had not 



• P PRESERVING HBALTH. 133 

yet experienced the inquietudes of that passion, which often 
exhibits itself in very early life in the great world; and her pritir 
ciples and mode of thinking were too noble and good to inspire 
her parents with even the slightest apprehensions as to the wan- 
derings of her heart. But hear her history. Far different from 
the condition of the Americans, the Saxons are obliged, in time 
of peace, to receive the king's cavalry, which are quartered in 
different villages, where it is maintained at the expense of the 
poor peasantry. Most of the soldiers are riotous young men, who, 
by virtue of their profession and uniform, obtain entrance into the 
houses of all the peasantry, and -even to the curates, to the great 
eorruption of the innocent and virtuous manners of the country 
people. One of them, a handsome, but giddy young man, was 

quartered at W , where he soon made the acquaintance of 

the good old parson. The young soldier had more culture of 
mind than is usually met with in such a class of men. He pleased 
the curate, who often invited him to the parsonage, and listened 
with pleasure to the histories of his battles, and warlike achieve- 
ments. 

The tender-hearted Harriet found great entertainment in the 
oompany of the young warrior, and, like Othello's mistress, 
the story of his life, the battles, sieges, fortunes that lie had 
passed, tlie futir-brcadth 'scapes, the moving accidents by flood and 
field, won her heart. — Love had taken possession of her bosom, 
before she was aware of its approach. She blushed when he 
took her by the hand, and was unhappy when he left her. The 
soldier could not resist the beautiful girl, for his heart was formed 
for love. They therefore soon came to an exphnation, of their 
mutual passion, which, for the present, they agreed to conceal 
from their parents, for fear that prudential motives would cause 
them to oppose it. They bound themselves to each other, how- 
aver, by an oath, which, at the same time that it showed the 
strength of their affection, exhibited the most romantic turn of 
mind. They promised to marry as soon as he could attain the 
rank of sergeant-major, and agreed that the one should destroy 
Ihe otlier, who first failed in tlie engagement. Thus matters stood, 
when, contrary to the wishes of the lovers, a lawyer from a 
neighbouring town applied to thf> father of Harriet fer the 
IS 



154 ON IIYU1EIXF., OK THE \Ri' 

hand of his daughter. He was well received, and his view.* 
promoted by the old people*; but when his intention was deckr- 
ed to the unfortunate girl, she fell into the arms of her father, as 
if struck with lightning, and, on her recovery, wepl bitterly, 
entreating them not to encourage the addresses of this new lover. 
Her parents, being ignorant of the true cause of her aversion, 
thought that time would soon overcome it, and therefore gave 
their solemn promise to the lawyer to second his wishes. Har- 
riet, however, resisted every argument, and remained true to 
her promise; but her parents, at length growing tired of hero] 
sition, determined to employ their authority, which at last pre- 
vailed. The young soldier soon received the intelligence, and 
instantly formed his desperate resolution, for without his h 
Harriet he could not live. A short time before the marria 

day, a dance was given in W , in honour of the pair. To 

this he resorted, unable any longer to resist the desire of seeing 
once more his beloved. He concealed himself among the spec- 
tators until he saw her dance; which roused him to a state of fu- 
ry. He ran home, took a pair of loaded pistols, and waited un- 
til the party broke up. It was a dark night, but he discerned the 
unhappy britle intended, and her bridegroom, walking hand in 
hand. He stepped up to her, and in alow voice, requested tha^ 
she would indulge him with a moment's conversation. She dis- 
engaged her arm from that of the lawyer, intreated him to walk 
on, assuring him she would immediately return: but, alas! she 
was to return no more! A pistol was heard, and when her 
trembling friends reached the place, they found her weltering in 
blood, at the feet of her murderer. "Now art thou mine again,"' 
cried the soldier, in tones of horrid joy, and tied, but not t 
cape. He delivered himself to the officers of justice, and beg- 
ged to be instantly executed, which event, indeed soon followed. 

Learn parents, from this story, the danger of interfering with 
yoiu children's affections in so serious an affair as marriage: for, 

as Shakspeare observes: 

•ire a mailer of more w 
Than to be subject for atton 
For what is wedlock, forced, but a I 



W 9 P B E S E R V I VG HEATH 135 

An age oi' discord and continual strife? 
Whereas the contrary bringeth forth bliss, 
And is a pattern of celestial peace. 

The most dangerous effect of love is jealousy. It is the most 

vain, idle, foolish, and turbulent disease that ever assaulted and 

< ! the mind of mankind. Of all the diseases of the mind, 

which most things serve for aliment and fewest for 

p 

Bonaventur, sitting at a table, and looking earnestly upon a 
beautiful woman present, was asked, by her husband, why he so 
gazed? He answered: "That he admired the excellency of the 
Creator by contemplating tlie beauty of the creature; and that if 
mortals were so amiable, how lovely should we be at the resur- 
rection." This was an example, saith Boschier, that was rather 
to be admired than imitated; suitable to the golden age, and not 
this present iron age of the world, wherein jealousy may be com- 
pared to the Indian arrows, so envenomed, that if they prick the 
skin it is very dangerous; but if they draw blood, it is irrecover- 
ably death: the first motions that rise from this root of bitterness 
have their evil effects; but where the disease is improved, it 
empoisons all our comforts, and throws us headlong into the most 
tragical resolutions. \. 

The Marquis of Astorgas, of the family of Osorio, indulged 
himself in an illicit intercourse with a most beautiful young wo- 
man. His wife, on being informed of his intrigue, went imme- 
diately to the house where her husband's mistress lived, and 
murdered her in the most cruel manner. She tore her heart from 
her bosom, and took it home, ordering it to be hashed and served 
up to her husband for dinner. 

After he had eaten of it, she asked him if it were good? and, 
on his answering yes, she said, she was not in the least surprised, 
for il was the heart of his mistress, whom he so clearly loved. 
At the same time, she drew from a cupboard the bleeding head 
of his murdered favorite, and rolled it on the table at which this 
unhappy lover was sitting with his friends. 

His wife immediately departed, and took refuge in a convent, 
where she soon afterwards went mad with rage and jealousy. 



136 OK HVfvTKINE, OH TUB ART 

Earth has no rage likelove to hatred turn'd, 
Nor hell a fury like a woman scorn'd. 

Dryden. 

The power of beauty is universally acknowledged, having 
been the object of love and admiration in all times and among all 
nations. But, alas! what is beauty without the graces of virtue* 

In Italy there grows an herb called the Basilisco; it is sweet- 
scented enough, hut, withal, has this strange property, that 
being laid under a stone in a moist place, in a few days it pro- 
duces a scorpion. Thus, though the woman, in her first crea- 
tion, was intended as a help for man, the partner of his joys and 
Cares, the sweet perfume and relish of his days throughout his 
whole pilgrimage: yet there are some so far degenerated from 
their primitive institution, though otherwise of exterior beauty 
and perfection enough, that they have proved more intolerable 
than scorpions, not only tormenting the life, but hastening the 
death of their too indulgent husbands. 

Not that my verse would blemish all the fair, 
But yet, if some be bad, 'tis wisdom to beware; 
And better shun the bait, than struggle in the snare. 

Dryden. 

Joan, grand-child to Robert, king of Naples, succeeded her 
grand-father in the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, a woman of 
beautiful person, and rare endowments of nature. She was first 
married to her cousin Andrew, a prince of royal extraction and 
of sweet disposition; but being lasciviously disposed, she grew 
weary of him, and caused him to be strangled in the night and 
then threw out his corpse into the garden, where it lay some days 
unburied. It is said her husband, on seeing her twisting a thick 
string of silk and silver, asked for what purpose she made it; 
she answered, u to hang you in!" which he then little believed; 
the rather, because those who intend such mischief use not to 
speak of it before-hand; but it seems she was as good as hei- 
word. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 137 

O fairest of creation ! last and best 
Of all God's works ! creature in whom excelled 
Whatever can to sight or thought be formed, 
Holy, divine, good, amiable, or sweet! 
How art thou lost. 

MlLTOJf. 

Love is never more abused than by those men who do not de- 
sign to marry. It will generally be found, that libertines will 
single out from among the herd of females, a raw, innocent, 
young creature, who thinks all the world as sincere as herself, 
to whom they design to make their addresses. They take every 
opportunity to be in their company, and pretend to zeal in love-, 
when it is nothing but lust that fires them. 

When men's desires and lusts once sated are, 
For oaths and promises they little care. 

The female, who yields her virtue to the brutal desires of a 
false lover, degrades herself in his estimation by the infidelity 
she commits, and the surrender of so precious a jewel inspires d 
remorse and shame, when she ceases to be beloved, that consti- 
tutes the bitterest woe of life. 

It is surely matter of wonder, that these destroyers of innocence > 
though dead to all the higher sentiments of virtue and honour, 
•are not restrained by compassion and humanity. To bring sor- 
row, confusion, and infamy into a family; to wound the heart of 
a tender parent, and stain the life of a poor deluded young wo- 
man, with a dishonour which never can be wiped off, are cir- 
cumstances one would think sufficient to check the most violent 
passion, in a heart the least susceptible of feeling, 



138 ON IIYGIK IX] :. (1 R T H F. ART 



OF HOPE. 



'.'Hope springs immortal in the human bi 

Man never is, but ab 

Happiness, our ben daira, 

Good, Pleasure, Ease, Content, whate'er thy nai 

That something still, which prompts the el i 

For which wc bear to live, or <!;•.; ( >0 i'i 

Hope is the anticipation of joy, or die presentiment of an ex- 
pected good. It is attended with all the favourable effects of a 
fortunate event, without possessing any of its physical advan- 
tages; because the expectation of ha:> tesnot affect ua so 

excessively as its enjoyment. Beside;-;, it is not. liable to those 
interruptions, from which no human pleasure is exempt; it is 
employed principally with ideal or imaginary objects, and { 
rally keeps within the bounds of moderation; lastly, the 
of happiness contained in hope, far exceeds the satisfaction re- 
ceived from immediate enjoyment, consequently il has a more be- 
neficial influence on health, than good fortune realized. Although 
hope is in itself only ideal, and presents its flattering images to 
the fancy in a borrowed light, yet it is nevertheless the only ge- 
nuine source of human happiness. 

With thee, sweet Hope! resides the heavenly light, 

That pours renwDtest rapture on the sight: 

Thine is the charm of life's bewilder'd way, 

That calls each slurnb'ring passion into play. 

Wak'd by thy touch, I see the sister band, 

On tiptoe watching, start at thy command, 

And fly where'er thy mandate bids them steer, 

To Pleasure's path, or Glory's bright career. Campbell. 

The poet Ilcsiod tells us, that the miseries and calamities ol 
mankind were included in a great tun; that Pandora took off the 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 139 

lid of it, sent them abroad, and they spread themselves in great 
quantities over all lands and seas; but at this time, 

Hope only did remain behind, and flew not all abroad, 
But underneath the utmost brim and ledge it still abode. 

And this is that which is our principal antidote, which keep* 
our hearts from bursting under the pressure of evils; and that 
flattering mirror that gives us a prospect of greater good. Hence 
some call it the manna from Heaven, that comforts us in all ex- 
tremities; others the pieasant and honest flatterer, that caresses. 
the unhappy with expectation of happiness in the bosom of fu- 
turity. 

A very notable case of the influence of Hope on the human 

tody, and its maladies, is recorded in the history of the long 

e of Breda, in 1625, by a physician, eye witness of the fact. 

That City, from a long siege, suffered all the miseries that fa- 
tigue, bad provisions, and distress of mind could bring on its in- 
habitants. Among other misfortunes the scurvy made its appear- 
ancc, and carried off great numbers. This, added to other cala- 
mities, induced the garrison to incline towards a surrender of the 
place, when the Prince of Orange, anxious to prevent its loss, 
and unable to relieve the garrison, contrived to introduce let^ 
tcrs addressed to the men, promising them the most speedy 
assistance. These were accompanied with newly discovered 
medicines against the scurvy, of a most extraordinary price, but 
still more extraordinary efficacy. To each physician were given 
three small vials, filled with drops of such sovereign power, that 
four drops were sufficient to impart a healing virtue to a gallon of 
liquor. We now, says the physician, who was one of the eye- 
witnesses of this curious fact, began to display our wonder- 
working balsams. Nor were even the commanders let into the. 
secret of the cheat upon the soldiers. All who had the scurvy 
crowded around us to take their doses. Cheerfulness again ap- 
pear in every countenance, and the universal faith prevails in the 
ereign virtues of the remedy. The effect of this delusion 
\\ as truly astonishing. Many who had not moved their limbs for 
i\ month before, were seen walking the streets erect and perfect- 



140 ON HYGIKINE, OR THE AKi 

ly cared. Many who declared they had been rendered worse by 
all former remedies, recovered in a few days, to their inexpres- 
sible joy, and the no less general surprise, by their taking, what 
we affirm to be, their gracious Prince's cure. 

"•This curious relation," adds Dr. Lind, "would hardly per- 
haps gain credit, were it not in every respect consonant to the 
most accurate observations, and hest attested description of that 
disease. It is given us by an eye-witness, an author of great 
candour and veracity, who as lie informs us, wrote down every 
day the state of his patients, and seems more to be surprised with 
their unexpeeted recovery, than he probably would have been, 
had he been acquainted with 'lie nature of this surprising malady. 
An important lesson in physic," adds this excellent writer, "is 
hence to be learned; the wonderful influence of the passions of 
the mind on the state and disorders of the body. This is too 
often overlooked in the cure of disorders, many of which are 
sometimes attempted by the sole mechanical operation of drugs, 
without calling in to our assistance the strong powers of the imagi- 
nation, or the concurring influences of the soul. Hence it is, that 
the same remedy will not always produce the same effect, even in 
the same person; and that common remedies often prove wonder- 
folly successful in the hands of men not of the faculty, which do 
not answer the purpose in a timorous and distrustful patient." 

Primeval Hope, the Aonian muses say, 

When Man and Nature mourn'd their first decays 

When every form of death, and every wo, 

Shot from malignant stars to earth below; 

When Murder bared her arm, and rampant War 

Yok'd the red dragons of her iron car; 

When Peace and Mercy banish'd from the plain. 

Sprung on the viewless winds to Hcav'n again; 

All, all forsook the friendless guilty mind, 

But hope, the charmer, linger'd still behind. Campbell. 

A certain Ehodi?n, for his over freedom in speech, was i 
by a tyrant into a cage, and there kept as a w ild beast, to his 
great pain and shame: for his hands were cut oti, his nostrils 
slit, and his face deformed by several wounds upon it. In thr* 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 141 

extremity, he was advised by some of his friends to shorten his 
life by a voluntary abstinence from all food. But he rejected 
their counsel with great indignation; and told them, "While a 
man is alive, all things arc to be hoped for by him." 

Cease, every joy, to glimmer on my mind, 

But leave — oh! leave the light of Hope behind! 

What though my winged hours of bliss have been, 

Like angel-visits, few and far between! 

Her musing mood shall every pang appease, 

And charm when pleasures lose the power to please ! 

Campbell. 

But Hope ill-grounded does often trick and bubble the owner, 
as it did the Spanish woman that, coming with three of her sons 
a begging to a French shoemaker that lived in Spain, he said to 
her one day, " Good woman, I will ease thee of some part of 
thy charge; for if thou leave one of thy sons with me I will 
breed him up in my trade, and make him capable of living like a 
man, and to be helpful to his parents also." " God forbid," said 
the woman, " that I should cast away my child to a stranger, and 
bring him up to so pitiful a mechanic trade as a shoemaker, since 
I live in hopes that the eldest will be Viceroy of Naples, the se* 
oond of Mexico, and the youngest of Sardinia. 

Hope, Fortune's cheating lottery ! 

Where, for one prize, a hundred blanks there be 

Fond archer, Hope ! who tak'st thy aim so far, 

That still, or short or wide, thy arrows are. 

Thin empty cloud ! which th' eye deceives 

With shapes that our own fancy gives: 

A cloud, which gilt and painted, now appears, 

But must drop presently in tears. 

Brother of Fear! more gaily clad! 

The merrier fool o' the two, but quite as mad. Drydes. 



IS 



142 ox iiy(,ii;im;, oh i jlk akt 



OP JOY. 

Pi casurei are ever in our hands or < \ 
And when, in act, they cease, in prospect, i 
"reseat to grasp, and future still to find, 
The whole employ of body and of mind. 
All spread their charms, but charm not all alike; 
On diff'rent senses, diff'rent objects strike; 
Hence diff'rent Passions, more or less inflame, 
As stmg or weak, the organs of the frame; 
And hence one master passion in the bn 
Like Aaron's serpent, swallows up the rest. Port. 

The consideration of some present good, and which particu- 
larly belongs to us, begets in the soul that delight which wc call 
joy; for as soon as our understanding observes that we arc pos- 
sessed of the good we desired, the imagination presently makes 
some impression in the brain, from whence proceeds a motion of 
the sensitive soul, and of the spirits, that excites the passion of 
joy. By it the activity of the whole machine is enlivened; the ac- 
tion of the heart and arteries is increased; the circulation of .all 
the fluids is more vigorous and uniform; preventing the formation 
of disease, and facilitating the cure of such as arc formed. 

There are several degrees of joy, as various circumstances 
may intervene; and so may we distinguish various differences of 
the passion itself; for there is no pleasure or good that may not 
be mixed with aome ill or inconvenience. Our extrcmest plea- 
sure has still some air of groaning and complaining in it, unless 
it be discreetly moderated. It proves fatal to us when it grows 
into excess. 

Ptolemeus Philadclphus had received the sacred volumes of 
the law of God, newly brought out of Judea; and while he held 
them with great reverence in his hands, praising God upon that 
account, all that were present made a joyful exclamation; and the 
king himself was so overjoyed, that he broke out into tears. Na- 
ture having so ordered it, that the expression of sorrow should 
also be the follower of extraordinary joys. 



0"F PRESERVING HEALTH. 143 

Askew, a wealthy and facetious farmer of Cornwall, was af- 
flicted with a most alarming imposthumation, of which he ap- 
peared to be on the very point of suffocation. Concluding, from 
his agonies, that he had but a few moments to live, his servants, 
an ungrateful crew to such a generous master, began to plunder. 
One seized his gold watch, another laid violent hands on his plate, 
and the third, more daring still, broke his bureau, and began 
to finger his gold. A monkey, who was present, seeing what 
they were about, and thinking he might as well take a hand in the 
game, laid hold of his master's wig, and with his gold-headed 
cane, made him a low bow, and began to walk about the room as 
a man of great consequence. The stately stoppings and self- 
assumed dignity of Jacko, so tickled the fancy of Mr. Askew, 
as to excite a most immoderate fit of laughter. The imposthu- 
mation burst, the purulent matter was thrown up — and, to the 
eternal confusion of his servants, Mr. Askew perfectly recover- 
ed his health. 

Philemon, a comic poet, beholding an ass eating some figs that 
a boy had laid down; when the boy returned, " Go now," said he, 
" and fetch the ass some drink;" the old man was so tickled with 
the fancy of his own jest, that he died laughing. In the same 
manner, and much upon the same occasion, died Crysippus. 

Diagoras, the Rhodian, when he saw his three sons all victo- 
rious in the Olympic games, and crowned the same day, he was 
extremely pleased; but when his sons came and embraced their 
aged father, and each put their triumphal wreath upon his head, 
he was so overcome with joy and delight, that he fell into their 
arms, and died. 

If we have anticipated any joyful event, the body is gradually 
prepared to undergo the emotions connected with it. For this 
reason we ought to fortify ourselves with the necessary share of 
firmness, to meet joyful as well as disastrous tidings. 



\44 OJv HVGIEINE, OK. TUB ART 



OP GRIEF. 

tr is Che great art of life to manage well 

The restless mind. For ever on pursuit 

Of knowledge bent, it starves tlie grosser power? 

Quite unemployed, against its own repose 

Tt turns its fatal edge, and sharper pangs 

Than what the body knows, embitter life. 

Chiefly were solitude, the nurse of care, 

To sickly musing gives .the pensive mind, 

There madness enters; and the dim-eyed fiend, 

Sour melancholy, night and day provokes 

Her own eternal wound. ***** Armstrong. 

Grief, like a poison, corrodes the powers of the mind and 
body, it enfeebles the whole nervous system; the heartbeats 
slower; the circulation of the blood, and other fluids, become 
more inert; the appetite and digestion become vitiated, and thus 
arise obstructions and other distressing complaints. Tears are 
the anodynes of grief, and ought, therefore, not to be restrained. 
They have a tendency to prevent the danger to be apprehended ■ 
from grief, by diminishing the spasmodic motions in the breast 
and head; and by restoring regularity in respiration, as well as 
in the circulation of the blood. 

A widow lady was left in narrow circumstances with a boy and 
girl, two beautiful and lovely children, the one six, and the other 
seven years of age. As her circumstances allowed her to keep 
but one maid servant, these two children were the sole attention, 
employment, and consolation of her life. She fed them, dressed 
them, slept with them, and taught them herself. They were 
both 'snatched from her by the gangrenous sore throat, in one 
week; so that she lost at once all that employed her, as well as 
all that was dear to her. For the first three or four days after 
their death, when any friend visited her, she sat upright with 
her eyes wide open, without shedding tears, and ali'ected to'spcak 
of indifferent things. Afterwards she began to weep much, and 
for some weeks talked to her friends of nothing else but her deal 
children; but did not for many years, even to her dying hour, get 
quite over a gloom which was left upon her countenance. 



OF PRESERVING II F. A L T H. 145 

When any cause of deep grief is presented to the mind it fre- 
quently gains such a force as almost totally to exclude all thoughts, 
except those that are connected with it. Hence the whole ima- 
gination is, hy degrees, obscured, and the most usual conse- 
quences of it are the deepest melancholy, succeeded by insani- 
ty — and sometimes, that speedier dissolution, "a broken heart." 

When the Turks came to raise the siege of Buda, there was 
amongst the German captains a nobleman called Rayschachius, 
whose son, a valiant young gentleman, having got out of the ar- 
my without his father's knowledge, he behaved so gallantly in 
fight against the enemy, in the sight of his father and of the ar- 
my, that he was highly commended of all men, and especially of 
his father, who did not know he was his son; yet before he 
could clear himself he was compassed in by the enemy, and, va- 
liantly fighting, was slain. Rayschachius, exceedingly moved 
by the death of a brave man, ignorant how near it touched him- 
self, turning about to the other captains, said "This worthy gen- 
tleman, whosoever lie be, deserves eternal commendation, and to 
he honourably buried by the whole army." As the rest of the 
captains were with like compassion approving his speech, the 
dead body of the unfortunate son was presented to the most mi- 
serable father, which caused all who were present to shed tears; 
but such a sudden and inward grief surprised the aged father, and 
struck so to his heart, that after he had stood awhile speechless, 
with his eyes fixed, he fell down dead. 

The melioration of grief by time, and its being at length even 
attended by pleasure, depends on our retaining any distinct idea 
of the last object, and forgetting for a time the idea of the loss 
of it. This pleasure of grief is beautifully described by Akenside. 

* * * Ask the faithful youth 

Why the cold urn of her whom long he lov'd 

So often fills his arms: so often draws 

His lonely footsteps at the silent hour 

To pay the mournful tribute of his tears? 

Oh! he will tell thee, that the wealth of world.* 

Should ne'er seduce his bosom to ibrciro 



146 OX HYGIEINE, Oil THE A K I 

That sacred hour, when stealing from the ooi 
Of care and envy, sweet rcmcnii> oths 

With Virtue's kindest looks, his aching breast. 
And turns his tears to rapture. 

Whilst the great genius of physic, Hippocrates, drove awaj 
maladies by his precepts, and almost snatched bodies out of the 
hands of death, one Antiphon arose in Greece, who, envious oJ 
his glory, promised to do upon souls what the other did on bodies; 
and proposed the sublime invention, which Plutarch calls the 
art of curing grief ', where we may truly say, he used more vani- 
ty*, promises, and show of words than he wrought effects. Cer- 
tainly it were to be wished that all ages which arc abundant in 
misery should likewise produce great comforts to soften the cala- 
mities of human life. 

O! canst thou minister to a mind diseased, 

Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow, 

Rase out the written troubles of the brain; 

And, with some sweet oblivious antidote, 

Cleanse the stuff 'd bosom of that perilous stuff 

Which weighs upon the heart? Shakspeare. 

In the Pagan religion, the power of dying was the great conso- 
lation in irremediable distress. Seneca says, "No one need be 
unhappy, unless by his own fault." — And the author, of Telemachus 
begins his work by saying, that Calypso could not console herself 
for the loss of Ulysses, and found herself unhappy in being im- 
mortal. But to the Christian this one suggestion, I know that m\ 
Redeemer liveth affords a richer cordial to the fainting sou], 'lirn 
all the volumes of Heathen Philosophy. 

Many are the sayings of the wise 
In ancient and in modern books enrolL'd, 
Extolling patience as the truest fortitude. 
And to the bearing well of all calamities, 
All chances incident to man's frail life. 
Many are the consolatary writs form'd 
With studied argument and persuasion; 
But with th' afflicted in his pangs such sounds 






0] PRESERVING HEALTH. 147 

Little prevail, or rather seem a tune 

1 larsh and of dissonant mood from his complaint: 

Unless he feel within 

Some source of consolation from above, 

Secret refreshings, that repair his strength, 

And fainting spirits uphold. Milton. 

In the midst of all distresses, there remains to every sincere 
Christian, that mixture of pure and genuine consolation, which 
springs from the promises and hopes of a future life. Consider 
what a singular distinction this makes in your situation, beyond 
the state of those who, under the various troubles of life, are 
left without hope; without any thing to look up to, but a train of 
unknown causes and accidents, in which they see no light or com- 
fort. Thank the Father of Mercies, that into all the evil- he 
sends, he infuses joyful Iwpe, that the sufferings of the present time 
are not worthy to be compared with the glory that shall be revealed 
in the end to the virtumis and good. Have we sustained the great- 
est of all losses? It is his gain that he yet liveth, that this life is 
hut the threshold, the portal, the entrance to a better place, and 
that his happiness is as complete as our misery is great. Let us 
turn our eyes from earth to heaven, from the perishable body to 
that which endureth forever; and even whilst we are heavy with 
affliction, let us smile with our eyes turned upwards, and say, "It 
is thy will, I submit. He is happy. I would not wish him back to 
a troublesome world. I soon shall follow after him. The mortal 
hath put on immortality— We shall then meet, never to be sepa- 
rated more." 

Think, then, ye mourning parents, nor complain 
For breathless children, as ye weep in vain. 
Why should you be in lamentations drown'd, 
While your young babes with victory are crown'd, 
Hdbre the sword was drawn, or cruel strife 
! lad shed its venom on the ills of life? 
Perhaps Almighty God foresaw some vile, 
Some tempting evil that should them beguile; 
Of sore adversity, a dreadful storm, 
Or of dire wickedness, a mopstrous form. 



148 



ON HYGIEINE, OR THE AIM 



How then in words which nothing can avail, 
Against that kind precaution dare you rail? 
Remember, that of them you're not. bereav'd, 
But from "the coming evil they are sav'd." 



A.N&ETELL 



OF FEAR. 

Timorous self-love, with sick'ning fancy's aid, 
Presents the (lunger that you dread the most, 
And ever galls you in your tender part 

. some for love, and some for jealousy, 
Have lost their reason: some for fear of want, 
Want all their lives; and others every day, 
For fear of dying suffer worse than death. 
Is there an evil worse than fear itself? 
And what avails that indulgent Heaven 
i'i »m mortal eyes has wrapt the. woes to come, 
If we, ingenious to torment ourselves, 
Grow pale at hideous fictions of our own? 



Armstrong. 



Fear has its origin in the apprehension of danger, and i? 
kindly placed in man as a sentinel for self-preservation. But, like 
every other passion the excess of it is pernicious. 

O Fear, I know thee by my throbbing heart; 

Thy withering power inspir'd each mournful line: 

Though gentle Pity claim her mingled part, 

Yet all the thunders of the scene are thine. Collins. 

Don Diego Osorius, a Spaniard of a noble family, being it* 
love with a young lady of the court, had prevailed with her for 
a private conference under the shady boughs of a tree, that grew 
within the gardens of the king of Spain: but, by the unfortunate 
barking of a little dog, their privacy was betrayed, and the young 
gentleman seized by some of the king's guard, was imprisoned. 
It was a capital crime to be found in that plaec, and, therefore he 
was condemned to die. He was so terrified at the hearing of 
his sentence, that-one and the same night saw the same pcrsou 
young, and all turned grey as in age. The jailor, moved at the 






OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 149 

Bight, related the accident to king Ferdinand, as a prodigy; who, 
thereupon, pardoned him; saying, "He had been sufficiently pun- 
ished for his fault, seeing he had exchanged the flower of his 
youth into the hoary hairs of age." 

I knew a surgeon, says Dr. Darwin, who was always rather of 
a parsimonious disposition, had a large house, with a fortune of 
forty thousand pounds left him; and in a few weeks became insane 
from tli? fear of poverty; lamenting that he would die in a jail 
or a work-house. He had left off a laborious country practice 
and the daily perception of profit in his books; he also now saw 
greater expenses going on in his new house than ho had been ac- 
customed to observe, and did not so distinctly see the source of 
supply; which seems to have occasioned the maniacal hallucina- 
tion. The fear of hell, continues he, has also, in some instances, 
been attended with fatal effects. In this kind of madness, the 
poor patients frequently commit suicide; although they believe 
they run headlong into the very hell which they dread! 

It is said of Epicurus, a profane teacher, that never was a 
school boy more afraid of a rod, than he was of the thoughts of 
a God and death. No man more feared the things w'aich he 
taught should be despised, than himself. For whatever there is 
in the air, there is certainly an elastical power in the conscience, 
that will bear itself up, notwithstanding all the weight that is 
laid upon it. 

Conscience, the torturer of the soul, unseen, 
Docs fiercely brandish a sharp scourge within. 
Severe decrees may keep our tongues in awe, 
But to our thoughts what edict can give law? 
Even you, yourself, to your own breast shall tell 
\ our crimes, and your own conscience be your hell. 

Dryden. 

The wretched state of Richard the Third, after he had mur- 
dered his nephews, is thus described by Sir Thomas Moore: "I 
have heard," said) he, '•' by credible reports, that after this abom- 
inable deed he never had quiet in his mind, and never thoiHit 
himself safe. "When he went abroad his eye&, whirled about 
20 



150 ON HYftlEINE, OR THE \RT 

his body was privily fenced, his hand ever on his dagger, his 
countenance and manner like one who was ever ready to strike: 
he took no rest in the night, lay Ion*;- waking and mm 
wearied with care and watching, and rather slumbered than slept, 
troubled with fearful dreams: he sometimes started suddenly up, 
leaped out of his bed, and ran about the chamber: his restless 
heart was continually tossed and tumbled with the tedious im- 
pression and stormy remembrance of his horrid and abominable 
deeds." 

Conscience, what art thofl? thou mysterious pow'r, 

That dost inhabit us without our leave, 

And art within ourselves another self, 

A master self, that loves to domineer, 

And treat the monarch frankly as the slave*, 

How dost thou light a torch to distant deeds, 

Make the past, present, and the future frown: 

How, ever and anon, awake the soul, 

As with a peal of thunder, to strange horrors ! 

Seiakspea&b. 

The rich Cardinal of "Winchester, Henry Beaufort, who pro- 
cured the death of the good Duke of Gloucester, was sod'n after 
struck with an incurable, disease; and, understanding by his phy- 
sicians, that he could not live, he expressed himself thus; ct iv, 
will not death be hired? Will money do nothing? Must I die 
who have such great riches? If the whole realm of England 
would save my life, I am able, either by policy to get. it, or by 
riches to buy it. 1 ' But the king of terrors is not to be bribed by 
gold. It is a pleasure to him to mix the brains of princes and 
politicians with common dust; and how loath soever he was to 
depart, yet grim death would sieze upon him. 

How shocking must thy summons be, O death! 
To him that is at ease in his possessions; 
Who, counting on long years of pleasure hero, 
Is quite unfurnisb'd for the world to coine? 
In that dread moment, how the frantic soul 
Raves round the walls of her clay tenement, 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 151 

Rushes to each avenue, and shrieks for help, 

But shrieks in vain. ****** 

*********** The foe, 

Like a staunch murderer, steady to his purpose, 

Pursues him close through every lane of life. 

Nor misses once the track, but presses on, 

Till forc'd at last to the tremendous verge, 

At once he sinks to everlasting ruin. Flair. 

The best remedy against this torturing state of the mind is a, 
good conscience, which is to the soul what health is to the body. 
It preserves a constant ease and serenity within us, and more thaa 
countervails all the calamities and afflictions that can befal us. 

When the mind has been under the influence of sudden sur.-.. 
prise, or vehement attention to some interesting object, it ha$ 
frequently suspended, and even entirely cured, ague and fever, 
asthma, and other chronic diseases. 

An officer, of great courage, who had contracted the asthma 
by long service in India, declares, that during a most severe at- 
taek of that complaint, when he could scarcely breathe in an 
erect posture, and without power to move, as he thought, six 
yards to save his life, the alarm guns were fired for the whole 
line to turn out, because the Mahrattas broke into the camp. 
Knowing that certain death would be his portion if he remained 
in his tent, he sprung out with an alacrity that amazed his attend- 
ants, instantly mounted his horse, and with great ease drew his 
suord, which the day before /ie could not move from its scabbard y 
though he liad used his whole strength in the attempt. From the 
instant of the alarm, the debility left him, together with the astkma, 
nor did the disorder return for some time after. 

I have frequently observed, says the ingenious author of the 
.Medical Extracts, delicate hysterical women, who, for many 
months, had seldom enjoyed one day's health, suddenly relieved 
from every complaint, when a favourite child was attacked with 
a disease, in which danger was apprehended: and they continued 
in appearance, to be in perfect health during the whole course of 
the illness, and exhibited an unusual alertness in discharging their 
duty as nurses an,d parents. But when they understood that the 



152 ON MYGIEINE, Olt THE ART 

danger was over, their former complaint gradually returned, tu 
their great surprise; for from the health they had lately enjoyed, 
and from so considerable a time, they believed themselves per- 
fectly cured. 

A very remarkable instance of the influence the mind has upon 
disorders of the body, occurred to the celebrated Boerhaave. A 
person fell down in an epileptic fit in the sight of other patients. 
The effect of this operated so strongly that great numbers of 
them became immediately affected in the same manner. The 
opinion of the great physician above mentioned was requested 
on this occasion. He judiciously reflected, that, as these fits 
were originally produced by an impression on the mind, that tin- 
most proper means of cure would be to eradicate these impres- 
sions by others still more powerful lie therefore directed actual 
cauteries to be prepared, and kept hot, in readiness to be applied 
to the person who should next be affected. Tlic consequence ivas, 
not one person icas seized. 

Through a most criminal inattention to children in the nursery, 
a foundation is sometimes laid in their tender minds for those 
superstitious terrors, from which not all their efforts in subse- 
quent life can entirely relieve them. I allude to those dismal 
stories about Witches, Spirits, Hobgoblins, Raic-licad and bloody- 
bones, wherewith silly nurses, especially poor blacks, are so fond 
of frightening infants. Considering the importance of deep im- 
pressions made during those tender years, parents cannot too 
strictly forbid every thing of this sort; neither can they ever 
exceed in their generous labours to illuminate the minds of their 
children with lofty ideas of their Creator, and that mighty power 
which he will never fail to exert in their favor, if they will but 
be good. 

Timorous persons are more readily infected by contagious dis- 
orders, than those possessed of fortitude. Hence it is we find 
nurses most frequently escape contagion, while persons of a fear- 
ful disposition contract the disease on entering the chamber of 
the sick only once or twice. 

Persons under a violent fit of fear, should be treated like those 
who suffer from any other spasmodic contraction. Tea, a little 



OF PEE3BRVING HEALTH. 158 

wine, or spirits and water may be given to them; vinegar, kiven- 
der-drops, or spirits of hartshorn may be held to the nostrils; 
warm bathing of the feet, and emollient injections may be of ad- 
vantage; but above all, the mind ought to be duly composed.-r- 
Exccssive bashfulness borders on fear; it may be corrected by 
social intercourse with persons of a cheerful disposition. 



OF ANGER. 

When reason, like a skilful charioteer, 
Can break the fiery passions to the bit, 
And, spite of their licentious sallies, keep 
The radiant track of glory; passions, then, 
Are aids and ornaments. * * * t * 1> Yonifc. 

Resentment of urong is a useful principle in human nature; and 
for the wisest purposes was implanted in our frame. It is the 
necessary guard of private rights; and the great restraint on the 
insolence of the violent, who, if no insistence were made, would 
trample on the gentle and peaceable. But in the fulness of self- 
estimation, we are too apt to forget what we are. We are rig- 
orous to offences, as if we did not daily intreat Heaven for mer- 
cy. It is a vice that few persons are able to conceal; for if it 
do not betray itself by external signs, such as sudden paleness of 
the countenance, and trembling of the joints, it is more impetuous 
within. 

Pale and trembling Anger rushes in, 

With falt'ring speech, and eyes that wildly stare^ 

Fierce as the tiger, madder than the seas, 

Desperate, and arm'd with more than human strength, 

He whom Anger stings, drops, if he dies, 

At once, and rushes apoplectic down; 

Or a fierce fever hurries him to hell. Armstrong. 

Those wlw feel the approach of anger in their mind, should 
as much as possible, divert their attention from the object of pro- 



154 



OX HTGIEIXE, OR THE AIM 



vocation, and remain silent. They should never use loud oatha, 
violent upbraidings, or strong- « mntenance, or 

gesticulations ol* the arms, or clenched lists; as these, by their 
former associations with anger, will contribute to incr< ase it. I 
have been told, says Dr. Darwin, of a sergeant or corporal, who 
began moderately to cane his soldiers, when they were awkward 
in their exercise; but being addicted to swearing and coarse lan- 
guage, he used soon to enrage himself by his own expressions ol 
anger, till, toward the end, he was liable to beat the delinquents 
unmercifully. Is this not applicable to some of us, in the treat- 
ment of our slaves? 

A gentleman in New-Castle county, Delaware, was so enraged 
with a neighbouring slave, for persevering, contrary to his or- 
ders, to visit a female servant in his family, that he bought him 
of his master at a high price, for the express purpose of getting 
satisfaction; that is, to give him a severe flogging, and then to 
sell him to a negro-buyer. What with the bitter curses and blows 
he inflicted upon the poor fellow, tied hands and foci, his anger 
rose at length to a flame he could not control, and, by the time 
the master had lost the power to inflict, the poor slave, had lost 
the power to sutler — having literally expired under his cruel 
hands. 

A sea captain, in Charleston, South Carolina, navigated his 
vessel with the help of three slaves. On some provocation from 
one of them, he laid hold of the offender, who was so alarmed at 
his master's looks, that he jerked away from him. Roused to fury 
by such an act of treason, as this appeared to him, the master 
eaught up a broad axe, and with the looks and voice of a demon, 
ordered his other slaves "to seize the d d villain." Fright- 
ened out of their wits, they seized their fellow-servant, and the 
master black with rage, and regardless of his prayers and sup- 
plications, had him dragged to a block, and in a most barbarous 
manner struck off his head. 

Although the law9 of the land did not sentence these inhuman 
masters to death, yet neither of them long survived their infernal 
acts. The gnawings of a blood-stained conscience soon brought 
them down to the s?rave. 



OP P B ESEBVl N G II E A I- T II . 155 

Cmclhj is the extreme of all vices, an offence to God, abhor- 
rence to nature, the grief of good men, and a pleasure only to 
devils and monsters divested of humanity. Justice may take 
away a man's life, to punish his offences, and to deter others by 
his example, from the commission of the same crimes; but to do 
it by racks and other torments, favours little of humanity, less 
of Christianity. 

How many millions of men have the Spaniards butchered in 
South America? Bartholomew Casa affirms, that in forty-five 
years they destroyed about ten millions of human souls; an un- 
accountable way of converting these poor savages to Christianity. 
These millions were butchered outright, and if we add those 
who died labouring in the miues, doing the drudgery of asses, 
oxen, and mules, to what avast number would they amount? 
Some of them carry burdens upon their backs of a hundred and 
sixty pounds weight, above three hundred miles. How many 
of these poor wretches have perished by water as well as by 
land, by diving fathoms deep, fishing for pearl, who stay there 
sometimes half an hour under water, panting and drawing the 
same breath all the while, and are fed on purpose with course 
biscuit and dry things, to make them long winded. And if what 
is reported be true, they hunt the poor Indians with dogs to make 
themselves sport. There is a story of Hathir Cacica, a stout 
Indian, who, being to die, was persuaded by a Franciscan friar 
to turn Christian, and then he should go to heaven; Cacica asked 
him "Whether there were any Spaniards in heaven?" "Yes," 
says the friar, "it is full of them." "Stay, then," said the In- 
dian, "I had rather go to hell than have any more of their com- 
pany." 

A young gentleman in Augusta, Georgia, going to a party in 
the neighborhood, in a gig, had not got out of the street, before 
his horse balked. The youth, leaping from his gig, and angrily 
catching his horse by the bridle, led him off. Having mounted 
his gig, he cracked his whip for a second start; but his horse had 
not gone many steps, before he unfortunately fell back again. — 
Leaping from the gig in a violent rage, he struck his horse over 
the head with a loaded whip, and then attempted to lead him off 
once more. Frighted by such violence^ the animal, in place, of 



156 Olf HYGIEINE, OR THE ART 

moving forward, drew hack. Enraged by such obstinacy, lh< 

young man repeated his hlows with the whip until it broke, 
which rather increased the perturbation of his mind. By this 
time, finding himself surrounded by unwelcomi ors of his 

brutal conduct, he became more furious; and sna 
club, continued his unmerciful blows, until he brought the horse 
to the ground; when, after a few struggles, his blood and brains 
flowing copiously, the poor annimal expired. 

As anger is a short madness, so patience is a recollection of 
all requisite virtues, that enables us to withstand the assaults of 
the former, and to behave ourselves like sober and prudent men. 

When Xenocrates came one time to the house of Plato to 
yisit him, he prayed him, "that he would beat his servant for 
him, in regard he himself was not at preseut so fit to do it, be- 
cause he was in a passion." Another time, he said to one of his 
servants, "tliat he would beat him sufficiently, but that he was 
angry." 

Forgiveness of injuries, and a merciful disposition towards 
those who have offended us, are not only infallible marks of a 
great and noble mind, but are our indispensable duties as reason- 
able creatures, and peculiarly so as Christians. 

Sir Walter Raleigh, a man of known courage and honour, 
being very injuriously treated by a hot-headed, rash youth, who 
next proceeded to challenge him, and, on his refusal to necept, 
spit upon him, and that too in public, the knight, taking out his 
handkerchief, with great calmness, made him only this reply: 
"Young man, if I could as easily wipe away your blood from 
pry conscience, as I can this injury from my face, I would this 
moment take away your life." The consequence was, that the 
youth, struck with a sudden and strong sense of his misbeha- 
viour, fell upon his knees, and begged forgiveness. 

Clinias, the Pythagorean, was a person very different both in 
his life and manners from other men. If it chanced at any time 
that he was influenced with anger, he would take his harp, play 
upon and sing to it; saying, as oft as he was asked the cause <>l 
his so doing, "that by this means he found himself reduced to 
the temper of his former mildness." 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 157 

There is a charm, a power that sways the breast, 

Bids every passion revel or be still; 

Inspires with rage, or aH your cares dissolves; 

Can soothe distraction, and almost despair. 

That power is Music. * * * Armstrong. 

So great is the empire of music over all the faculties of human 
nature, and so loud have been the ingenious in celebrating its 
power and praises, that they have left nothing scarcely in hea- 
ven, not at all in the air, sea, or on the earth, but what, in excess 
of fancy or merit, they have subjected to its dominion for the 
better. 

Music exalts each joy, allays each grief, 

Expels diseases, softens every pain, 

Subdues the rage of poison, and the plague; 

And hence the wise of ancient days ador'd 

One power of Physic — Melody and Song. Armstrong. 

While the physician prescribes draughts for curing bodily dis- 
eases, an able musician might prescribe an air for rooting out a 
vicious passion. 

When the tyrant Eugenius raised that perilous war in the East, 
and money grew short with the emperor Theodosius, he deter- 
mined to raise subsidies, and to gather from all parts more than 
before he had ever done. The citizens of Antioch bore this ex- 
action with so ill a will, that, after they had uttered many out- 
rageous words against the emperor, they pulled down his statues 
and those also of the empress his wife. A while afterwards, 
when the heat of their fury was past, they began to repent them- 
selves of their folly, and considered into what danger they had 
cast themselves and their city. Then did they curse their rash- 
ness, confess their fault, implore the goodness of God, and with 
tears, "that it would please him to calm the emperor's heart." 
Their supplications and prayers were solemnly sung, with sor- 
rowful tunes and lamenting voices. Their bishop, Flavianus, 
employed himself valiantly, in this needful time, in behalf of 
the city; made a journey to Theodosius, and did his utmost to 
appease him: but finding himself rejected, and knowing that the 
emperor was devising some grievous punishment; and on the 
21 



158 ON HYGIEINE, OR THE ART 

other side, not having the boldness to speak again, and yet much 
troubled in his thoughts because of his people, then came this 
device into his head. At such time as the emperor sat at meat, 
certain young boys were wont to sing musically unto him. Fla- 
vianus wrought so, that he obtained of those that had charge of 
the boys, that they would suffer them to sing the supplications 
and prayer of the city of Antioch. Theodosius, listening to that 
grave music, was so moved with it, and so touched with compas- 
sion, that having then the cup in his hand, he with his warm 
tears watered the wine that was in it, and forgetting all his con- 
ceited displeasure against the Antiochans, freely pardoned them 
and their city. 

"Man may most justly tuneful strains admire, 

His soul is music, and his breast a lyre; 

A lyre which, while its various notes agree r 

Enjoys the sweet of its own harmony. 

What ravishes the soul? What charms the ear? 

'Tis music, though a various dress it wear. 

Beauty is music too, though in disguise, 

Too fine to touch the ear, it strikes the eyes, 

And thro' 'em to the soul, the silent stroke conveys." 



OF HATRED. 

Ikfkhval Malice, only pining Hate, 
And Envy grieving at another's state; 
When these are in the human bosom nurst, 
Can peace reside in duellings so accurst? 

Hamilton-. 

Hatred is a Fury that never sleeps; ulcerates the soul; and 
tortures it throughout. Hence it never fails to injure the body. 

As admiration, the first of the passions, rises in the soul before 
she has considered whether the thing represented to her be good, 
or convenient to her, or not; so, after she has judged it to be 
good, there is raised in her most agreeable and complacent of all 



OF PftESERVIXG HEALTH. 159 

passions, Love; and when she hath conceived the same to be evil, 
she is quickly moved to Hatred, which is nothing but the soul's 
aversion to that which threatens pain or grief, and may be defined 
to be "a commotion produced by the spirits, that incite the soul 
lo be willing to be separated from objects represented to her as 
ungrateful and hurtful; 1 ' which definition only respects pure na- 
ture; but through the corruption of men and manners, it may be 
said to arise from an imbibed prejudice, or envy aggravated by 
continuance, and heightened by a malicious intention of malignan- 
cy, and injuring the persons to whom we have a disaffection, and 
that too without any reason but what proceeds from a self-con- 
tracted wickedness. Anger is sometimes, allowable, and when 
excessive, is still called but the vice of men; but hatred is said 
to be the sin of devils, being not confined at home, but roves 
abroad, seeking whom it may devour. 

"Cruel revenge, which still we find, 
The weakest frailty of a feeble mind. 
Degenerous passion, and for man too base, 
It seats its empire in the savage race." 

A certain Italian, having his enemy in his power, told him 
there was no possible way for him to save his life, unless he 
Avould immediately deny and renounce his saviour. The timor- 
ous wretch, in hope of mercy, did it; when the other, forthwith, 
stabbed him to the heart, saying that now he had a full revenge, 
for he had killed at once both his body and soul. 

In the reign of Edward VI. upon the alteration of religion, 
there was an insurrection in Cornwall and divers other counties, 
wherein many were taken and executed by martial law. The 
chief leaders were sent to London, and their executed. The se- 
dition being thus suppressed, it is memorable what cruel revenge 
or sport Sir William Kingston, provost-martial, made by virtue of 
his olliee, upon men in misery. One Boyer, mayor of Bodmin in 
Cornwall, had been amongst the rebels, not willingly, but enfor- 
ced. To him the provost sent word that he would come and 
(linn with him, for whom the mayor made great provision. A 
little Itvfovv dinner, the provost took the mayor aside, and whis- 
pered him in the car, "That an execution must that dav be done 



1 60 N II Y G I E I NE, O R TH I ART 

in the town, and therefore required that a gallows should be sot 
up against dinner should be over." The mayor failed not of his 
charge. Presently after dinner, the provost, taking the mayor 
by the hand; desired him to lead him to the place weir the gal- 
lows was; which, when he beheld, he asked the mayor, "If lie 
thought it to be strong enough?" "Yes," said the mayor, "doubt- 
less, it is." "Well, then," said the provost, "get you up speedily, 
for it is provided for you." "I hope," answered the mayor "you 
mean not as you speak!" "In faith," said the provost, "there is 
no remedy, for you have been a busy rebel:" and so, without re- 
spite or defence, he was hanged. Near the said place dwelt a 
miller, who had been a busy actor in that rebellion, who, 
fearing the approach of the marshal, told a sturdy fellow, his 
servant, that he had occasion to go from home, and, therefore, if 
any came to inquire for the miller, he should not speak of him, 
but say he was the miller, and had been so for three years be- 
fore. So, the provost came, and called for the miller, when 
out comes the servant, and said, "he was the man." The pro- 
vost demanded, how long he had kept the mill? "These three 
years," answered the servant. Then the provost commanded 
his men to lay hold of him, and hang him on the next tree. At 
this the fellow cried out, "that he was not the miller, but the 
miller's man." "Nay, Sir, said the provost, "I will take you at 
your word. If thou beest the miller thou art a busy knave; if 
thou art not, thou art a false lying knave; and, howsoever, thou 
canst never do thy master better service than to hang for him;" 
and so, without more ado, he was despatched. 

Revenge is but a frailty, incident 

To craz'd and sickly minds; the poor content 

Of little souls, unable to surmount 

An injury, two weak to bear affront. Dryden. 

Revenge is a great sign of cowardice, when an enemy is at one's 
mercy. There is more bravery and disdain in slighting a private 
enemy, and despising revenge, than in cutting his throat: not that a 
man should be insensible of an injury or affront, but that he should 
not carry his resentments too far, where a gentle revenge is suili- 
cient. Excellent was the advice that was given to the Romans by 
the ambassadors of some cities in Etriuia. '-That since they v 



OF PRESERVING HEATH. 161 

men, they should not resent any thing beyond human nature; and 
that in mortal bodies they should not carry immortal feuds." 
Light injuries are made none by disregarding them; which, if re- 
venged, grow grievous and burthensome, and live to hurt us, 
when they might die to secure us. It is princely to disdain a 
wrong; and they say, princes, when ambassadors have offered 
indecencies, used not to chide, but deny them audience; as if si- 
lence were the royal way to revenge a wrong. 

When the Duke of Alva was in Brussels, about the beginning 
of the tumults in the Netherlands, he had sat down before Hulst, 
in Flanders; and there was a provost-marshal in his army who 
was a favourite of his, and this provost had put some to death 
by secret commission from the duke. There was one captain 
Bolea in the army, who was an intimate friend of the provost's; 
and one evening late he went to the captain's tent, and brought 
with him a confessor and an executioner, as it was his custom. 
He told the captain he was come to execute his excellency's 
commission and martial law upon him. The captain started up 
suddenly, his hair standing upright, and being struck with amaze- 
ment, asked him, "Wherein have I offended the duke?" The 
provost answered, "Sir, I am not to expostulate the business 
with you, but to execute my commission; therefore, I pray pre- 
pare yourself, for there is your ghostly father and executioner." 
So he fell on his knees before the priest, and having done, and 
the hangman going to put the halter about his neck, the provost 
threw it away, and breaking into a laughter, told him, "there 
was no such thing, and that he had done this to try his courage, 
how he would bear the terror of death." The captain, looking 
ghastly at him, said, "Then, Sir, get you out of my tent, for 
you have done me a very ill office." The next morning, the said 
captain Bolea, though a young man of about thirty, had his hair 
all turned grey, to the admiration of all the world, and the duke 
of Alva himself, who questioned him about it; but he would 
confess nothing. The next year the duke was recalled, and in 
his journey to the court of Spain, he was to pass by Saragossa, 
led this captain Bolea and the provost went along with him as 
his domestics. The duke being to repose some days in Sa- 
ragossa, the young old captain Bolea told him, "that there 



162 ON HYGIEINE, OR THE ART 

was a thing in that town worthy to be seen by his excellency, 
which was a casa de loco, a bedlam house, such a one as there 
was not the like in Christendom." "Well," said the duke, "go 
and tell the warden, I will be there to-morrow in the afternoon." 
The captain having obtained this, went to the warden, and told 
him the duke's intention; and that the chief occasion that moved 
him to it was, that he had an unruly provost about him, who was 
subject often times to fits of frenzy; and, because he wished 
him well, he had tried divers means to cure him, but all would 
not do; therefore, he would try whether keeping him close in 
bedlam for some days would do him any good. The next day 
the duke came with a great train of captains after him, amongst 
whom was the said provost, very shining and tine. Being entered 
into the house about the duke's person, captain Bolea told the 
warden, pointing at the provost, "thr.t's the man:" the warden 
took him aside into a dark lobby, where he had placed some of 
bis men, who muffled him in his cloak, seized upon his sword, 
and hurried him into a dungeon. The provost had lain there two 
nights and a day; and afterwards it happened that a gentleman, 
coming out of curiosity to see the house, peeped into a small 
grate where the provost was. The provost conjured him, as he 
was a Christian, to go and tell the duke of Alva his provost was 
there confined, nor could he imagine why. The gentleman did 
his errand; and the duke, being astonished, sent for the warden 
with his prisoner. The warden brought the provost in cuerpo, 
full of straws and feathers, madman-like, before the duke; who, 
at the sight of him, burst into laughter, asking the warden why 
he had made him prisoner? "Sir," said the warden, "it was by 
virtue of your excellency's commission, brought me by captain 
Bolea." Bolea stepped forth, and told the duke, "Sir, you have 
asked me oft how these hairs of mine grew so suddenly grey; I 
have not revealed it to any soul breathing; but now I'll tell your 
excellency;" and so related the passage in Flanders; and added— 
"I have been ever since beating my brains to know how to get an 
equal revenge of him, for making me old before my time." The 
duke was so well pleased with the story, and the wittinoss of the 
revenge, that be made them both friends. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 163 



or ENVY. 

#*#«»#*« Malicious Envy rode | 

Upon a ravenous wolf, and still did chew 
Between his canker'd teeth, a ven'tnous toad, 
That all the poison ran about his jaw: 
But inwardly, he chewed his own maw 
At neighbours' wealth, that made him ever sad: 
For death it was when any good he saw, 
And wept, that cause of weeping none he had, 
But when he heard of harm, he wax'd wond'rous glad. 



He hated all good works, and virtuous deeds, 

And him no less that any like did use; 

And who with gracious bread the hungry feeds, 

His alms for want of faith, he doth accuse; 

So every good to badhe doth abuse; 

And eke the verse of famous poet's wit, 

He does backbite, and spiteful poison spews 

From lep'rous mouth on all that ever writ: 

Such one, vile Envy was. Spencer. 

To repine at the superior happiness of others, is the nature 
of Envy. It arises from self-love or self interest, particularly 
in such individuals whom nature has denied certain qualifications 
of body or mind, which they cannot avoid seeing in others. 

It is almost the only vice which is practicable at all times, and 
in every place; the only passion which can never lie quiet for 
want of irritation; its effects are, therefore, every way discover- 
able, and its attempts always to be dreaded. 

Envy commands a secret band, 

With 6ivord and poison in her hand, 

Around her haggard eye-balls roll, 

A thousand fiends possess her soul. 

The artful, unsuspected spright, 

With fatal aim attacks by night. 

Her troops advance with silent treadj 

And slab the hero in his bed; 

Or shoot the wing'd malignant /if, 

And female honours pine or die. Coiioa 



: 



164 ON HYGIEINE, OU THE ART 

Solomon emphatically styles "Envy, a rottenness of the hones," 
and we too often witness its baneful effects on those who cherish 
the fatal poison. It shows itself in horrors even on the face ol 
young females, who, it might be supposed, could not poss 
so odious a passion. Observe an envious girl, while pleased 
with herself, appears quite beautiful and pleasing in her manners; 
but on the appearance of one of her sex, a school-mate, of supe- 
rior beauty and endowments, her countenance becomes strange- 
ly altered. In like manner the spirits become depressed; and, as 
the body cannot remain undisturbed, when the mind, to which 
it is so nearly attached, is in such misery, the person who is tor- 
mented with it cannot enjoy good health. For it is the passion 
of the damned; and, as it richly deserves punishment, it never 
escapes it. 

A French lady of quality that was well married, and lived in 
plenty, hearing her husband's brother had married a very hand- 
some lady with a great fortune, was mightily out of humour, in- 
somuch that she perfectly hated all that spoke in the commenda- 
tion of her new sister-in-law, and hearing her husband also com- 
mend her as a very beautiful woman, she bribed a servant in that, 
lady's family to poison her; but he, discovering the design, and 
the lady being reproached for it by the husband, she poisoned 
herself and died. 

Envy's the worst of fiends, procurer of sad events, 

And only good when she herself torments. Cowley. 

Plutarch compares envious persons to cupping-glasses, which 
ever draw the worst humours of the body to them. Like flies, 
they resort only to the raw and corrupt parts of the body; or, if 
they light on a sound part, never leave blowing upon it till they 
have disposed it to putrefaction. When Mom us could find no 
fault with the face in the picture of Venus, he picked a quarrel 
with her slippers; and so malevolent persons, when they cannot 
blame the substance, will yet represent the circumstance of men's 
best actions with prejudice. The black shadow is still observed 
to wait upon those that have been the most illustrious for virtue, 
or remarkable for some kind of perfection: and to excel in ei- 
ther has been an unpardonable crime. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 165 

"The man who envies, must behold with pain 
Another's joys, and sicken at his gain." 

When Aristides, so remarkable for his inviolable attachment to 
justice, was tried by the people at Athens, and condemned to 
banishment; a peasant, unacquainted with the person of Aristides, 
applied to him to vote against Aristides. " Has he done you 
any wrong," said Aristides, " that you are for punishing him in 
this manner?" " No," replied the countryman, "I don't even know 
him; but I am tired and angry with hearing every one call him 
the just." 

Mutius, a citizen of Rome, was noted to be of such an envious 
and malevolent disposition, that Publius, one day observing him 
to be very sad, said, " Either some great evil has happened to 
Mutius, or some great good to another." 

Medicines cannot cure a disease so odious. Education and im- 
provement of morals are its only antidotes. Envious persons 
commonly give too much importance to trifles; hence they ought 
to be instructed to employ themselves in more useful pursuits; to 
judge of things accouling to their true value, and to accustom 
themselves to a philosophic calmness, learning how to overcome, 
or at least to moderate their selfishness; to counterbalance their 
expectations with their deserts; and to equal or surpass others 
in their merits, rather than in their pretensions. 






OF AVARICE. 



And, oh! what man's condition can be worse 
Than his, whom plenty starves and blessings curse: 
The beggars but a common fate deplore, 
The rich poor man 's emphatically poor. 

If cares and troubles, envy, grief, and fear, 
The bitter fruits be what fair riches bear, 
If a new poverty grows out of store, 
The old plain way, ye gods! let me be poor. Cowllt- 

This vile passion, which frowns at the approach of the stranger, 
clinches the hand ;igainst the poor, denies all encouragement of 
public good, and can pinch and starve wife and children, is hardly 
22 



166 ON U V(,i }■; [\ h, 01 THE AltT 

more detestable in amoral point of view, than it is pernicious in 
a physical. It is true, that bj his unwillingness to part u ith his 
money, the miser is generally a temperate, and even an abstemi- 
ous character, and so far his vice is beneficial to his health; but, 
in many other respects, this detestable dee operates very hurt- 
fully to the health of him who is mrsed with it. By the extreme 
eagerness to make money, by the distressing fears, about keeping 
it, by the inconsolable grief for losing it; besides the heait-achs, 
the envies and jealousies, the sleepless nights, wearisome days, 
and numberless other ills which it inflicts on its slaves, it often 
ruins their health, and brings them down to the grave by some 
lingering disease, or more hoirible suicide. History tells us of 
illustrious vidians; but there never was an illustrious miser in 
nature. 

Can wealth give happiness? Look round, and see 

What gay distress! what splendid misery! 

Whatever Fortune lavishly can pour, 

The mind annihilates, and calls for more. Young. 

To declaim against riches, is like a hungry man inveighing 
against wholesome food, and a naked man railing at warm cloth- 
ing; it is spending breath to no purpose, and one should sooner 
be stigmatised with the character of a fool or madman, than gain be- 
lief that the harangue is more than a copy of one's countenance, or 
like the fox cursing the grapes that were out of his reach; for there 
are so many good uses to which riches may be employed, that to 
inveigh against them is to saturize upon acts of piety, beneficence 
and charity. But to be poor in the midst of riches is the most 
insupportable kind of poverty. 

In vain our fields and flocks increase our store, 

If our abundance makes us wish for more. Rose. 

A rich cotton planter in Georgia, in consequence of losing two 
cents in the pound on a crop of cotton, was seized with such a 
sadness of heart, that he took to his bed, and refusing to be 
shaved, shirted, or to take suitable nourishment, died miserable. 
He was a bachelor, and his estate, on appraisement, amounted \n 
nearly one hundred thousand dollars! 



G P PRESERVING HEALTH. 16f 

In York county, Pennsylvania, a farmer so wealthy as to raise 
one hundred bushels of clover seed on his own lands, in conse- 
quence of losing five dollars per bushel on his clover seed, that 
is, only getting seven dollars in Baltimore, after he had been 
offered twelve for it at home, was struck with such a deadly 
heart anguish, that he went into a fit of despondence, and hung 
himself. After his death, silver to the amount of two hundred 
thousand dollars was found barrelled up in his cellar. 

Vain man! His Heaven's prerogative 
To take, what it first design'd to give, 
Thy tributary breath: 
In awful expectation plac'd, 
Await thy doom, nor impious haste 

To pluck from God's right hand his instruments of death. 

Warton. 

Hippocrates, in his epistle to Crateva, the herbalist, gives him 
this advice for the cure of some rich patients, that if it were pos- 
sible he should cut up that weed of Covetoiisness by the roots, 
that there might be no remainder left, then he might be certain, 
that, together with their bodies, he might cure all the diseases of 
their minds. 

The same great and learned philosopher wished a consultation 
of all the physicians in the world, that they might advise together 
upon the means how to cure covetousness. It is now above two 
thousand years ago since he had his desire ; and after him a 
thousand and a thousand philosophers have employed their en- 
deavours to cure this insatiable dropsy. All of them have lost 
their labours. The evil rather increases than declines under 
the multitude of remedies. There have been a number, in for- 
mer ages, sick of it; and this wide hospital of the world is 
as lull of such patients as ever it was. 



168 ON HYGIEINE, OH THE ART 



OF INTEMPERANCE. 

Iff rinse nnt irine — tin uc blame; 

More fruitful than the accumulated board, 
Of pain and misery. Tor the subtle draught 
Faster and surer .-wells the vital tide; 
And with more active poison than the floods 
Of grosser crudity convey, pervades 
The far remote meanders of our frame. 
**#*## * j,- or jj now whate'er 

Beyond its natural fervour hurries on 

The sanguine tide; whether the frequent bowl. 

High seasoned faro, or exercise to toil 

Protracted, spurs to its last stage tirM life, 

And sows the temples with untimely snow. Armstronu. 

Temperance, by fortifying the mind and body, leads to hap- 
piness. Intemperance, by enervating them, ends in misery. — 
And those who destroy a healthy constitution of body by intem- 
perance, do as manifestly kill themselves, as those who hang, poi- 
son, or drown themselves. Virtue is no enemy to pleasure; but, 
on the contrary, is its most certain friend. Her office is to reg- 
ulate our desires, that we may enjoy every pleasure with mode- 
ration; and then our relish for them will continue. 

Pleasure, my friend, on this side folly lies; 

It may be vigorous, but it must be wise: 

And when our organs once that end attain, 

Each step beyond it is a step to pain. Cawthorn. 

Anacharsis, the Scythian, in order to deter young men from that 
voluptuousness ever attended with ill effects, applied his discourse 
to them in a parable, telling them that the vine of youthful grat- 
ification had three branches, producing three clusters. " On the 
first," says he, "grows pleasure; on the second, sottislmess; on 
the third, sadness." 

Struck by the powerful charm the gloom dissolves 
In empty air: Elysium opens round. 
A pleating frenzy buoys the lightened soul, 
And sanguine hopes dispel your fleeting cares; 
And what are difficult, and what was dire. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 169 

Yields to your prowess and superior stars; 

The happiest you of all that e'er were mad, 

Or are, or shall he, CQllld this folly last. 

But soon your heaven is gone; a heavier gloom 

Shuts o'er your head; and, as the thund'ring stream 

Swoln o'er its banks with sudden mountain rain, 

Sinks from its tumult to a silent brook; 

So, when the frantic raptures in your breast 

Subside, you languish into mortal man: 

You sleep, — and waking, find yourself undone, 

For, prodigal of life, in one rash night 

You lavished more than might support three days. 

A heavy morning comes; your cares return 

With tenfold rage. Armstrong. 

Drinking is undoubtedly the most miserable refuge from mis- 
fortune. It is the most broken of all reeds. This solace is truly 
short-lived; when over, the spirits commonly sinking as much 
below their usual tone, as they had been before raised above it. — 
Hence a repetition of the dose becomes necessary, and every 
fresh dose makes way for another, till the miserable man is ren- 
dered a slave to the bottle; and at length falls a sacrifice to what 
at first, perhaps, was taken only as a medicine. 

Unhappy man, whom sorrmo thus and rage. 

Two different ills, alternately engage. 

Who drinks, alas! but to forget; nor sees 

That melancholy, sloth, severe disease, 

Memory confused, and interrupted thought. 

Death's harbingers, lie latent in the draught, 

And in the flowers that wreathe the sparkling bowl, 

Fell adders hiss, and poisonous serpants roll. Prior. 

Were the pleasures of the palate lasting, says Cornaro, there 
would be some excuse for inebriety; but it is so transitory, that there 
is scarce any distinguishing between the beginning and the ending; 
wliereas, the diseases it produces are very durable. 

O'er the dread feast malignant Chemia scowls. 
And mingles poison in ti \1 howls; 

Fell gout peeps gri rough the flimsy scene, 

Vnd bloated dropsy pants behind unseen: 



170 OK H Y f, { E T \F. , OH T H B A R T 

TVrnppM in liis robe, white Lepra hides his stains 

And silent Frenzy, writhing, bites his chains Dakwiv 

The story of Prometheus seems to have been invented by phy- 
sicians in those ancient times when all things \\<:e clothed in hie- 
roglyphic, or in fable. Promotheus was painted stealing fire 
from heaven, which might well represent the inflammable spirit 
produced by fermentation, that may be said to animate and enli- 
ven the man of clay: whence the conquest of Bacchus, and the 
heedless mirth and noise of his devotees. But the after punish- 
ment of those who steal this accursed fire, is a vulture 'jiunri>>_ 
liver; which well allegorises the poor inebriate, labouring under 
painful hepatic diseases. It is thus beautifully described by 
Darwin. 

So when Prometheus braved the Thunderer's ire, 
Stole from his blazing throne ethereal 6re, 
And lantern'd in his breast, from realms of day, 
Bore the bright treasure to his man of clay: — 
High on eold Caucasus, by Vulcan bound, 
The lean, impatient vulture fluttering round; 
His writhing limbs in vain he twists and strains, 
To break or loose the adamantine chains : 
The gluttonous bird, exulting in his pan^s, 
Tears his swoln liver with remorseless fangs. 

Let those who have been enticed frequently to taste spiritu- 
ous liquors, till at length they begin to have a fondness for them, 
reflect a moment on the danger of their situation; and resolve to 
make a speedy and honorable retreat. Remember that custom 
soon changes into habit; that habit is a second nature, more stub- 
born than the first; and, of all things, most difficult to be sub- 
dued. Remember, that it is by little unsuspecting beginnings, 
that this unfortunate vice is generally contracted; and, when 
once oonfirmed, scarcely terminates but with life! Learn, then, 
in time, to resist this bewitching spirit, whenever its tempts you. 

Then will you find yourself so perfectly easy withoul it, us at 
length never to regret its absence; nay, peculiarly happy in ha\ - 
ing escaped the allurements of such a dangerous and insidious 
enemy. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 171 

Those who pride ;md are bent upon 

"a ough in truth it is a short and miscra- 

rn at these admonitions, and run head- 
long to then own destruction. Strange infatuation! Can you 
; r>le bondage, and tamely give up your free- 
without one generous struggle? The present conflict, re- 
t ''oer, is not for the fading laurel or tinselled wreath, for which 
others so earnestly contend, but for those more blooming, more 
uitial honors, which Health, the daughter of Temperance, 
only can bestow. For it is thine, O Healthl and thine alone, to 
diffuse through the human breast that genial warmth, that serene 
sunshine, which glows in the cheek, shines in the eye, and ani- 
mates the whole frame! But, if still you have no regard for this 
blessing, let me remind you of an hereafter! 

"To die — to sleep — to sleep! perchance to dream — 
Ay, there's the rub!" 

If death was nothing, and nought after death ; 

If, when men died, at once, they ceas'd to be, 

Returning to the barren womb of Nothing, 

Whence they sprung — then might the wretch 

That's weary of the world, and tired of life, 

At once give each inquietude the slip, 

By stealing out of being when he pleased, 

Ami by what way; whether by hemp or steel, 

Death's thousand doors are open. Who could force 

The ill-pleased guest to sit out his full time, 

Or blame him if be goes? Sure, he does well 

That helps himself as timely as he can, 

When able. But if there's an hereafter, 

And that there is, Conscience uninfluinced, 

And suinVd to speak out, tells every rnanj 

Then must it bean awful thins; to die: 

More horrid yet to die by one's own hand. 

Self -Murder! dreadful deed! our island's shame. 

That makes her the reproach of neighb'ring states: 

Shall JVature, swerving from her earliest dictates. 

Self-preservation, fall by her own act? 

Forbid it Heaven! Let not, upon disgust, 



172 O X If V (. 1 E I \ E, <) B T II E \ R T I 

The s hand be foully crimson , d 

With blood of its own lord. Dreadful attempt! 

ing from self-slaughter, in a i 
To rush into Hie presence of our JuD( 
As if we challenged him to do his worst, 
And heeded not his wrath. Blair. 

It is an invariable law of our present condition, that every 
pleasure, which is pursued to excess, converts itself to a poison. 
Could we expose to view the monuments of death, they would 
read a lecture on moderation much more powerful than any that 
the most eloquent writers can give. You would behold the 
graves, peopled with the victims of intemperance. You would 
behold those chambers of darkness, hung round, on every B«le, 
with the trophies of luxury, drunkenness, and sensuality. So 
numerous would you find those victims to iniquity, that it may 
be safely asserted, where war or pestilence have slain their 
thousands, intemperate pleasure has slain its ten thousands. 

By unhappy excesses, how many amiable dispositions have 
been corrupted or destroyed! how many rising capacities and 
powers have been suppressed! how many nattering hopes of pa- 
rents and friends have been totally distinguished! Who, but must 
drop a tear over human nature, when he beholds that morning, 
which arose so bright, overcast with such untimely darkness; 
thai ; r ood humour, which once captivated ail hearts; that vivacity, 
which sparkled in every company; those abilities which were 
fitted for adorning the highest station, all sacrificed at the shrine 
of low sensuality, and one who was formed for running the fail- 
career of life in the midst of public esteem, cut off by his vices at 
the beginning of bis course; or sunk for the whole of it, into in- 
significancy and contempt. 

Would you extend your narrow span. 
And make the most of life yon ( 
Would yon, when rned'< not save. 

Descend with ease into the gravi 
Calmly retire like evening li 
And cheerful bid the world good night- 
Let temperance constantly preside 
Our best physician, friend, and guide! 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 173 

The Father justly describes the nature of this beastly vice, 
when he saith of it, that "It is a flattering devil; a sweet poison; 
a delightful sin; which he that hath, possesseth not himself; and 
he that acts it, doth not only commit a sin, but is wholly con- 
verted into sin, being deserted of his reason, which is at once his 
counsellor and guardian." 

A young gentleman of the most respectable parentage, being 
rather intemperate, was urged by his parents to marry, thinking 
that might produce a change of his habits. He paid his addresses 
to a most amiable young lady, of a fair estate, to whom he was 
soon united in wedlock. — It was not many months after marriage, 
before he resumed his former habits, and what with drinking and 
gambling, he very soon exhausted the whole of her fortune. Ex- 
ecutions being out against him; he was compelled to keep at 
home, where he did nothing but get drunk and abuse his amia- 
ble wife. One night, filled with rage, he resolved to destroy her, 
and going at a late hour into the kitchen, where she had been 
constrained to retire from his abuse, he continued his opprobri- 
ous language to her, and notwithstanding she gave him only lov- 
ing and kind words, yet he struck her over the head with a large 
stick, which she bore patiently, although it much injured her 
face. He still continuing to rage at her, wearied, and in great 
fear, she rose up and went to the door. Here he followed her 
with a chopping-knife in his hand, with which he struck at her 
wrist, and cut her very much; no help being near but an old 
woman, who durst not interpose, fearing for her own life, who 
prayed her mistress to stay and be quiet, hoping all would be well, 
and so getting a napkin, bound up her hand with it. After this, 
still railing and raging at his wife, he struck her on the forehead 
with an iron cleaver, whereupon she fell down bleeding; but re- 
covering herself, upon her knees she prayed unto God for the 
pardon of her own and her husband's sins, praying God to for- 
give him as she did. But as she was thus praying, the infernal 
demon, her husband, split her skull open with the cleaver, so 
that she died immediately: for which he was apprehended, con- 
demned, and hanged. But so callous was the wretch, that evert 
under the gallows he did not exhibit any marks of repentance. 

2t5 



174 ON HVGIE1NK, OR THE .U I 

It is a lamentable fact, so great is the infatuation of tins \ 
that few, once deluded, have ever recovered their freedom. 
Some glorious instances, however, have occurred, which is sure- 
ly fine encouragement to others. We also have the pleasure lo 
find none are greater enemies to vice, than those who formerly 
were the slaves of it, and have been so fortunate as to break their 
chain and recover their liberty. 

A medical gentleman in Virginia, who was married to a most 
amiable lady, by associating with dissipated characters, became 
at length intemperate himself. As soon as he acquired habits of 
intemperance, his disposition was altered, and from an aft'ection- 
ate husband he proved very turbulent, and treated his wife so ill 
that she was constrained to separate from him. After living a 
disorderly life for some time, he was brought to a sense of re- 
flection, and with an entire change of mind and manners, he re- 
nounced all vicious habits, plead guilty before his amiable wife, 
who was ready to forgive, and they have since lived in the ut- 
most harmony. So sensible is be of the danger of using spirit- 
ous and vinous liquors to excess, that he will not taste them, lest 
he should be enticed to exceed the bounds of moderation; and 
whenever he sees a person so inclined, never fails to caution him 
against so insidious an enemy. 

A gentleman of Maryland, addicted to drunkenness, hearing a 
considerable uproar in his kitchen one night, felt the curiosity to 
step without noise to the door, to know what was the matter; 
when, behold, they were all indulging in the most unbounded 
roars of laughter, at a couple of his negro boys, who were mim- 
icking himself in his drunken fits!— as, how he reeled and stag- 
gered ! how he looked and nodded, and hickupped and tumbled? 
The pictures which these children of nature drew of him, and 
which had filled the rest with such inexhaustible merriment, 
struck him with so salutary a disgust, that from that night he be- 
came perfectly a sober man, to the inexpressible joy of his wife 
and children. 

A very respectable gentleman in Philadelphia, had a wife who, 
by her fondness for strong drink, had almost broken his heart. 
At length he was advised, "as a desperate remedy in adespeiate 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 175 

disease," to place a barrel of spirits in her closet, and let her 
kill herself as soon as possible, since every persuasive means 
had been used in vain to break her of this beastly vice. At the 
sight of so extraordinary a visitant in her closet, she was struck 
with such horror at the idea of the dreadful design on which it was 
placed there, that she was immediately reclaimed, and recovered 
all the purity and lustre of her former character, to the infinite 
joy of her husband, children and numerous friends. 

O Temperance! support and attendant of other virtues! Pre- 
server and restorer of health! Maintainer of the dignity and li- 
berty of rational beings, from the wretched, inhuman slavery of 
Sensuality, Taste, Custom and Example! Brightener of the un- 
derstanding and memory! Sweetener of life and all it comforts! 
Companion of reason, and guardian of the passions! Bountiful 
rewarder of thy admirers and followers! how do thine excellen- 
cies extort the unwilling commendation of thine enemies! and with 
what rapturous delight can thy friends raise up a panegyric in thy 
praise ! 



OF GAMING. 

The love of gaming is the worst of ills; 

With ceaseless storms the blacken'd soul it fills; 

Inveighs at Heaven, neglects the ties of blood; 

Destroys the power and will of doing good; 

Kills health, pawns honour, plunges in disgrace, 

And, what is still more dreadful — spoils her face. Young. 

While gaming keeps within the bounds of innocent diversion, 
to recreate the body, or compose the mind, and is not tainted 
with covetousness or passion, the most strait-laced casuist will 
not censure or condemn it as a crime; but, when it breaks 
the limits of moderation, and transports men into heats, swear- 
ing, cursing, reproaching, and lying; or is taken up as a trade 
to live, by, and pushed on by a covetous desire to enrich our- 



176 ON HYGIEINE, OR THE ART 

selves by the loss and ruin of one's neighbour, it is absolutely 
unlawful, carefully to be avoided, and utterly abominated, as the 
certain procurer of repentance, sorrow, grief, disease, derision, 
beggary, and coutempt. To play sometimes bo entertain com- 
pany, says the Marquis of Halifax, or to divert yourself, is not 
to be disallowed; but, to do it so often as to be called a game- 
ster, is to be avoided, next to the things that are most criminal. 
It has consequences of several kinds not to be endured; it will 
engage you into a habit of idleness and ill hours, draw you into 
bad company, make you neglect your business, bring you to po- 
verty and disgrace, cause sleepless nights, and destroy health. 

What foQl would trouble Fortune more. 

When she has been too kind before; 

Or tempt her to take back again 

What she had thrown away in vain, 

By idly venturing her good graces 

To be dispos'd of by umes-aces; 

Or settling it in trust, to uses 

Out of his power, on trays and deuces; 

To put it to the chance, and try, 

P th' ballot of a box and die, 

Whether his money be his own, 

And lose it if he be o'erthrown ; 

As if he were betray'd, and set 

By his own stars to every cheat, 

Or wretchedly condemned by Fate 

To throw dice for his own estate. Butler. 

It is true, as it is lamentable, in the age we live, there are 
too many of all qualities and conditions excessively addicted to 
this abominable vice ; by which many respectable families have 
been reduced from affluence to extreme poverty. But the evil 
does not stop here ; it must be fresh in every memory, of the 
most diabolical acts having been perpetrated by persons who en- 
listed under the banners of a gambler, and squandered away 
their estate. Let the following melancholy catastrophe, which 
I have from the best authority not long since took place, prove a 
Warning to others. 



W F P R E S E R VING HEALTH. 1 77 

Mr. A. S , who had a very comfortable support was enti- 
ced to associate himself with gamblers, and in a short time lost 
all that he possessed, at cards and dice, which ought to have been 
treasured up for the subsistence of his family. Reflecting on the 
foolish manner in which he had thrown away his money, and be- 
holding his children cry about him for victuals, so diseased his 
mind that taking advantage of his wife's absence, he cut the 
throats of his three children, and then hung himself. His wife, 
on returning home, being so much affrighted at the sight of so 
barbarous a tragedy, fell dead upon the spot. 

An old ruined gamester in hopes to make a bubble or prey of 
a young gentleman that came to town with his pockets full of 
money, took him to a gaming house, and there, to encourage, 
him to play, showed him several topping sparks that were born 
to no fortune, who by play had purchased great estates, and lived 
in pomp and splendour, by success in shaking their elbows. — 
" You show me," says the young gentleman, " the winners, but I 
pray what has become of the losers?" To which the old prig 
making no reply, a third person, overhearing their conversation, 
told the young gentleman, that since the other was silent and con- 
founded with shame at the question, he would oblige him with 
an answer — " Many of the losers," saith he, (C taking the high- 
way to repair their loses, have been hanged; others have gone to 
sea to earn their bread; some have taken up the trade of being 
bullies to bawdy-houses; others that have not hid themselves as 
servants under a livery, are begging or mumping about the streets, 
or starving in jails for debt, where you will be ere long, if you 
follow that rascal's counsel." " The punishment," says the young 
gentleman, is (it for the sin, when men, possessed with great sums 
of their own money, will play the fool to make it another man's; 
and, if this be the humour of the town, I will return again to the 
country, and spend my estate among my neighbours and tenants, 
where, you Sir," 1 speaking to the gentleman, that dealt so plain!}' 
with him, "shall be very welcome." 



i'8 o\ HYGIKIKE, Oli THE ART 



OP VANITY. 

So weak are human kind by Nature made 

Or to such weakness by their rice betray 'd; 

Almighty Van'itt! to thee they owe 

Their zest of pleasure, and their balm of w Vouno. 

Vanity consists of an agreeable reverie; and is well ridiculed 
in the story of Narcissus, who so long contemplated his own 
beautiful image in the water, that he died from neglect of taking 
sustenance. 

On the green margin sits the youth, and laves 
His floating train of tresses in the waves - , 
Sees his fair features paint the streams that pass, 
And bends for ever o'er the watery glass. 

Darwin. 

As the vain found their claims on qualities which they do not 
possess, they frequently meet with mortifications; while their ex- 
treme solicitude for distinctions they are not entitled to, can never 
allow them any repose; hence vanity is an enemy to health. 

Observe a lady at a ball, anxious to be thought the finest wo- 
jnan in the assembly, and doubtful of success. The pleasure, 
which it is the purpose of the assembly to enjoy, is lost to her. 
She does not for a moment experience such a sensation; for it is 
totally absorbed by the prevailing sentiment, and the pains she 
takes to conceal it. She watches the looks, the most trivial 
marks of the opinion of the company, with the attention of a 
moralist, and the anxiety of a politician; and wishing to con- 
ceal from every eye the torment she feels, her affectation of 
gaiety at the triumph of a rival; the turbulence of her conver- 
sation when that rival is applauded; the over acted regard which 
she expresses for her; and the unnecessary efforts which she 
makes, betray her sufferings and constraint. Grace, that supreme 
charm of beauty, never displays itself but when the mind is per- 
fectly at ease, and when confidence prevails. 

If we take the whole sex together, we shall find those who 
have the strongest possession of men's hearts, are not always 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 179 

eminent for their beauty. As pride destroys all symmetry and 
grace, so affectation is a more terrible enemy to fine faces than 
the small pox. And it will always be found, that the lady who 
has an humble opinion of herself, will have every body's applause, 
because she does not expect it; while the vain creature loses ap- 
probation through too great a sense of deserving it by lier own 
affectation. 

If a beautiful, proud, and gay woman, would but seriously re- 
flect on what a loathsome carcas she must ere long become in the 
grave, amidst worms and corruption,, it would tend to mortify 
her pride, lessen her vanity, and teach her to be humble. 

Ye proud, ambitious, wealthy, young, and gay, 
Who drink the spirit of the golden day, 
And triumph in existence, come with me, 
And in the mould'ring corpse your picture see, 
What you, and all, must soon or later be. 

Solitary Wals^. 

Pride, well placed and rightly defined, is of ambiguous signi- 
fication, says the late incomparable Marquis of Halifax: one 
kind being as much a virtue as the other a vice. But we are na- 
turally so apt to choose the worst, that it has become dangerous 
to commend the best side of it. Pride is a sly, insensible enemy, that 
wounds the soul unseen, and many, who have resisted other for- 
midable vices, have been ruined by this subtle invader; for, though 
we smile to ourselves, at least ironically, when flatterers bedaub 
us with false encomiums; though we seem many times angry, 
and blush at our praises; yet our souls inwardly rejoice; we are 
pleased with it, and forget ourselves. Some are proud of their 
quality, and despise all below it; first, set it up for the idol of a 
vain imagination, and then their reason must fall down and wor- 
ship it. They would have the world think, that no amends can 
be made for the want of a great title. They imagine, that with 
this advantage, they stand upon the higher ground which makes 
them look down upon merit and virtue as things inferior to them. 
Some, and most commonly women, are proud of their fine 
clothes; and when they have less wit and sense than the rest oi 
their neighbours, comfort themselves with the reflection that 



l8 ^ OX UYGIEINE, OH THE AST 

they have more lace. Some ladies put so much weight upon oi\ 
naments, that if one could see into their hearts, it would be 
found that even the thought of death was made less heavy to 
them, by the contemplation of their being laid out in stale, and 
honourably attended to the grave. The man of letters is proud 
of the esteem the world gives him for his knowledge; but he 
might easily cure himself of that disease, by considering how 
much learning he wants. The military man is proud of some 
great action performed by him, when possibly it was more ow- 
ing to fortune than his own valour or conduct: and some are 
proud of their ignorance, and have as much reason to be so as 
any of the rest; for they being also compared with others in the 
same character and condition, will rind their defects exceed the/n 
acquisitions. 

O, sons of earth! attempt ye still to rise, 

By mountains pil'd on mountains lo the skies? 

Heaven still with laughter the vain toil surveys,, 

And buries madmen in the heaps they raise. Poi'E. 

A person of infinite wit, speaking, of what might precisely be 
called a proud and vain man, once said, " When I see I urn, I fed 
something like the pleusure of seeing a happy eouplc; his self-love 
and he live so happily together.'''' 

Pride was not made for men: a conscious 9CD 
Of guilt, and folly, and their consequence, 
Destroys the claim, and to beholders tells, 
Here nothing but the shape of Manhood dwells. 

I once saw, says Dr. Darwin, a handsome young man, who had 
been so much flattered by his parents, that his vanity rose so 
near to insanity, that one might discern, by his perpetual atten- 
tion to himself, and the diiliculty with which he arranged his 
conversation, that the idea of himself intruded itself at every 
comma, or pause of his discourse. 

I dreamt that, buried with my fellow clay. 
Close by a common beggar's side I lay; 
And as so mean an object shock'd my pride. 
Thus like a corpse of consequence I cried: 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 181 

Dundrt I, begone! and henceforth touch me not, 
More manners learn, and at a distance rot." 
"Scoundrel, then," with haughtier tone, cried he, 
"Proud lump of earth, I scorn thy words and thee; 
Here all are equal, now thy case is mine, 
This is my rotting place, and that is thine." Dodd. 

The cure of vanity may he attempted hy excess of flattery, 
which will at length appear ridiculous, or, hy its familiarity, will 
cease to be desired. I remember, says Dr. Darwin, to have heard 
a story of a nobleman, in the court of France, wiio was so 
disagreeably vain in conversation, that the king was pleased to 
direct his cure, which was thus performed. Two gentlemen 
were directed always to attend him; one was to stand behind his 
chair, and the other at a respectful distance before him: whenever 
his lordship began to speak, one of them always pronounced, "Lord 
Gallimaufre is going to say the best thing in the world." And, 
as soon as his lordship had done speaking, the other attendant 
pronounced, "Lord Gallimaufre has spoken the best thing in the 
world." Till, in a few weeks, this noble lord was so disgusted 
with praise, that he ceased to be vain, and his majesty dismissed 
h^is keepers. 



OF MODESTY- 

Hail, Modesty! fair female honour hail! 
Beauty's chief ornament, without whose charms, 
Beauty disgusts, or gives but vulgar joys. 
Thougiu'sf the smile its grace; the heightened kiss 
Its balmy essence sweet! Armstrong. 

Modesty is to virtue, what a fine veil is to beauty. It is one 
of the most distinguishing and attractive characteristics of the 
female sex. It comprises the beauties of the mind, as well as 
those of the body; and it not only heightens the desire of the 
male, but deters him from rudeness and improper behaviour. It 
?4 



182 ON HYCIEINE, OH THE AUT 

is, therefore, the interest of the men to cherish, and not to injury 
by indelicacy, a quality from which they derive so much plea- 
sure and advantage. 

Naked in nothing should a woman or. 

But veil her very wit with modesty : 

Let man discover, let not her display, 

But yield her charms of mind without delay. Y-Ol so. 

I remember, says a female author of great distinction, the 

count M , one of the most accomplished young men in V i- 

enna, when I was there; he was passionately in love with a girl 
of peerless beauty. She was the daughter of a man of great 
rank and influence at court; and, on these considerations, as well 
as in regard to her charms, she was followed by a multitude of 
suitors. She was lively and amiable, and treated them all with an 
affability which still kept them in her train, although it was gene- 
rally known that she had avowed a predilection for the count, 
and that preparations were making for their nuptials. The count 
was of a refined mind and delicate sensibility; and loved her for 
herself alone; for the virtues' which he believed dwelt in her beau- 
tiful form; and, like a lover of such perfections, he never approach- 
ed her without timidity; and when he touched her, a fire shot 
through his veins that warned him not to invade the vermillion 
sanctuary of her lips. Such were his feelings, when, one night, at 
his intended father-in-law's, a party of young people were met to 
celebrate a certain festival; several of the young lady's rejected 
suitors being present. Forfeits were one of the pastimes, and 
all went on with a grateful merriment, till the count w r as com- 
manded, by some witty mademoiselle, to redeem his glove by 
saluting the cheek of his intended bride. The count blushed, 
trembled, advanced to his mistress, retreated, advanced again — 
and at last, with a tremor that shook every iihre in his frame, 
with a modest grace, he put the "soft ringlets, which played upon 
her cheek, to his lips, and retired to demand his redeemed pledge, 
in evident confusion. His mistress gaily smiled, and the game 
went on. One of her rejected suitors, but who was of a m< rry, 
unthinking disposition, was adjudged by the same indiscreet crier 
of the forfeits, to snatch a kiss from the lips of the object of his 



OF PRESERVING HEATH. 183 

fcocent vows. A lively contest between the lady and gentleman 
lasted for a minute! but the lady yielded, though in the midst of a 
conclusive laugh; and the count had the mortification, the agony 
to ace the tips, which his passionate and delicate love would 
not allow him to touch, kissed with roughness by another man, 
and one whom he despised. Without a word, he rose from his 
chair, and left the room, and the house — and never saw her 
more! Thus, by that good-natured kiss, the fair boast of Vienna 
lost a husband and her lover. 

Although I consider this act of the coiuit as ridiculously fasti- 
dious, yet I cannot but think it may prove a good hint to my fair 
readers. Certainly the sensitive plant cannot shrink more coyly 
than should the lovely virgin from the slightest touch of the im- 
modest. 

''Learn, then, ye fair, to keep, the person sacred; 

****** like the pure mind, 

Be that array'd in modest dignity: 

]\~or e'en its beauties flauntingly expose — 

Thus may ye keep the heart your charms have won." 

The attractive grace and powerful charm of Modesty cannot be 
better illustrated, than by relating the following interesting nar- 
rative. 

Charlotte Corday was tall and well-shaped, of the most grace- 
ful manners and modest demeanour. There was in her counte- 
nance, which was beautiful and engaging, and in all her move- 
ments a mixture of softness and dignity, which were evident in- 
dications of a heavenly mind. She came to Paris, and under a 
feigned pretext gained admission to that republican tyrant, Marat, 
in whose breast she plunged a dagger, acknowledged the deed, 
and justified it by asserting that it was a duty she owed her coun- 
try and mankind, to rid the world of such a monster. Her de- 
portment during her trial was modest and dignified. — There was 
a softness so engaging in her countenance, that it was difficult to 
conceive how she could have armed herself with sufficient intre- 
pidity to execute the deed. Her answers to the questions of the 
tribunal, were full of point and energy. She sometimes surprised 
the andience by her wit* and excited their admiration by her eh- 



184 OX HTGIEIKE, OR T H E A KT OF 

quaicc. Her face sometimes beamed with sublimity and was some- 
times covered with smiles. She retired while the jury deliberat- 
ed on their verdict; and when she again entered the tribunal, 
there was a majestic solemnity in her demeanour, which perfectly 
became her situation. She heard her sentence with attention and 
composure, and left the court with serenity, her mind being long 
before prepared even for the last scene. It is difficult to conceive 
the heroism which she displayed in the way to execution. There 
was such an air of chastened exultation thrown over her counte- 
nance, that she inspired sentiments of love, rather than pity. Th( 
spectators, as she passed, uncovered their heads before her, and 
others gave loud tokens of applause. She ascended the scaffold 
with undaunted firmness. When the executioner informed her 
that her feet must be tied to the fatal plank, she submitted with a 
smile. When he took off her handkerchief, the moment before 
she bent under the fatal stroke, she blushed deeply; and her head, 
which was held up to the multitude the moment after, exhibited 
the last impression of offended modesty. 

Such an instance of a young female, given up to destruction, 
and yet so tremblingly alive to modesty, that even in her last mo- 
ments she resents the slightest insult to that, more than she dreads 
the executioner's axe, is a display of the charm, as well as the 
force of virtue triumphant over death, that deserves to be pre- 
served in everlasting remembrance. Its effects on the crowd beg- 
gared all description. Admiration held the gazing thousands 
mute. And though, while gazing on her checks y r et divinely en- 
riched with the blush of deathless modesty, they shed their tears 
over her untimely fate, still their joy-glistening eyes seemed to 
thank her for such a proof of the divinity of virtue, and the birth- 
right to Heaven. One of the spectators, a young man, by the 
name of Lux, had his feelings wrought to such an adoration of 
her virtues, that he proposed, in a pamphlet published the day- 
after, to erect a monument to her honour, and to inscribe it with 
these words:— GREATER THAN BRUTUS. He was in- 
stantly sentenced to the guillotine. lie received the news with 
joy, and died exulting that he had the honour- of being offered up, 
at the same altar with the immaculate Charlotte Corday. 



OF PRESERVING UEALl'U. \%Z 

As lamps burn silent, with unconscious light, 
So modest ease, in beauty, shines most bright: 
Unaiming charms with edge resistless fall, 
And she who means no mischief, does it all. Hill. 

Plutarch observes, that as thistles, though noxious things iii 
themselves, are usually signs of an excellent ground wherein they 
grow, so bashfulness, though many times a weakness and be- 
trayer of the mind, is yet generally an argument of a soul inge- 
nuously and virtuously inclined. 

We read of many, who, through modesty and fear, when they 
were to speak publicly, have been so disappointed, that they 
were forced to hold their tongue. Thus Cicero writes of Cario, 
that being to plead in a cause before the senate, he was not able 
to speak what he had premeditated. Also, Theophrastus being 
to speak beiore the people of Athens, was on a sudden so de- 
prived of memory, that he remained silent. The same happened 
to the famous Demosthenes in the presence of king Philip. Nor 
are we ignorant that the like misfortunes have befallen many ex? 
cellent persons in our times. 

Get that great gift and talent, Impudence; 

Accomplish'd mankind's highest excellence; 

'Tis that alone prefers, alone make.s great, 

Confers alone, wealth, titles, and estate; 

Gains place at court, can make a fool a peeiy 

An ass a bishop, can vil'st blockhead rear 

To wear red hats, and sit in porph'ry chairj Oldham 

When once men have bid adieu to modesty, there is nothing 
so unmanly, indecent, or reprehensible, but the brazen brow will 
venture upon; and nothing so high or great that his impudence 
does not pretend a title to. 

A gentleman being asked how it came to pass that he, being & 
man of extraordinary natural parts, and those improved by a uni- 
versity education, foreign travel, diligent study, and the know- 
ledge of most European languages; besides, being well born, 
and having many friends to recommend him, missed a considera- 
ble employment in the government, at a time when there were so 
many vaoancie? ? The gentleman an?wcred r The reason is plain; 



186 OX HYGIEIKBj OR T H E A R T 

1 have too much modesty, and too little impudence, to be pre- 
ferred, where a higher value is put upon the latter than the for- 
mer. 

For he that has but impudence, 

To all things has a fair pretence; 

And put among his wants but shame, 

To all the world may lay his claim. HcDJBRlS 

An Athenian, of decrepid age, came into the theatre at Athens, 
on a public night, when it was very much crowded. He went to 
that part of the house where his young countrymen were sitting, 
but instead of making room for him, they closed their ranks. By 
chance he came to a place where sat some young Lacedemo- 
nians of the first distinction, who, moved with the age of the 
man, in reverence to his years and hoary hairs, rose up, and pla- 
ced him in an honourable seat amongst them; which, when the 
people beheld, with a loud applause, they approved the modesty 
of another city. At which one of the Lacedemonians said, "It 
appears that the Athenians do understand what is to be done, but 
they neglect the practice of it." 

These young Lacedemonians were Heathens. How devoutly 
were it to be wished, that all young Christians would copy so fair 
an example, and learn to treat seniority with a respect equally 
amiable and endearing. 



OF DRESS. 



If the rude verse that now detains your c:u\ 

Should to one female heart conviction bear; 

Recal one gentler mind from Fashion's crew, 

To give to Nature what is Nature's due; 

Whilst others mount the arduous heights of fame, 

To wake jour feelings be my nobler aim: 

Nor yet unblest, if, whilst I fail to move, 

The fond attcroptmy kind intention prove. RgscoE. 



OF PESEBVING HEALTH. 187 

I'ltny, one of the most celebrated naturalists of antiquity, pa- 
thetically laments, "that whilst Nature has given various clothing 
to the brute creation, and even fenced plants and trees with bark 
against the injuries of the cold and heat, she should have cast 
man into this world naked, unprovided against the inclemency of 
different climates and seasons." But, instead of agreeing with 
that philosopher, that Nature has, in this particular, acted more 
like a cruel step-mother, than a kind and indulgent parent to man, 
we cannot sufficiently extol her providence and wisdom. It was 
no more than consistent with equity to provide the irrational part 
of her works with clothing suitable to their circumstances; but 
man, whom she endued with the transcendant faculty of reason, 
she hath very wisely left to accommodate himself to the differ- 
ence of season and climate, and to clothe himself, accordingly, 
with the fleeces and skins of animals, and the products of various 
plants and trees. 

Nature knows no other use of clothes but to keep the body 
■ircirm. The shape God has given, is too often attempted to be 
mended by dress, and those who know no better, believe that 
mankind would be frights without its assistance. The bones of 
growing persons are so cartilaginous, that they readily yield to 
the slightest pressure, and easily assume the mould in which they 
are confined. Hence it is, that so many girls, in proportion to 
boys, are mis-shapen. 

A lady, whose girls were all mis-shapen, though her family was 
numerous, consulted the celebrated anatomist, Mr. Cline, on the 
prevention. " To Juive no stays — and to let the next girl run about 
like the boys," was the excellent advice of this gentleman; which 
being complied with, none of the future children were afterwards 
marred by the ill-placed attention of the ignorant mother. 

It has been said, observes a celebrated female author, that the 
love of dress is natural to the sex; and we see no reason why any 
female should be offended with the assertion. Dress, however, 
must be subject to certain rules, be consistent with the graces 
and with nature. By attending to these particulars is produced 
that agreeable exterior which pleases we know not why; which 
without that first and powerful attraction, beauty. 



* 38 N H Y GJ E] N i: , OB 1 U B A B i 

A beauty, carelesly array'd, 
Enamours more, than if display \1. 

All soman's charms were given, 
And o'er the bosom's vestal white. 
The gauze appears a robe of light, 

Tliat veils, yet opens Heaven.''' 

Fashion, in her various flights, frequently soars beyond th« 
reach of propriety. Good sense, taste, and delicacy, then make 
their appeal in vain. Her despotic and arbitrary sway levels 
and confounds. "Where is delicacy? where is policy? we men- 
tally exclaim, when we see the fair inconsiderate votary of fashion 
exposing, unseemly, that bosom which good men delight to ima- 
gine the abode of innocence and truth. Can the gaze of the vo- 
luptuous, the unlicensed admiration of the profligate, compensate 
the woman of sentiment and purity, for what she loses in the esti- 
mation of the moral and just? But delicacy apart what shall we 
say to the blind conceit of the robust, the coarse, the wanton fair 
one, who thus obtrudes the ravages of time upon the public eye? 

Nature having maintained a harmony between the figure of a 
woman and her years, it is decorous that the consistency should 
extend to the materials and fashion of her apparel. For youth to 
dress like age, is an instance of bad taste seldom seen. But age 
affecting the airy garment of youth, the transparent drapery of 
Cos, and the sportivencss of a girl, is an anachronism, as frequent 
as it is ridiculous. 

Virgin, bridal beauty, when she arrays herself with taste, 
obeys an end of her creation; that of increasing her charms in the 
eyes of some virtuous lover, or the husband of her bosom. She 
is approved. But when the wrinkled fair, the hoary-lwadcd mat- 
ron, attempts to equip herself for conquest, to awaken sentiments 
which, the bloom of her cheek gone, her rouge can never arouse; 
then we cannot but deride her folly. There is a mediocrity which 
bounds all things, and even fixes the standard which divides rirtue 
from bombast. 

******* Loveliness 
Needs not the foreign aid of ornament ; 
I»ut is, when unadom'd, adorn'd ftte " 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 189 

It is worthy of remark, an unaffected beauty carries with it a 
respect and superiority that proceeds from the impulse of nature, 
and not from the artifice of those that have it. 

"Taste," says Dr. Knox, "requires a congruity between the in- 
ternal character, and the external appearance." — Another author, 
the discriminating Chesterfield, observed that "a prepossessing 
exterior is a perpetual letter of recommendation." 

Hence we see that the desire of exhibiting an amiable exterior 
is essentially requisite in women. It is to be received as an un- 
equivocal symbol of those qualities, which we seek in a wife; it 
indicates cleanliness, sweetness, a love of order, and universal 
propriety. Whal, then, is there to censure in a moderate consi- 
deration of dress? Nothing. We may blame, when we find ex- 
travagance, profusion, misappropriation; the tyranny of fashion; 
slavery to vanity; in short bad taste ! 

Fashions like manners, still from courts descend, 

And what the great begin, the vulgar end. 

Honour's a mistress all mankind pursue; 

Yet most mistake the false one for the true: 

Lur'd by the trappings, dazzled by the paint, 

We worship oft the idol for the saint. 

Courted by all, by few the fair is won; 

Those lose who seek her, and those gain who shun, 

Naked she flies to merit in distress, 

And leaves to courts the garnish of her dress. 

Although we cannot suppose prodigality in dress would recom- 
mend the wearers to persons of sense; yet we consider that a de- 
cent habit, proportioned to one's quality and business, is essenti- 
ally necessary. 

Philopaemon, commonly called the Great, was a person of a 
very mean aspect, and one that took no care to set himself off with 
decent apparel, by which means he was often affronted by such 
people as could not distinguish the man from his clothes. He sent 
notiee to one of his friends in Megara that he would take a sup- 
per with him, who went immediately to market to provide an 
entertainment, and requested his wile, in the mean time, to right 
25 



190 ON IIV(.1H1M.. OR THE AET 

up the house that it might be tit to entertain so noble I guest. — 

Philopaemon, it seems, made greater haste than his attendants-, 
and the wile of the house, by the meannessof his dress, taking 
him to be a servant, employed him in cleaving wood for the fire, 
which he was busy at when his friend returned from the market, 
who being astonished at the sight, said, "Why docs my greal 
friend Philopaemon dishonour himself and me, by stooping to so 
mean an office?" The great man, with a cheerful and smiling 
countenance, answered, "I am taking penanec for my homejj 
face and bad apparel." 

Though we cannot hope entirely to escape the unpleasant sen- 
sations, or altogether to ward off the fatal effects, occasioned by 
the sudden changes of our climate-, yet, considering properly the 
nature of clothing, we may avoid much of the danger. If ladies 
are subject to catch cold more frequently than men, it is not alone 
their delicacy of constitution, or their being more confined within 
doors; but the frequent changes they make in the quality and 
quantity of their garments, and sometimes, however fearful of a 
partial eurrent of air, because they expose those parts of the body 
that a little before had been warmly clad. If a greater proportion 
of females fall victims to consumption, is it not because, losing 
sight more than men of its primary purpose, says Dr. Beddoes, 
they regulate their dress solely by fantastic ideas of elegance?" 

After the high encomiums bestowed upon flannel by so many 
'respectable authors, both ancient and modern, and by persons 
who, from long experience, have ascertained its beneficial effects, 
it is surprising that any individual should be whimsical or hardy 
enough to dispute its general salubrity, merely with a view to 
establish its favourite hypothesis. 

It has been objected, that flannel worn next the skin is debili- 
tating, because it too much increases perspiration; but this is not 
founded on truth, since perspiration, as long as the skin remain* 
dry, never can be hurtful. In answer to another objection against 
the wearing of flannel, it is certain that a flannel shirt may [(re- 
serve the body as clean, and much cleaner, than linen, if asfre- 
qaaitly changed. 



WK PRESERVING HEALTH. 191 

To cold phlegmatic temperaments; to all who lead a sedentary 
life; to individuals subject to catarrhs, or frequent colds, gout, 
diarrhoea, and partial congestions of the blood; to all nervous 
patients and convalescents from severe chronic disorders; to per- 
sons who are too susceptible of the impressions of the atmosphere; 
and, lastly, in such climates and pursuits of life, as are exposed to 
frequent and sudden changes of air, the wearing of flannel next 
to the skin is certainly a salutary dress. It will also be found a 
better preventive of contagion than any other; because while it 
encourages perspiration, it at the same time removes the inhaled 
poisonous particles. It is a mistaken notion that flannel is too 
warm a clothing for summer. I have never found the least incon- 
venience from wearing it during the hottest weather; but, on the 
contrary, have experienced the greatest advantage. A celebra- 
ted author's favourite recipe for health was, "to leave off' flannel 
on mid-summer day, to resume it the day following." 

To keep an animal in health, beside the retaining of a due de- 
gree of animal heat, there must be a continual generation of new 
juices, and a perpetual discharge of the old. Without the due 
quantity of perspiration, which, with us, depends very much on 
our clothing, neither the vegetable nor animal can continue in 
health. A plant, whose perspiration is stopt, becomes sickly and 
dies. Even an c^j;, whose shell has been covered with a varnish, 
and the perspiration stopt, will produce no animal. 

Whilst treating on clothing, I would recommend it to every 
person to be careful in observing that the linen which they put 
on, and the sheets in which they sleep are properly dried. Due 
care should also be taken to change the stockings, and other cloth- 
ing, as speedily as possible after their becoming wet from expo- 
sure to rain or snow. Those who neglect these cautions will 
expose themselves either to rheumatism, fever, pleurisy, cough, 
consumption, or some other disease of a dangerous or even fatal 
.nature. 



102 ON II y <; I E 1 N E , o n T H E A R T 



OF CLEANLINESS. 

The grand discharge, the efTusion of the skin, 
Slowly impair'd, the languid maladies 
Creep on, and through the sick'ning functions steal; 
As. when the chilling east invades the spring, 
The delicate Narcissus pines away 
In hectic langour; and a slow disease 
Taints all the family of flowers, condemned 
To cruel heav'ns. But why, already prono 
To fade, should beauty cherish its own bane! 
shame! Opity! nipt with pale quadrille, 
And midnight, cares, the bloom of Albion dies. Armstrovo. 

Cleanliness may be considered the grand secret of preserv- 
ing beauty, as well as promoting health; and therefore is appli- 
cable to all ages and sexes. It maintains the limbs in their pli- 
ancy; the skin in its softness; the complexion in its lustre; the 
eyes in their brightness; the teeth in their purity; and the 
constitution in its fairest vigour. 

The frequent use of tepid baths is not more grateful to the 
sense, than it is salutary to health, and to beauty. By such ablu- 
tion, all impurities are thrown off; cutaneous obstructions remov- 
ed; and, while the surface of the body is preserved in its origi- 
nal brightness, many threatening disorders are put to the rout. 
Indeed, so important is this regimen, that every family should 
make a bathing vessel as indispensable an article in the house as 
a table. 

Against the rigours of a damp, cold Heaven, 

To fortify their bodies, some frequent 

The gelid cistern; and, where nought forbids, 

I praise their dauntless heart. * 

With us, the man of no complaint demands 

The warm ablution, just enough to clear 

The sluices of the skin; enough to keep 

The body sacred from indecent soil. 

Still to be pure, ev'n did it not conduce, 

As much it does, to health, woo greatly worth 

Your daily pains. 'Tis this adorns the rich ; 

The want of this, is poverty's worst wo — 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 193 

With this external virtue, age maintains 

A decent grace; without it, youth and charms 

Are loathsome. This the venal graces know; 

So, doubtless, do your wives; for married sires 

As well as lovers, still pretend to taste; 

Nor is it less, all prudent wives can tell, 

To lose a husband's than a lover's heart. Armstrong. 

Cleanliness is certainly agreeable to our nature. It sooner at- 
tracts our regard than even finery itself, and often gains esteem 
where that fails. It is an ornament to the highest, as well as the 
lowest situation, and can not be dispensed with in either. 

I had occasion, says the author of the Spectator, to go a few 
miles out of town, some days since, in a stage-coach, where I had 
for my fellow-travellers, a dirty beau, and a pretty young quaker 
woman. Having no inclination to talk much, I placed myself 
backward, with a design to survey them, and to pick a specula- 
tion out of my two companions. Their different figures were 
sufficient to draw my attention. The gentleman was dressed in 
a suit, the ground whereof had been black, as I perceived from 
some few spaces that had escaped the powder which was incor- 
porated with the greatest part of his coat; his periwig, which 
cost no small sum, was after so slovenly a manner cast over his 
shoulders, that it seemed not to have been combed since the year 
1682; his linen, which was not much concealed, was daubed 
with plain Spanish, from the chin to the lowest button, and the 
diamond upon his finger, which naturally dreaded the water, put 
me in mind how it sparkled amidst the rubbish of the mine where 
it was first discovered. 

On the other hand, the pretty quaker appeared in all the ele- 
gance of cleanliness. Not a speck was to be found upon her. 
A clean, oval face, just edged about with little thin plaits of the 
purest cambric, received great advantage from the shade of her 
black hood; as did the whiteness of her arms from that sober 
coloured stuff in which she had clothed herself. The plainness 
of her dress was very well suited to the simplicity of her phra- 
ses; all which, put together, gave me an exalted sense of both 
her good taste and her pure innocence. 



194 ON HY6IEINE, OR THR AltT 

This adventure occasioned my throwing 1 together a few hint* 
upon cleanliness, which I shall consider as out- of the luilf-viriuvs, 
as Aristotle calls them, and shall recommend under it the three 
following heads. As it is a mark of politeness; as it produces 
regard; and as it bears analogy to purity of mind. 

First, it is a mark of politeness. It is universally agreed upon, 
that no one unadorned with this virtue, can go into company with- 
out giving a manifest offence. The easier or higher anyone's 
fortune is, this duty arises proportionally. The different nations 
of the world are as much distinguished by their cleanliness 
by their arts and sciences. The more any country is civilized, 
the more they consult this part of politeness. We need but com- 
pare our ideas of a female Hottentot and an English hcauty, to 
be satisfied of what has been advanced. 

In the next place, cleanliness may he said to he the foster-mother 
of love. Beauty, indeed, most commonly produces that passion 
in the mind, but cleanliness preserves it. An indifferent face and 
person, kept in perpetual neatness, has won many a heart from a 
pretty slattern. Age itself is not unamiable, while it is preserved 
clean and unsullied; like a piece of marble constantly kept clean 
and bright, we look on it with more pleasure than a new vessel 
that is cankered with rust. 

We might observe farther, that as cleanliness renders us agree- 
able to others, so it makes us easy to ourselves; that it is an ex- 
cellent preservative of health, and that several vices, destructive 
both to mind and body, are inconsistent with the habit of it. — 
We find, from experience, that through the prevalence of cus- 
tom, the most vicious actions lose their horror by being made 
familiar to us. On the contrary, those who live in the neigh- 
bourhood of good example, fly from the first appearance of what 
is shocking It fares with us much after the, same manner as to 
our ideas. Our senses, which are the inlets of all the im 
conveyed to the mind, can only transmit the impressions of such 
things as usually surround them. So that pure and unsullied 
thoughts are naturally suggested to the mind by those objects 
that perpetually encompass us, when they are beautiful and ele- 
gant in their kind. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 195 






OF PATRIOTISM. 



Man, through all ages of revolving time, 
Unchanging man, in every varying clime, 
Deems his own land, of every land the pride, 
Belov'd by Heaven o'er all the world beside; 
His home a spot of earth supremely blest, 
A dearer, sweeter spot than all the rest Montgomery. 



Patriotism, properly defined, is the love of the laws and of 
the commonwealth. It is a sentiment which makes us prefer the 
interest of the public to our own. At the very name of country, 
the wise and brave feel an enthusiasm which renders there in- 
vincible. 

Patriotism also contributes greatly to the promotion of good 
morals; and hence to health, and every other blessing, both pri- 
vate and public. Rome, Athens, and Lacedaemon, owed all their 
glory to patriotism; and their nothingness to their forgetfulness 
of their country, their laws, and morals. 

Happy if these awful lessons, read to us in the examples of the 
great republic of antiquity, could but avail to kindle among our- 
selves that divine patriotism which once exalted them to such 
glory among the nations. Among innumerable other blessings, 
health would then be promoted. For the noble virtues of the 
soul constituting patriotism, as magnanimity, disinterestedness, va- 
lour, and consciousness of doing our duty, would diffuse through 
the heart that habitual complacency and joy most friendly to 
health; which would be still further promoted by that simplicity 
of manners, and activity of life, which belongs to Republicans. 
Whereas, on the contrary, in proportion as national patriotism 
decays, health becomes enervated by luxury and other vices, 
which are sure to overspread a nation that has lost the animating 
fire of patriotism. 



196 ON HYGIEl N E, OB PH E \ H • 

John II. king of Portugal, who lor the nobleness of hii mind 
was wortliy ol" a greater kingdom, when he heard there was ;i 
bird called the Pelican, that tears ami wounds her bseesl with 
her bill, that with her own blood she may restore Ikt young 
ones to life, when left as dead by the bitings of serpents, this 
excellent prince took care that the figure ot' this bird, engiged 
in this action, should he added to his other royal' devices; that 
he might hereby show, that he was ready, upon occasion, to part 
with his own blood for the. welfare and preservation of his peo- 
ple and country. Pity it is to conceal their names, whose minds 
have been, in this respect, as pious and princely as his, not f< 
ing to redeem the lives of their fellow-citizens at the price of 
their own. 

Themistocles, the Athenian general, after his many famous 
exploits, was banished the country, and sought after to be slam. 
He chose, therefore, to put himself rather into the power of the 
Persian king, his enemy, than to expose himself to the malice of 
his fellow-citizens. He was by him received with great joy; 
insomuch, that the king in the midst of his sleep, was heard to 
cry out thrice aloud, "I have with me Themistocles, the Athe- 
nian." He also did him great honour, for he allotted him three 
cities for his table provisions, and two others lor the furniture of 
his wardrobe and bed. While he remained in that court with 
such splendour and dignity, the Egyptians rebelled, encouraged, 
and also assisted by the Athenians. The Grecian navy had come 
as far as Cyprus and Cilicia; and Cimon, the Athenian admiral, 
rode master at sea. This caused the Persian king to levy sol- 
diers, and appoint commanders to repress them. He also sent. 
letters to Themistocles, then at Magnesia, importing that he had 
criven him the supreme command in that airair, and that he should 
now be mindful of his promise to him, and undertake this war 
against Greece. But Themistocles was no way moved with an- 
ger against his ungrateful countrymen, nor incited to wage war 
with them by the gift of all his honour and power-, for, after 
having sacrificed, he called about him his friends, and, having 
embraced them, he drank a strong poison, and chose rather to 
close his own life, than to be an instrument of evil to his native 
country, which yet had deserved so ill at his hands. Thus died 






OF PURSER Vr?fG HEALTH. 197 

Themistoclea, in the sixty-fifth year of his age, most of which 
time he had spent in the management of the republic at home, or 
as the chief commander abroad. 

At the siege of Turin by the French army, in 1G40, a sergeant 
of the Piedmontese guards signalized himself by a singular ex- 
ample of patriotism; this sergeant guarded, with some soldiers, 
the subterraneous parts of a work of the citadel. The mine was 
charged, and nothing was wanting but what is called a sausage 
or pudding, to blow up several companies of grenadiers who 
served in the work and posted themselves in it. The loss of the 
work would have accelerated the surrender of the place. — 
The sergeant, with great resolution, ordered the soldiers he com- 
manded to retire, begging them to desire the king his master to 
pro! ret his wile and children. He then set fire to the powder, 
and perished for his country. 

On the surrender of Lord Cornwallis, in the American war, 
the Loyalist of 22 guns, then in the Chesapeake, became a party 
in that disastrous event; her crew were conveyed to the Count 
de Grasse's fleet — of that fleet the Ardent, captured off Ply- 
mouth, made one, but was then in a very leaky condition. The 
Count being informed that the carpenter of the Loyalist was a 
man of talents, and perfectly acquainted with the nature of the 
chain pump, of which the French were ignorant, ordered him on 
board the Ville de Paris, and addressed him thus: " Sir, you are 
to go on hoard the Ardent directly; use your utmost skill, and 
save her from sinking, for which service you shall have a premi- 
um, and the encouragement due to the carpenter of an equal rate 
in the British navy; to this I pledge my honour; on refusal, you 
will, during your captivity, he fed on bread and water only." — 
The tar, surprised at being thus addressed in his own language, 
boldly answered; "Noble Count, I am your prisoner. It is in 
your power to confine me; hut never let it be said that a British 
sailor forgot his duty to his king and country, and entered volun- 
tarily into the service of the enemy; your promises. are no in- 
ducement for me, and your threats shall not force me to injure my 
country.'" 

26 



198 OH HtOIEINE, OB 111 l. \ it r 

There is a land, of every land the pride, 

Belov'd by Heaven oVr all the world beside; 

Where brighter suns dispense serener light, 

And milder moons emparadise the night; 

A land of beauty, virtue, valour, truth, 

Time-tutor'd age, and love-exalted youth. 

"Where shall that land, that spot of earth be found?" 

Art thou a man? — a patriot? — look round; 

thou shalt find, howe'erthy footsteps roam, 

That land thy COUNTRY, and that spot th\j no ml! 

Montgomery. 

As Americans, we feel the love of country, not merely because 
it is the land where we were born, but the land where we enjoy 
freedom, equal rights, and every blessing that can sweeten life, and 
gild it over with glory. Hence we need not have gone back to 
ancient times to show what men have dared from patriotism. 
No, thank God! we have, in our own country, and in our own 
days, names as bright as ever adorned the annals of time. The 
memory of my exulting reader is already flying before me to a 
host of heroes, who even courted wounds and death for thru 
country; to Lawrence, whose last words were "Dotft give up 
the Skqjt" 1 — to Burrows, who, when desperately wounded on the 
deck, said, " / won't be carried below; prop me vp, that I may see 
viy brave men at their guru!" — to Lowry Donaldson, who cried, 
" My gallant countrymen, I die, but don't let the cause of freedom 
die with me/"— to Daviess, who, on the field of Tippecanoe, smi- 
ling in the arms of fate exclaimed, " Thank God, I die in tlie best 
of causes!" — to a common sailor, who, while below, dressing for 
a mortal wound, and hearing his companions on deck shouting for 
victory, snatched away the shattered slump of his arm, saying, 
" Let me go, doctor: I know I am dying, but I must give one huzza 
more for my country!"— to Pike, Covington, Gibson, Wood, 
Holmes, Stoddard, Beasley, Mead, Spencer, Wattles, Hoppuck, 
Jack, Bradford, Armistead, Vanhorn, Olmstead, Middleton, 
Woolfolk, Smith, M'Donough, Blaney, Legate, Yates, Jackson, 
O'Fling, of tlie anny—io Allen, Ludlow, Wilmer, Funk, Babbit, 
Hamilton, Howell, Stansbury, Gamble, Cowell, Williams, 
Brookes, Bush, Broome, of ihe navy— to Davis, Allen, Lauder- 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 199 

dale, Henderson, Graves, Hickman, Hart, M'Cracken, Hooper, 
Pace, Bud, Hamilton, Evans, Quarles, Brown, Belknap, Blakes- 
ley, Glagg-et, Clemm, Rosevelt, Poe, of tlie militia, — and a thou- 
sand other Martyrs of Liberty, who all rushed into the battle 
as if animated by the immortal Washington's injunction, — 
" Remember, tlutt you are going to fight for liberty!" and who all 
died rejoicing that they had shed their blood to cement her Holy 
Faijric. 

" To live with fame the gods allow to many; but to die with equal 
lustre, is a gift which Heaven selects from all the choicest boons of 
fate, and villi a sparing hand onfexo bestowsP 



OF RELIGION. 

Y'ct, though kind Heav'n points out th' unerring road. 
That leads through nature up to bliss and God; 
Spite of that God, and all his voice divine, 
Speaks to the heart, or teaches from the shrine, 
Man, feebly vain, and iinpotently wise, 
Disdains the manna sent him from the skies; 
Tasteless of all that virtue gives to please, 
For thought too active, and too mad for ease, 
From wish to wish in life's mad vortex tost, 
For ever struggling, and for ever lost; 
He scorns Religion, though her seraphs call, 
And lives in rapture, or not lives at all. Cawthobn. 

Some of my readers may perhaps be surprised, that in a book 
which professes to treat of Health, I should so far forget the 
text as to introduce the subject of Religion. — But I trust they 
will cease to wonder when they consider that health is the phy- 
sical result of nicely balanced appetites and passions, and that 
there exists no power on earth, that can so attune these into har- 
mony, as Religion. Cast your eye around you, and say whence 
have sprung most of the diseases, both mental and corporal, but 
from lack of this divine guardian of man. Religion, By this great 



200 on HYCTE int., or: THE aim 

name, I do not mean that hypocrisy which consists in gloomy 
faces, nor that narrow bigotry which rests <»n particular forms; 
the one only shows that religion is very jailing to their feelings; 
the other is but too often false and treacherous, deluding those 
who behold them, into the opinion of their superior sanctity and 
virtue. Nor can I entertain a more favourable opinion of those 
who make a profession of religion and exhibit too much levity. 
It is a maxim among politicians, " that those who know not BOW 
to dissemble, know not how to rule." But this will not hold in 
religion, where virtue is at all times to be the guide of our actions. 

There are some sectarians who are so illiberal as to express a 
belief, that those only of their persuasion are in the right road to 
Heaven! Strange infatuation! Can this he consistent with the 
Scriptures or reason? The pure spirit of the gospel of Chris' 
breathes forth a holy religion, founded on meekness, charity, 
kindness, and brotherly love. 

Could we forbear dispute, and practise love. 
We should agree as angels do above. 
Where love presides, not vice alone does find 
No entrance there, but virtues stay behind: 
Both faith and hope, and all the meaner train, 
Of mortal virtues, at the door remain. 
Love only enters as a native there, 
For, born in Heaven, it does but sojourn here 

Waller. 

It is of the utmost importance to guard against extremes of 
every kind in religion, lest by seeking to avoid one rock we split 
upon another. It has been long the subject of remark, that 
Superstition and Enthusiasm are two capital sources of delu- 
sion. Superstition, on the one hand, attaching men with immo- 
derate zeal to the ritual and external points of religion, and en- 
thusiasm, on the other, directing their whole attention to internal 
emotions and mystical communications with the spiritual world; 
while neither the one nor the other has paid sufticicnt regard to 
the great moral duties of the Christian life. 



OF FESERVING HEALTH. 201 

Blest is the man, as far as earth can bless, 
Wliose mcasur'd passions reach no wild excess; 
Who, urg'd by Nature's voice, her gifts enjoys, 
Nor other means than Nature's force employs. 

Zimmerman. 

In mental illusion, Imagination, when she first begins to exer- 
cise her powers, seizes on some fact, of the real nature of which 
the mind has but an obscure idea, and for want of tracing it thro* 
all its connexions and dependencies, misleads reason into the 
darkest paths of error. The wild conjectures, and extravagant 
opinions which have issued from this source, are innumerable. — 
The voice of the calm inquirer, Reason, is incapable of being 
heard amidst the tumult, and the favourite image is animated and 
enlarged by the glowing fire of the Passions. No power remains 
to control or regulate, much less to subdue, this mental ray, 
which inflames the whole soul, and exalts it into the fervour of 
Enthusi-asm, hurries it into the extravagance of Superstition, or 
precipitates it into the furious frenzies of Fanaticism. 

The hrc of fanaticism is so subtilely powerful, that it is capa- 
ble of inflaming the coldest minds. The rapidity of its progress 
certainly depends, in a great degree, on the nature of the mate- 
rials on which it acts; but, like every dangerous conflagration, 
its tirst appearances should he watched, and every means taken 
to extinguish its flame. 

In the course of my practice as a physician, says Dr. Zimmer- 
man, I was called upon to attend a young lady, whose natural 
disposition had been extremely cheerful, until a severe fit of sick- 
ness damped her spirits, and rendered her averse to all those 
lively pleasures which fascinate the youthful mind. The debility 
of her frame, and the change of her temper, were not sufficiently 
attended to in the early stages of her convalescence. The anxie- 
ty of her mind was visible in the altered features of her face; and 
she was frequently heard to express a melancholy regret, that she 
had consumed so many hours in the frivolous, though innocent, 
amusements of her age. Time increased, by almost impercepti- 
ble degrees, these symptoms of approaching melancholy; and at 
length exhibited themselves by penitential lamentations of the sin 



202 ON RYttlfclNE, OR THE AHT 

she had committed with respect to the mort trilling- actions of 
Iter life, and in which no shadow of offence could possibly be 
found. At the time I was called in, this superstitious melancho- 
ly was attended with certain indications of mental derangement 
The distemper clearly originated in the indisposition of the body, 
and the gloomy apprehensions which disease and pain had ini 
dtteed into the mind during a period of many months. This once 
lively, handsome, but now almost insane female, was daily attack- 
ed with such violent paroxysms of her complaint, that she lost 
all sense of her situation, and exclaimed, iu horrid distraction and 
deep despair, that her j)erdition was already accomplished, and 
lhat thejiends were tcaiting to receive tier soul and plunge it into tiic 
bitterest torments of hell. Her constitution, however, still fortun- 
ately retained sufficient strength to enable me, by the power of 
medicine, gradually to change its temperament, and to reduce the 
violence of the fever which had been long preying on her life. 
Her mind became more calm in proportion as her nerves recover- 
ed their former tone; and when her intellectual powers were in a 
condition to be acted on with effect, I successfully counteracted 
the baleful effects of Superstition by the wholesome infusion of 
real Religion, and restored, by degrees, a lovely, young, and vir- 
tuous woman to her family and herself. 

Oh! would mankind but make fair Truth then- guide, 

And force the helm from Prejudice and Pride. 

Were once these maxims fix'd that God 's our friend, 

Virtue our good, and Happiness our end, 

How soon must reason o'er the world prevail, 

And Eerror, Fraud, and Superstition fail! 

:None would hereafter, then, with groundless fear, 

Describe The Almighty cruel and severe; 

Predestinating some, without pretence, 

To Heaven; and some to hell for no offence. 

Inflicting endless pains for transient crimes, 

And favouring sects or nations, men or times. 

Zimmerman. 

It is that fervent love of God and man, constituting the heart- 
gladdening religion of Christ, which I mean. This teaches us to 
deny ourselves, and follow in the exercise of all virtues, win 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 203 

consists the life o£ religion, laying aside all idle quarrels, self-in- 
terest, and needless debates about circumstantials; for this reli- 
gion is not in words but in works; not in opinions but in assur- 
ances; not in speculation but in practice. It is this religion all 
men ought to love for their own sakes, because a holy life, which 
it teaches, gives a comfortable death and a happy eternity 

He that alone would wise and mighty be, 

Commands that others love as well as he. 

Love as he lov'd — How can we soar so high? 

He can add wings when he commands to fly. 

Nor should we be with this command dismay'd', 

He that examples give will give his aid. 

For he took flesh, that when his precepts fail, 

His practice, as a pattern, may prevail. Wallek. 

The man who loves God, enjoys that first of felicities, the con- 
sciousness of having placed his affections on the only object that 
truly deserves them. O! how amiable is gratitude; especially 
tvhen directed to the Supreme Benefactor. It is the most exalted 
principle that can actuate the heart of man. 

When a good man looks around him on this vast world, where 
beauty and goodness are reflected from every object, and where 
he beholds millions of creatures in their different ranks, enjoying 
the blessings of existence, he looks up to the Universal Fa- 
ther, and his heart glows within him. And in every comfort 
which sweetens his own life, he discerns the same indulgent hand. 
Thus it is that gratitude prepares a good man for the enjoyment 
of prosperity; for not only has he as full a relish as others of the 
innocent pleasures of life, but, moreover, in these he holds com- 
munion with God. In all that is good or fair he traces his hand. 
From the beauties of nature, from the improvements of art, from 
the blessings of public or private life, he raises his affections to 
the great Fountain of all happiness which surrounds him, and this 
widens the sphere of his enjoyments, by adding to the pleasures 
of sense, the far more exquisite joys of the heart. 

If (his goodness of God is so admirably seen in the works of 
Nature, and the favours of Providence, with what a noble superi- 
ority does it even triumph in the ministry of redemption. Redemn- 



204 OX HYCilElNF., OR THE All I 

tion is the brightest mirror in which to contemplate the most, 
lovely attributes of the Deity. 

Redemption! oh thou beauteous mystic plan, 
Thou salutary source of life to man! 
What tongue can speak thy comprehensive gra 
What thought thy depths unfathomable trace? 

0! Vilest Redeemer, from thy sacred throne, 
Where saints and angles sing thy triumphs won! 
From that exalted height of bliss supreme, 
Look down on those who bear thy sacred name, 
Restore their ways, inspire them by thy grace. 
Thy laws to follow, and thy steps to trace; 
Thy bright example to thy doctrine join, 
And by their morals prove their faith divine! 

BOYSE. 

Religion is so far from debarring us of any innocent pleasure or 
comfort of human life, that it purifies our enjoyments, and ren- 
ders them more grateful and generous; and thus makes us habit- 
ually cheerful. 

Thou, Cheerfulness, by Heaven design M 
To sway the movements of the mind: 
Whatever Artful passion springs. 
Whatever wayward fortune brings 

To disarrange the power within, 

And strain the musical machine; 

Thou, goddess, thy attempering hand 

Doth each discordant string command. 

Refines the soft and swells the strong. 

And, joining Nature's general son<r, 

Through many a varying tone unfolds 

The harmony of human souls. Akevside. 

Cheerfulness is consistent with every species of virtue and prac- 
tice of religion. It bears ihe same friendly regard to the mind a< 
to the body; it banishes all anxious care and discontent, soothes 
and composes the passions, and keeps the soul in a perpetual 
calm. 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 205 

Providence did not design this world should be filled with mur- 
murs and repinings , and that the heart of man should be involved 
in perpetual gloom and melancholy. 

What blessings Thy free bounty gives 

Let me not cast away; 
For God is paid when man receives; 

T' enjoy is to obey. Pope. 

As I was between sleeping and waking, says a sublime author, 
I perceived one of the most shocking figures imagination can 
frame, advancing towards me. She was dressed in black, her 
eyes deep sunk in her head, and her complexion pale and livid as 
the countenance of death. Her looks were filled with terror and 
unrelenting severity, and her hands armed with whips and scor- 
pions. As soon as she came near, with a horrid frown, and a 
voice that chilled my very blood, she bade me follow her. I 
obeyed, and she led me through rugged paths, beset with briers 
and thorns, and a deep solitary valley. — Wherever she passed, 
the fading verdure withered beneath her steps; her pestilential 
breath infected the air with malignant vapours, obscured the lus- 
tre of the sun, and involved the fair face of Heaven in universal 
gloom. Dismal howlings resounded through the forests; from 
every baleful tree the night raven croaked his dreadful note; and 
the prospect was filled with desolation and horror. In the midst of 
this tremendous scene, she addressed me in the following manner. 

"Retire with me, O rash, unthinking mortal, from the vain al- 
lurements of a deceitful world, and learn that pleasure was not de- 
signed the portion of human life. Man was born to mourn, and 
to be wretched; this is the condition of all below the stars, and 
whoever endeavours to oppose it, acts in contradiction to the will 
of Heaven. Fly then from the fatal enchantments of youth and so- 
cial delight, and here consecrate the solitary hours to lamentation, 
and wo. Misery is the duty of all sublunary beings, and every 
enjoyment is an offence to the Deity, who is to be worshipped 
only by the mortification of every sense of pleasure, and the 
everlasting exercise of sighs and tears." 

27 



206 ON KYG] r. 1 N H, OH I I! R V II T 

This melancholy picture of life quite sunk my spiritf, and 
seemed to annihilate every principle of happiness witbin me. I 
threw myself beneath a blasted yew, where the winds blew cold 
and dismal round my head, and dreadful apprehensions chilled 
my heart. Here 1 resolved to lie till the hand of death, which I 
impatiently invoked, should put an end to the miseries of a life 
so deplorably wretched. In this sad situation, 1 espied on one 
hand of me a deep muddy river, whose heavy waves rolled 
on in slow and sullen murmurs, when I found my self suddenly 
surprised by the sig-ht of the loveliest object I ever beheld. 
Tin- most engaging charms of youth and beauty appeared in all 
her form; effulgent glories sparkled in her eyes, and their awful 
our were (softened by the gentlest looks of complacency 
and peace. At her approach, the frightful spectre, who had be- 
fore tormented me, vanished away, and with her all the horrors 
she bad caused. The gloomy clouds brightened in cheerful 
sunshine; the groves recovered their verdure; and the whole re- 
gion looked gay and blooming as the garden of Eden. I was 
quite transported at the unexpected change, and reviving hope 
began to glad my thoughts, when, with a look of inexpressible 
sweetness, my beauteous deliverer thus uttered her divine in- 
st rue lions: 

"My name is Religion. 1 am the offspring of Truth and 
Lon\ and the parent of Benevolence, Hope, and Joy. That mon- 
ster from whose power I have freed you, is called Superstition; 
she is the child of Discontent, and her followers are Fear and 
Sorrow. Thus, different as we are, she has often the insolence. 
to assume my name and character, and seduces unhappy mortals 
to think us the same, till she at length drives them to the borders 
of despair; that dreadful abyss, into which you were just going 
to sink. 

"Look around, and survey the various beauties of the globe, 
which Heaven has destined for the seat of the human race, and 
consider whether a world thus exquisitely framed, could be meant 
for the abode of misery and pain. For what end has the lavish 
hand of Providence diffused such innumerable objects of delight, 
but that ail might rejoice in the privilege of existence, and be tilled 



OP PRESERVING HEATH. 207 

with gratitude for tlie blessings he has sent, is virtue and obedi* 
ence; and to reject them merely as means of pleasure is pitiable ig- 
norance, or absurd perverseness. Infinite goodness is the source 
of created existence; the proper tendency of every rational being, 
from the highest order of raptured seraphs, to the meanest rank 
of men, is to rise incessantly from lower degrees of happiness to 
higher. They have each faculties of assigned them for various 
orders of delight." 

"What!" cried I, "is this the language of Religion? Does she 
lead her votaries through flowery paths, and bid them pass an 
unlaborious life?" "The true enjoyments of a reasonable being," 
answered she, mildly, "do not consist in unbounded indulgence, 
or luxurious ease, the tumult of passions, the langour of indul- 
gence, or \\u\ flutter of light amusements. Those are often raised 
into the greatest transports of joy, who are subject to \he greatest 
depressions of melancholy: on the contrary, Cliecr fulness, though 
it does not give the mind such an exquisite gladness, prevents us 
from falling into depths of sorrow. Mirth is like a flash of light- 
ning, that breaks through a gloom of clouds, and glitters for a 
moment. Cheerfulness keeps up a kind of day light in the mind, 
and (ills it with a steady and perpetual serenity." 

Repinings and secret murmurs of heart give imperceptible strokes 
to those delicate fibres of which we are composed and wear out 
the machine insensibly; not to mention the injury they do the 
blood, and those irregular disturbed motions which they raise in 
the vital functions. Whereas Cheerfulness bears the same friend- 
ly regard to the mind as to the body; it banishes all anxious care 
and discontent, soothes and composes the passions, and keeps the 
soul in a perpetual calm. 

To aim at a constant succession of high and vivid sensations 
of pleasure, is an idea of happiness altogether chimerical. Calm 
and temperate enjoyment is the utmost that is allotted to man. 
Beyond this, we struggle in vain to raise our state; and, in fact, 
depress our joys, by endeavouring to heighten them. 

Look around you on the world; reflect on the different societies 
which have fallen .under your observation; and think who among 
them enjoys life to most advantage; whether they who, encircled 
by gay companions, are constantly fatiguing themselves in quest 



208 ON HYGIEINE, OR THE ART 

of pleasure; or they to whom pleasure comes unsought, in the 
course of active, virtuous, and manly life. 

Religion or philosophy calls you not to renounce pleasure, but 
teaches you how to enjoy it. Instead of abridging it, we exhort 
you to pursue it with safety. We propose measures for securing 
its possession, and lor prolonging its duration. Though she may 
appear to contract the bounds of enjoyment, you will upon reflec- 
tion find, that in (ruth she enlarges them: what is delightful in 
human enjoyment she readily allows, and not only allows, hut 
heightens, by that grateful relish which a good conscience gives 
to every pleasure; ani not only heightens, but adds, when cor- 
recting the excess of some passions, she gives room for the growth 
of others. Amid the turbulence of riot and the. fumes of intoxication, 
unknown are the pleasures of generous friendship, heart-felt love 
and domestic society; unknown the conscious satisfaction which 
accompany honourable pursuits, and the justly acquired esteem 
of those who surround us. 

It was the daily practice of that eminent physician, Qr. Boer- 
haave, throughout his whole life, as soon as he arose in the morn- 
ing, which was generally very early, to retire for an hour to pri- 
vate prayer and meditation on some part of the Scriptures. He 
often told his friends, when they asked him how it was possible 
for him to go through so much fatigue, that it was this which 
gave him spirit and vigour in the business of the day. This, 
therefore, he recommended, as the best rule he could give: for 
nothing, he said, could tend more to the health of the body, than 
the tranquillity of the mind; and that he knew nothing which 
could support himself or his fellow-creatures, amidst the various 
distresses of life, but a well grounded confidence in the Supreme 
Being, upon the principles of Christianity. 

We have all of us experienced the effects which any indisposition 
of the body, even though slight, produces on external prosperity. 
Visit the gayest and most fortunate man on earth, only with sleep- 
less nights, disorder any single organ of the senses, corrode but 
one of his smallest nerves, and you shall presently see all his 
gaiety vanish; and you shall hear him complain that he is a mis- 
erable creature, and express his envy of the peasant and the cot- 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 209 

tager. And can you believe that a disease in the soul is less fatal 
to enjoyment than a disease in the animal frame; or that a sound 
mind is not as essential as a sound body to the happiness of man? 
Let us rate sensual gratifications as high as we please, we shall 
be made to feel that the seat of enjoyment is in the soul. 

Ah! what is life? with ills encompass'd round, 
Amidst our hopes, fate strikes the sudden wound : 
To-day the statesman of new honour dreams, 
To-morrow death destroys his airy schemes ; 
Is mouldy treasure in thy chest confin'd? 
Think all that treasure thou must leave behind! 
Thy heir with smiles shall view thy blazon'd hearse, 
And all thy hoards with lavish hand disperse. 
Should certain fate thi impending blow delay, 
Thy mirth will sicken, and thy bloom decay; 
Then feeble age will all thy nerves disarm, 
No more thy blood its narrow channels warm. Gay. 
Let the affections of a man be once softened and dulcified with 
Divine love, and he is ever secure from the sudden apoplexies of 
the passionate, the poisonous cups of the drunkard — the murder- 
ing pistol of the duellist — the assassinating dagger of the jealous 
— the loathsome diseases of the harlot — and the wasting hectics 
of the gambler. 

Though it is an ill man's interest there should be no God, be- 
cause then there should be no punishment for sin, and though this 
interest passes into argument, yet it is never so conclusive as to 
pass into an entire satisfaction; for we cannot believe any person 
that has the use of his rational faculties, and gives himself the 
liberty of thinking, can deny the existence of a Deity, both as 
to creation and providence. Then, if every man believes there 
is a God, not to live in obedience to his precepts is to enhance 
one's guilt, and bring conscience as a witness to convict the 
offender of wilful transgressions. As for professed Atheists, or 
such as have pretended to be so, and durst presume to affront 
their Deities, let others read the blackness of their sin in the 
exemplary punishment that attended it. 

A young gentleman of the City of Florence, in Italy, being 
accounted bvavc and dexterous at single sword, was to duel an- 



210 OF I'KKSr.KVTNr. HEALTH. 

other young man called Forphebene. T py were accompanied 
into the field by several of their acquaintance, where a friend 

saluted the former with his good wishes, saying, l 1 praj God 
give you victory over your antagonist." The insolent spark 
answered, "Mow can he fail to do otherwise?" Forchi 
overhearing them, replied, "These blasphemous words will len- 
der me the executioner of Divine vengeance." Toil the) wen! 
with equal fury, when the combat, for some time, was verj 
doubtful; but at length Forchebene made such a home-thrust 
into his adversary's mouth, that he ixed his tongue to his n< ck, 
the sword appearing above siv inches on the other side; of which 
wound he died immediately, and had his death in the part that 
offended. 

Oh man! degenerate man! offend no more! 

Go, learn of brutes thy Maker to adore! 

Shall these through every tribe his bounty own, 

Of all his works ungrateful thou alone! 

Mark how the wretch his awful name blasphemes, 

His pity spares — his clemency reclaims! 

Observe his patience with the guilty strive, 

And bid the criminal repent and live; 

Recall the fugitive with gentle eye, 

Beseech the obstinate he would not die! 

Amazing tenderness — amazing most 

The soul on whom such mercy should be lost! Boyle. 

There are many wicked men who will speak unbecoming things 
of God, in a humour of bravado amidst company, but will trem- 
ble before him in solitude, and shudder at the approach of death. 

Man makes a death which nature never made, 

Then on the point of bis own fancy falls, 

And feels a thousand deaths in fearing one. You.no. 

Voltaire, a man who, after having long and too justly been 
considered the patron of infidelity, and after having shown him- 
self equally the enemy to every religious establishment, at length, 
to the astonishment of all serious minds, and at the close of a long 
life of near eighty years, embraced the Christian religion. 

If a veteran in the cause of infidelity thus closes his life and 
his works, does it not greatly behoove those who have been 



O N HV G I E I N E, O K T H E ART 211 

deluded and misled by Ids writings, seriously to look to them- 
selves, and bring home this striking example to their hearts. 

O then, while penitence can fate disarm, 

While h'ng'ring justice yet withholds its arm; 

While heavenly patience grants the precious time, 

Let the lost sinner think him of his crime; 

Immediate, to the seat of mercy fly, 

Nor wait to-morrow — lest to-night he die. Boyle. 

If men, so prodigal in scattering imprecations and curses upon 
all they are displeased at, would take time to consider what they 
are about before they disgorge them, they would certainly be 
ned of the folly of such a practice, because nobody is hurt 
by il but themselves; for curses, like arrows shot against Heaven, 
fall upon lb" heads of those that throw them out, but can never 
injure the persons or things levelled at. Again, what can be more 
foolish than for men, in common discourse, to make imprecations 
upon themselves, to confirm the truth of their assertions, which 
docs no more than give a handle to their auditors' suspicion; for 
good men will be believed without them, and scorn to use them; 
and bad men can never gain credit, but disparage them- 
selves, by so frequently venting them; because, by such bitter 
asseverations, they seem to suspect their own reputations. It 
is also for want oi consideration, and too easy a compliance with 
a scandalous and vicious custom, that men of sense, in other 
matters, upon very slight, and sometimes no occasion in the 
world, expose themselves to the wrath of Heaven, by calling 
upon God to damn them if what they say be false, when, at the 
same time, they know there is no truth in it, and wish they may 
perish eternally, if they don't do what they never intend wheu 
they speak it. 

What use of oaths, of promise, or of test. 

Where men regard no God but interest? 

What endless war would jealous nations tear, 

If none above did witness what they swear? 

Sad fate of unbelievers, and yet just, 

Among themselves to find so little trust! 

Were, Scripture silent, Nature would proclaim, 

>N ithout a God, our falsehood and our shajme. JBoyie. 



212 ON HYCIEINE, OR THE AKT 

Amongst all Ihc nations, there arc none so barbarous and cruel, 
none so utterly lost to all the sentiments of humanity and civility, 
but have embraced and continued amongst them the notion of a 
Deity, or some being entitled to their adoration. This is a prin- 
ciple so deeply engraven in the very nature of man, that no time, 
nor change, nor chance, hath ever been able to obliterate it; so 
that, rather than have nothing to worship, men have often been 
contented to adore as gods, even the works of their own hands. 
And, indeed, herein their ignorance and folly is chiefly to be la- 
mented, that they have still made choice of any thing, rather than 
the true God, to pay their homage and veneration. In the mean 
time, they shame some of us, in having been more zealous in their 
superstition, than wc arc in the true religion. 

The Athenians consulted the oracle of Apollo, demanding what 
rites they should make use of in matters of their religion. The 
answer was, "The rites of their ancestors." Returning thither 
again, they said, "The manner of their forefathers had been of- 
ten changed;" they, therefore, inquired, "what custom they 
should make choice of in so great a variety?" Apollo replied, 
"Tie best." 

First to the gods thy humble homage pay; 

The greatest this, and first of laws obey: 

Perform thy vows, observe thy plighted troth, 

And let religion hind thee to thy oath. 

The heroes next demand thy just regard, 

Renown'd on earth, and to the stars preferr'd, 

To light, and endless life, their virtue's sure reward. 

Due rites perform, and honours to tin: dead, 

To every wise, to every pious shade. 

With lowly duty to thy parents bow, 

And grace and favour to thy kindred show: 

For what concerns the rest of human kind. 

Choose out the man to virtue best inclin'd; 

Him to thy arms receive; him to thy bosom bind. 

Pythagoras. 
The great Lord Burleigh used to say, " I will never trust any 

man not of sound religion; forjxe that is false to God cun never be 

true to man.'''' 



OF PRESERVING HEALTH. 116 

From the very respectful mention which I have so frequently 
made of religion, some of my readers maybe charitable enough 
to conclude, that I am religious in a high degree. Would to 
God I were. From my soul I wish that my devotedness to re- 
ligion had all my life been equal to the exalted opinion which I 
entertained of it. But, though like most of the human race, I 
have too often neglected my duty in this respect, yet can I sa}', 
before my God, that I look upon religion as the only true glory 
and happiness of man; and though worlds were thrown into the 
opposite scale, yet would I not relinquish the joys, imperfect 
as they are, which I derive from it. And from this circumstance 
I have often been led to think, that if I derive so much comfort 
from the little religion which I possess, how truly enviable, 
how superlatively happy must they be, whose whole lives are 
devoted to her service, and whose hearts are perpetually enjoy- 
ing those sublime pleasures which her unclouded smiles can 
impart. 

Arise, my soul, on wings seraphic rise, 

And praise th' Almighty Sov'reign of the skies; 

In whom alone essential glory shines, 

Which not the heaven of heav'ns, nor boundless space 
confines. 

While this immortal spark of heavenly flame 

Distends my breast, and animates my frame; 

To thee my ardent praises shall be borne 

On the first breeze that wakes the blushing morn: 

The latest star shall hear the pleasing sound, 

And nature in full choir shall join around. 

When full of thee my soul excursive flies 

Through air, earth, ocean, or thy regal skies; 

From world to world new wanders still I find, 

And all the Godhead flashes on my mind. 

When wing'd with whirlwinds, vice shall take its flight 

To the deep bosom of eternal night, 

To thee my soul shall endless praises pay; 

Join, men and angels, join uV exalted lay! — Blacklock 
29 



T 



©F 



FEVERS IN GENERAL. 



UNDER this head are comprehended all fevers whatever, 
by which the human frame is affected; but, as they arise from a 
great variety of causes, and affect persons of very dissimilar 
constitutions, they must of course differ in their nature, and rev 
quire a very distinct treatment. 

Two very opposite states of the human body are supposed 
to give rise to fevers, and to form their great and fundamental 
distinctions. The one is called the phlogistic diathesis, or in- 
flammatory disposition; wherein the heart is excited to rapid and 
strenuous exertions, manifested by great strength in the action, 
of the vessels, while the blood itself exhibits a more florid hue 
and denser texture than usual. 

In the other, the brain and nervous system are more directly 
affected, their energy seems impaired, the force of the heart and 
vessels is diminished, the blood is of a looser texture, and the 
fluids tend to desolation. 

In the first state, when the inflammation originates from ex r 
ternal causes, as wounds, contusions, or burns, the fever fol- 
lows die local affection, and is in proportion to the degree of 
inflammation in the part affected. Such fevers are called symp- 
tomatic. 

This is also the case in certain disorders of the lungs, and 
other viscera, which arise, not from external injuries, but from 
>ome vice in thf part, which gradually brings on inflammation 



-H> or SEVERS in GENER vi- 

and fever, [f the Ideal information be removed, the fever is rr 
moved also; if it cannot be subdued, but increase gradually, 
destroying the organization of the part, the patient dies some- 
times by the violence of the fever, and sometime! merely be- 
cause an organ essential to life is destroyed. 

Cold is found, by universal experience, to give a disposition 
to inflammatory disorders, and heat to those called putrid.* Du- 
ring the winter, and early in the spring, pleurisies, peripneu- 
monies, quinsies, rheumatisms and inflammatory fevers prevail. 
Towards the end of summer, and particularly in autumn, fevers 
of a different nature, with dysenteries and putrid ulcerous sore 
throats, make their appearance. 

Although it is true in general, that cold occasions a disposi- 
tion to diseases of an inflammatory nature, and heat to those 
supposed putrescent, yet, persons who take violent exercise in 
sultry weather, or who accidentally fall asleep on the ground, ex- 
posed to the beams of the mid-day sun, are sometimes seized 
with fevers of a highly inflammatory and dangerous quality; 
the inflammation directly ajfecting the brain itself, or its mem- 
branes. 

The time, it) which iutermmittents and remittents are most 
prevalent, is the end of summer and beginning of autumn, 
when heat and moisture combine to hasten the corruption 
of animal and vegetable substances, and fill the atmosphere 
with miasmata. These considerations reduce it next to a cer- 
tainty, that something essentially connected with a marshy soil 
produces fever, and we can suppose nothing with so much proba- 
bility, as the eflluvia of stagnant water and corrupting animal 
and vegetable substances. 

And if a sudden itoppage of perspiration, from the cold of 
autumn, after the body is relaxed by the heat of summer, be 

•We continue this term in obedience to custom wily. For it conveys a false viiv. 
<>l what re»lly happen-; in those t \> r-,. liecent experiment and more accurate ol> 
scrvation, Inve d^iion- tr.ited, tint nut refaction never bikes place in a living body. 

The pr >c -ss wh i these malignant fevers, has some of the 

appearances of putrefaction; but it is, in fact, totally distinct. 






OF FEVERS IN GENERAL. 217 

sufficient of itself to produce fever in dry and well ventilated 
countries where there is no reason to think that marsh mias- 
mata prevail, we cannot be surprised to find them far more 
universal and more obstinate in low and marshy soils, where 
the first cause concurs with the second. 

A still more active source of fevers is the effluvia from the 
living human body, which, when long confined, becomes in 
the highest degree acrimonious, and gives rise to diseases the 
most dangerous and malignant- Whenever numbers of peo- 
ple are crowded together, the air must soon be deprived of its 
vital ingredient, by repeated respiration, hence this infectious 
matter will be formed, but with most rapidity in gaols, in hos- 
pitals, in the holds of ships, and in dirty dwellings, where its 
virulent tendency is hastened by nastiness, by unwholesome 
food, by desponding thoughts, or by the effluvia coming from 
bodies in a diseased state. It communicates its infection not 
only to those who approach the places in which it is generated, 
and the human body from which it flows, but also will remain 
long entangled in beds, blankets, and other articles, having 
been in contact with the patient's body, retaining its activity, 
and capable of infecting others at a considerable distance of 
time and place, if, unhappily, those contaminated materials are 
carried abroad. In this manner, one person who is not him- 
self infected, may infect another: the first person in such cases, 
being less predisposed to the disease than the second. 

Although the infection arising from the living human body, 
is not perceived to act at a great distance from its direct source; 
yet it seems most probable that it does not immediately lose 
its virulency; but after it is diffused in the atmosphere, con- 
tinues in some degree to act in conjunction with the miasmata 
of marshes, with heat, obstructed perspiration, and the other 
causes of fever, and, according to the various proportions of 
those causes, combined with the circumstances of season, cli- 
mate, and the constitution of the patient, the nature of the 
fever is detcrmirvd. 



Lntermitte: | - 

INTERMITTENT, 

OR AGUE AND FEVER. 

PTOMS. Is that fever which has, periodically, a clea. 
intermission alternating with a return of its paroxysms. Krom 
the length of time between the fits, the species of the fever an 
distinguished and named. Thus, if the fit returns every day. 
it is termed a quotidian! if every third, a tertian; if even 
fourth, a (juurttui. The ague commences with weakness, fre- 
quent stretching, and yawnings, succeeded by sensations of 
cold in the back ami extremities, which increase, until the limbs 
as v.ell as the body become agitated with frequent and violent 
shivering. This continues for some time, during which a \io- 
lent pain of the head and back, and a sensation resembling a 
stricture across the stomach, frequently distress the patient; 
and the sense of coldm reat, that no endeavours to ob- 

tain warmth are of the least avail. These symptoms, subsi- 
ding by degrees, give way finally to warm flushings, which in- 
crease, until redness and heat, much greater than natural, are 
extended over the whole body; the patient at length burning 
with such extreme bent, as to be now as solicitous for the re- 
freshing sensation of cold, as he was before anxious to mitij 
its violence. Aftci these systems have existed for sometime, 
they gradually decline; the thirst goes off, the skin is relaxed., 
and a moisture breaks out on the head, which soon becomes 
ueral and profuse; then it slowly abates, till it entirely ceases. 

This is the general progress of a regular paroxysm of a well 
formed intermittent; the patient is often left, apparently, free 
of disease, until the next attack. 

( 1 \i sr>. The remote causes of ague or autumnal fever arc, 
first, the effluvia which arises from marshes or moist grounds 
acted on by heat. Secondly, cod, especially when accompa- 
nied by moisture, which will necessarily act with more certain- 



AGUE AND FEVER. 219 

iy, if a predisposition to the disease exists. This predisposition 
may be induced by living too sparingly, or on trashy food, ex- 
cessive fatigue, impeded perspiration, preceding disease, indul- 
gence in spirituous liquors, and in fine, by whatever tends to 
weaken the system and impoverish the blood. Hence the 
poor are more subject to the disease than the rich. 

For health consists of spirits and of blood, 

And these proceed from generous wine and food. 

Pope. 

Treatment. In the cure of an ague, whether quotidian, 
tertian, or quartan, much the same plan may be followed, 
which is, as far as possible, to prevent the disease from beify 
habitual; for the longer it continues, the more it weakens the 
constitution, and disposes the glandular viscera, as the live*, 
spleen, he. to obstructions, and often prepares the habit of 
dropsies and other chronic diseases. So that although thife 
disease be not very alarming in its appearance, yet, if injudicious- 
ly treated, or neglected, it often draws after it the most serious 
consequences; and hence merits particular attention. 

The cure of the disease therefore calls for an emetic, or a 
dose of calomel and jalap, or salts, senna and manna, to free 
the bowels of their offending contents; and if the patient be of 
a full habit, with head-ache and flushed countenance, the pulse 
hard and quick, showing an inflammatory disposition, blood 
letting will be highly necessary. 

Having by these means prepared the system, strengthening 
remedies should next be employed. Of these, the Peruvian 
bark is the most celebrated, and may be used with safety in the 
time of intermission, provided there exists no swelling or hark- 
ness of the viscera. In that event the bark must be withheld, 
until these symptoms are rendered milder by the administration 
of gentle laxatives, blisters, and diaphoretic medicines, as the 
cathartic and saline mixtures,* whose good effects will be great- 
ly aided by diluent drinks and abstinence from solid food. 

•See Dispensatory. 



iiU l\l'l KMI II I.M', (iK 

As soon a^ the system i> properly prepared for the use of the 
bark, it may tlicn be given in such doses as the -.tomach will 
bear, and at such intervals, that six or eight doses nia) be ta 
ken (hiring the intermission^ Should it disagree with the pa- 
tient in substance, uivc it in some other form, as the cold infu- 
sion, decoction or tincture. See Dispensatory 

In the mean time, strict attention must be paid to the habit 
of body: for in vain shall we expect to cure intermittents, if the 
bowels be not kept open and the skin moist. 

When, therefore, the Peruvian bark produces costiveness, 
five or six grains of rhubarb, or some mild purgative, should 
be added to each dose; and in case of cold phlegmatic habits, 
with a dry skin, the addition often or fifteen grains of Virginia 
snake-root is peculiarly proper. 

In some constitutions the bark produces severe and copious 
purging. . This debilitating effect may be prevented by adding 
five or six drops of laudanum to each dose. And when the 
patient is troubled with sourness on the stomach, flatulence and 
paiu, take the bark in lime water, or conjoin with each dose, 
eight or ten grains of salt of tartar, or magnesia. 

Notwithstanding every precaution, the bark will not some- 
dim S remain on the stomach, and with children it is often dif- 
ficult for them to swallow this medicine. With such patients it 
should be employed externally as directed below. 1 

Some patients are subject to profuse sweats, from debility. 
In such cases the bark should be united with a few grains of 
the rust of steel, or ten or fifteen drops of elixir vitriol, and ta- 
ken in wine. But when these evacuations proceed, as they often 
do, from an inperfect cure, accompanied with great and intense 
heat, during their prevalence, we must immediately resort to 
the preparatory remedies, as blood-letting, cathartic and diap- 
horetic. Sometimes the fever will not yield to the bark, < 

» 

fTakc apiece of Holland, cut in form of a -I for the lining, petlmm- 

huinsnfan open texture. Between these eloaths, fiom three to six ouncea of bark 
mnst be closely quilted, and then ih annlied on the naked ikin Kvi\ 

two or three days, it uill be ran the jacket bet wet n the hands, I' i 

sometimes proper (o unite snake -root with the lurk, in proportion of one nrmo 
former to four of the lalt 



AGUE AND FEVER. 221 

when all the usual preparatory medicines have been employed. 
In such cases we may justly suspect the liver to be diseased, 
particularly if the countenance be either livid, or pale, or of a 
yellowish cast; and in that event, the use of the bark should be 
suspended until those obstructions be removed. 

For this purpose one of the mercurial pills* should be given 
night and morning, until ptyalism, that is, a soreness of the 
mouth with increased spitting, u produced, which will general- 
ly succeed; and when it fails, the nitric acid diluted, and given 
in its usual doses* may be depended on. After a ptyalism is 
effected, recourse must be had to one or other of the strength- 
ening remedies, to give tone to the system. 

From the tenor of these observations it follows, that the 
Peruvian bark is not a remedy to be employed in every case 
of intermittent fevers, but that much caution is necessary in 
the use of it, lest it be turned into abase. For unless the system 
be properly prepared by suitable remedies, the administration 
of bark, or any other tonic, is an error fraught with the most 
Serious mischief. 

The Peruvian bark being so costly and not always to be had 
pure, it must afford much pleasure to the benevolent, to learn 
that the Muck oak bark of America possesses the same virtues 
of the Peruvian, as has been verified by repeated experiments, 
not only in the cure of intermittents, but other diseases hitherto 
treated with the Peruvian bark alone. It may be taken in the 
same manner, only in rather larger doses. In substance it is 
most efficacious, and if well pulverised it will be found more 
palatable than the Peruvian bark, and not so apt to excite 
vomiting. 

Another mode in which this remedy may be employed to 
great advantage, from its abundance in our country, is by 
bathing twice or thrice a day in a strong decoction of it; which 
to children, and patients whose stomacks will not retain medi- 
cine, will prove exceedingly beneficial. When the black oak 

•See Dispensatory. 

30 



222 INTERMITTENT, OR 

bark is not convenient, the red oak bark, though loss el 
ous, should he substituted, as I have often witnessed the hap- 
piest effects accruing to debilitated persons bathing in a itroi 

decoction of it, about lukewarm, particularly in the last Bl 
of livers. Hence this remcd\ well deserves the attention ol 
the planter. 

Professor Barton assures us that he hns employed the bnrV 
of the Spanish oak in gangrene, with the happiest effect, and 
that he considered it, in powder, equal to the belt Peruvian 
bark. See Oak. .Materia Me icu. 

The common dog-wood bark, of our country, is also an ex- 
cellent substitute for Peruvian, particu arty in the cure of inter- 
mittents; so is the bark of the wild cherry-tree, and of the 
lyriadendron tulipifera, or American poplar, all of which may 
be given in the same forms and doses, as the Peruvian bark. 
Materia Jtiedica. 
The columbo root, an admirable corrector of bile, is a most 
useful medicine in this complaint, and will often be retained bv 
the stomack, when the bark in every form has been rejected^ 
It is likewise an excellent remedy, joined with steel, as in thr 
form of the tonic powders or pills,* for patients disposed to be 
dropsical, or who have a swelling and hardness of the spleen. 
Galled ague cake; especially if a purge or two have been pre- 
viously employed, and <-ome mercurial action excited in the 
system, by one or two grains of calomel, taken every nigln 
and morning for a few weeks. 

Another valuable medicine in the cure of agues, and which 
has frequently succeeded when the bark failed, is white vitriol. 
But like other tonic medicines, it requires that the stomacb 
and bowels should be freed of their morbid contents, before 
any good effects can result from its use. Therefore, some 
evacuating medicine is always necessary; after which, one ol 
the vitriolic pills* may be given every three or four hours dur- 
W the intermission of fever, gradually repeating the dose, or 
increasing it. as the system becomes habituated to its action. 

* See Dispensatory. 



AGUE AND FBVER 22J 

Charcoal powder in doses, from a tea to a table spoonful 
given three or four times during the intermission, has often 
interrupted the expected paroxysm and cut short the disease. 

A scruple of the spider's web, it has been said, in many in- 
stances hath proved successful, given an hour before the fit of 
an ague and an hour after it. 

But among the remedies of intermittents none is more in- 
(hllible than the solution of arsenic, which may be given with 
perfect safety to persons of every age, beginning with the 
smaller doses, and proportioning them to the age of the 
patient. 

Stimulants administered before the fit, by inducing a salu- 
tary change in the system, have frequently overcome the dis- 
ease. It is in this way that emetics are considered useful in the 
coming on of the fit, so is active exercise, and other stimulants. 
Cataplasms of mustard seed and garlic, or horse radish, ap- 
plied to the wrists and ankles an hour or two previous to the 
unexpected fit, will excite a degree of in/lam (nation so great as 
to increase the heat as well as the circulation, and have often 
succeeded. 

I have frequently, in obstinate intermittents, prevented the 
recurrence of the fit, by giving a large dose of laudanum or 
aether about an hour before the expected paroxysm. But 
when an inflammatory disposition prevails in the system, this 
leraedy should not be resorted (o, as it may convert the inter- 
mittent into a continued fever. 

An emetic given previous to the return, while the perspira- 
tion is supported by the volatile alkali or Dover's powder* in 
their usual doses, with warm drinks, have also succeeded in 
obstinate cases. It should be observed, however, that when 
we attempt to prevent the paroxysm of an intermittent by 
sweating, this mode of relief must be continued till the period 
of the paroxysm is at an end; or at least till the time when the 
sweating stage would have otherwise commenced. 

Those means which excite terror, surprise and horror, by 
oroducing a train of new emotions will prevent the return of 

• See Dispensatory. 



22-1 INTERMITTENT, OR 

paroxysms. A man has been pushed into the water; lire has 
been tried; the most distressing tiding! invented and commu- 
nicated. All these remedies fill the mind with such dread B 
to counteract the impression of the cause; but in general thej 

are dangerous, and when we wish to prevent the lit, we depend 
rather on tonics, the stimulants, and the sudorifics. 

Dr. Kellie, an ingenious surgeon of the British uavv 
states, that many instances have occurred of the good efled 
of compression by tourniquets or bandages applied so as to 
obstruct the circulation in two of the extremities. The plan 
pursued by him was to apply the instrument on one thigh, and 
on one arm, of opposite sides, at the same time. In two mi- 
nutes after the application of the tourniquets, the shaking and 
other symptoms of the cold stage entirely ceased, a mild hot 
stage was immediately induced, and the patient found himselt 
quite relieved. After suffering the instruments to remain on 
lor about fifteen minutes, they were removed, and the cold symp- 
toms did not return. Ue further states, that, if the tourniquets 
be applied previous to the accession of the paroxysm, the cold 
stage "ill entirety he prevented; and that, where the cold 
stage of an -.••j"*- is either thus shortened, or altogether pre- 
vented, the following hot stage will be rendered both mildn 
and of shorter duration. 

As agues are liable to recur, one excellent mean of preven- 
tion, as well as cure, is to wear flannel next to the skin, and to 
exchange the situation "here the disease was contracted, for 
another, even though not of a healthier air. This alone has 
often effected a cure. In like manner a change of medicines 
is as necessary as a change of air, that the body may not be- 
come habituated to any one mode of treatment. Therefore, 
it ought to be remembered, that neither bark nor any other 
tonic medicine, should be continued longer than a fortnight at 
a time, but should be changed for another article whose virtt 
are nearly the same. After a week or two, the former max be 
resumed, in case the disease should prove obstinate; and t<- 
bring about the necessary changes in the constitution, larj 
doses should be given. 



AGUE AM) FEVER 225 

Kr.oiMP.N. As to-regimen in the cold fit, very little more 
i> necessan than warm camomile tea. In the hot fit, the drink 
nia\ be barley water, mint or balm tea, lemonade, toast and 
water, or cold spring; water, taken often, but in small quanti- 
ties at a time. When the sweating- begins, the drinks jnst 
enumerated may be enlivened with wine, and if the patient be 
able to take it, he may be allowed a little nourishment. Dur- 
ing the intermission, the diet should be as nutritious as the pa- 
tient's appetite and digestion will allow. Every thing that 
tends to keep up a gentle perspiration, and to give tone to the 
vessels is useful; hence moderate exercise is singularly proper, 
since nothing more conduces to these beneficial effects. The 
exercbe should be of that kind to which the patient has been 
most accustomed; and taken in the open air, unless wet wea- 
ther, or a damp situation forbid. But the utmost care should 
be taken, that exeixise be not pushed to fatigue, which, by in- 
ducing debility, carries thousands, particularly foreigners, to 
untimely graves. 

REMITTENT, OR BILIOUS FEVER. 

Symptoms. In this fever there is a remission or abate- 
ment of its violence, but not a total cessation. Like other 
fevers it commences with a sense of coldness and shivering, 
accompanied by violent pains in the head and back, great de- 
jection of spirits, sickness at the stomach, giddiness, loss of 
strength, and difficulty of breathing. The cold stage is suc- 
ceeded by a considerable degree of heat, the pulse, which in 
the cold fit was smnil and quick, becomes full, but abates not 
of its quickness. The pain of the head and back increases, 
and the nausea is augmented, frequently terminating in co-» 
pious vomitings of bile. These symptoms continuing, the 
skin which had hitherto been hot and dry, becomes moist. 
Soon after this, the symptoms ;ibate, and sometimes cease en- 
tirely. The patient flatters himself with the hopes of health 
speedily returning; but, alas! these pleasing illusions are soon 
dissipatcrl by another attack, which comes on with increased 



22b KLMirii.vi. OK 

violence. And if the fever be not opposed by means tarty 
employed and sufficiently powerful, a coostanl delirium and 

restlessness take place; die discharges become very offensive 
succeeded by twitchings of the tendons, profuse clammy >w< 

und convulsions, which soon terminate in death. 

CAUSES. Remittents are produced from the same cat) 
which induce intermittents, but acting here in a more power- 
ful manner. Like these, they are most prevalent in the monthl 
of August, September, and October, when heat and moisture 
combine to hasten the corruption of animal and vegetable 
substances, impregnate the air with noxious exhalations. 

Treatment. In the cure of this fever, all our efforts 
diould be made to bring the remission to a complete ivtermiB- 
sum; and this is to be effected by bleeding, cathartics, eme- 
tics and diluents, with such medicines as have a tendency to 
solicit the circulation of the fluids to the surface, llviirc, on 
the commencement of the disease, bleeding will generally be 
found unnecessary, and should be often repeated, when there 
exists much pain in the head, with a hard and quick pulse. 
But to evacuate the first passages of their impure contents is 
always necessary; and this is best done with calomel and jalap, 
or salts, senna and manna, and when circumstances do not 
prohibit the use of emetics, they may also be employed. The 
extent to which dicse means are to be carried, can only be di- 
rected by the symptoms present, the habit of body, and other 
considerations. It will in many cases be proper to exhibit an 
emetic at the very first attack, but this may sometimes be for- 
bidden, by great irritability of the stomaeh, or the appearance 
of inflammation. For frequently in diseases of the same ori- 
gin, and in persons very nearly similar, with respect to age, 
sex, and temperament, one will frequently be accompanied 
with an inflammatory diathesis, whilst another will be more of 
the low, irritable species; and consequently the treatment must 
be varied, in proportion to the nature and violence of th< 



0ILIOUS FEVER. 227 

♦iase. For among fevers, we see all the intermediate degrees 
and varieties, from common agues to those of the most violent 
and infectious kinds. 

If the patent be of a strong plethoric constitution, with a 
hard and quick pulse, a deep seated pain in the eyes, a burning 
heat at the stomach, and flushed countenance, indicative of a 
strong inflammatory disposition, bleeding is absolutely neces- 
sary, and should be repeated every ten or twelve hours, or 
oftener, until the inflammatory symptoms subside. 

The necessity of diligently evacuating the intestinal canal, 
must be obvious to every person. And it is not always by 
one or two brisk cathartics that this complaint is to be cured; 
but the operation must be continued until the whole of the 
bilious matter is evacuated, which may be known by the faeces 
changing their color, and putting on a natural appearance. 
When the irritating matter is thoroughly evacuated, mild laxa- 
tives, as the cathartic mixture* or castor oil, answer very well 
in the course of the disease to keep the body gently open; but 
in desperate cases calomel is most to be depended on. And 
if a ptyalism, or a slight salivation be excited by the calomel, 
the patient has no cause of alarm, but rather of joy, as this 
is a certain indication of recovery. Ho v desirable then must 
it be in high stages of bilious fever, to have this effect produced 
as early as possible, by giving calomel, and rubbing in mercu- 
rial ointment, and dressing the blisters with the same. 

Besides the aforesaid evacuants, glysters of warm soap-sud^. 
or molasses and water, to which may be added a little vinegar, 
should be employed; as they are not only useful in removing 
from the larger intestines any offending matter present, but 
also in producing the good effects of fomentations. 

Attention having been paid to the state of the bowels, which 
is always necessary, because of the constant disposition to ac- 
cumulate bile, such medicines as tend to determine the fluids 
to the surface, are next to be regarded. Of this class are the 
diaphoretic drops, saline mixture, mindererus's spirit, febrifuge 
and Dover's powder.'* Either of these may bo exhibited in 

"See Disnensfltorv. 



Hi rri:\ i . 

their usual doses, everj two or three hours, but iu desp< i 

s the antimoiiial powders with calomel, or colomel alone, 
in small dost ■>, are most to be relied on. 

The warm bath admirably promotes insensible perspiration, 
h\ relaxing the skin, and taking off tine stricture of the vet 
sels; it consequeth, should always, when practicable, be used, 
and if a bathing vessel cannot be procured, the extremities 
should be immersed in warm water at least once a day. The 
temperature of the hath, should be regulated bj the feeling 
of the patient, and that which effects these most agreeably, 
should be preferred. 

The cold affusion, by throwing cold water over the patient. 
or sponging the body with vinegar and water, has been at- 
tended with the best effects in warm climates, particularly il 
the application be made during the height of the paroxysm, 
when the head is generally affected. 

After the inflammatory disposition has ceased, bark will add 
considerably to the cure; but if incautiously used at the outset, 
as it frequently is, will render even symtom more violent. 
However, if the patient suddenly becomes giddy, feeble and 
languid, the bark and wine must be had recourse to, and given 
freely on the remission; otherwise it will degenerate into a true 
nervous fever* But you must not mistake the debility which 
arises from oppression, requiring evacuants, for an exhausted 
State of the system; as in that ease the use of tonic- would be 
but little better than butchery. 

Another medicine of great importance in this disease is thf 
columljo root, which readily cheeks the vomiting, so frequent- 
ly an attendant, and supports the patient's strength during tin 
use of such medicines as are requisite to abate the febrile heat, 
and to carry off the bile. 

After unloading the stomach and intestines, by two or three 
brisk purges, and diminishing the arterial action, by bleeding 
if requisite, a wine glass full of the infusion of columbo, 01 
ten or fifteen grains of the powder may be given in a cup oi 
mint tea, every two or three hours, either conjoint^ or i1t«r 



BILIOUS FEVER* QQJ} 

uatcly, with some gentle opening medicine, as rhubarb, mag- 
nesia, cream of tartar, or salts, to remove the redundant bilt 
by keeping the bowels open. 

Salts, though a nauseous medicine, may be rendered much 
less so by adding a little sugar, acidulated with lemon juice or 
sharp vinegar, as in the form of the cathartic mixture; and this 
is an excellent aperient, to be exhibited in small doses after the 
vitiated bile has been removed by calomel. A solution of salts 
in seltzer water, is a form still more agreeable. 

During this general treatment, particular symptoms will re>- 
quire attention. The head-ache, for example, which so fre- 
quently accompanies this fever, is to be treated by applying to 
the head, cloths wrung out of cold water, or vinegar and wa- 
ter often repeated, until the malady is removed; besides which, 
a blister should be applied between the shoulders. 

As to the vomiting, that depending on the peculiarities of 
habit, is to be variously treated. In some I have found the 
saline mixture, or infusion of columbo, answer very well; in 
others a spoonful or two of new milk, or equal parts of milk and 
lime water, given every hour, have had the happiest effects. 
A spoonful of sweet oil and molasses has proved beneficial, 
when vomiting is accompanied with a burning sensation at the 
pit of the stomach. To others, porter has afforded immediate 
relief. Never was there a more welcome or wonderful illustra- 
tion of this, than in the case of Mrs. Carroll, consort 01 
Daniel Carroll, Esq. of Dudington. 

It was my good fortune to attend this very amiable ladv 
under a most violent attack of the bilious fever, with incessant 
vomiting. All the usual remedies were employed, without any 
good effect, which excited considerable alarm. She being in 
a state of pregnancy, and recollecting that nature sometimes 
furnished a cure beyond the rules of our art, I asked her 
if there were any article of drink to which her appetite parti- 
cularly led her. " Yes, Sir, replied she, I have been craving 
to drink some good London porter for two days past, but I 

I would not mention it, beina; under the impression you would 
31 



JiiO REMITTENT, uR 

forbid my taking it." Learning that Dr. Thornton had SOOM 
of th ,()tion, [ immediately obtained a few bottles, and 

giving her a glass of it, diluted with a little water, it acted like 
a charm, and in a few weeks, I had the verj great satisfaction 
of seeing my fair patient perfectly restored to health. 

The warm hath, or local applications, such as flannels wrung 
out of a warm decoction of camomile flowers, or mint leq 
stewed in spirit-, or equal parts of sweet oil and laudanum 
rubbed on the stomach, have done much good; and when these 
fail, a large blister, or a cataplasm of mustard-seed, ought in- 
stantly to be applied over the region of this organ. When (lit 
stomach is in a very irritable state, the patient may frequently 
moisten his mouth and throat with cold water, but should drink 
as little as possible of any liquid. 

Wakefulness, or inability to sleep, will often yield to the 

n arm bath and blisters, and when they fail, a glass or two of 

porter, or the camphorated julep may be given, which also fail- 

a dose of laudanum is proper at bed-time, provided there 

exists no considerable inflammatory diathesis. 

The pain in the bowels is mostly relieved by the warm bath, 
or a moderate bleeding and emollient injections, to which occa- 
sionally may be added twenty or thirty drops of laudanum. If 
these produce not the desired effect, and the fundament be 
^called from the evacuations, give glisters of milk and linn 
water, composed of half a pint of each. These failing, inject 
every hour with cold water, and apply cloths wrung out of it, 
to the belly. 

If a delirium come on in the first stage of the disease, it is to 
be treated by bleeding, purging, and the means prescribed 
above for violent headache; but should it occur at a later pe- 
riod, the pulse weak and irregular, with a great propensity to 
-deep, besides making cold applications to the head, the bod} 
>Jiould be frequently sponged with cold vinegar and water, or 
equal parts of vinegar and spirits. And should not the recol- 
lection in a few hours become more improved, and the pub' 



BILIOUS PEVER. 231 

fuller and more uniform from this mode of treatment, it will be 
proper to apply a blister to the head, and sinapisms or blisters 
to the extremities; besides which, wine or some cordial must be 
allowed; and if there be a cold sweat, or coldness of the extre- 
mities, flannels wrung out of hot spirits, or spirits of camphor, 
ought to be applied often around the arms, legs and thighs. 

On the decline of this fever, patients are sometimes troubled 
with night sweats, to relieve which, gentle exercise in fresh air, 
and the tonic powder or pills, (See Dispensatory) or bark and 
elixir vitriol will be proper. 

The unusual fatality of this fever in Washington, as well as 
in many sections of our country, during the last summer and fall, 
was sufficient to create alarm, and to induce the benevolent to 
solicit, through the medium of public prints, information, rela- 
tive to the most successful mode of treatment. 

Although the practice I pursued last autumn, did not mate- 
rially differ from that above recommended, yet, I arapursuaded 
a brief sketch of the improvement, accompanied with a few re- 
marks, will be gratifying to most of my readers, particularly 
as I can state, an incontrovertible fact, not a patient who was 
governed by my prescriptions died during the sickly season; 
nor was there a case of the disease degenarating into the ner- 
vous, when early application was made. This extraordinary 
success was the more remarkable, as the number of my pa- 
tients were very considerable, in so much, that it was impracti- 
cable to visit all of them daily, and many were attended princi- 
pally by my students. Some of the indigent sick would doubt- 
less have followed the fate of many of the paupers who died, 
had I not been sensible that exhibiting medicines, without pay- 
ing due attention to reigmen, would not have the desired effect, 
and knowing this fact, I felt it my duty to those for whom I pre- 
scibed, to have them supplied with nourishment suitable to the 
case. 

In most instances, the lancet was resorted to; and with some 



RE.MII I I \ I. (•! 

patients of robust constitutions, and inflammatory dispositions, 
"t was used freely in the early stage of the disease . 

Aperient medicines, being- of the greatest importance, weir 
frequently administered, and I found their salutary effects evi 
dently increased by conjoining such as determined to the sur- 
face. Twenty grains of calomel, united with a grain of tartar 
emetic, or six or eight grains of ipecacuanha, were administer- 
ed to an adult in the morning, and followed in a few hours by 
an onnce of epsom salts, or an infusion of salts, senna and 
manna, in broken doses. When a preference was given to me- 
dicine in the form of pills, I directed two of the aperient and 
diaphoretic pills [See Dispensatory] to be given every two 
hours, or two of them, to be taken at bed-time and the dose n 
peated every hour in the morning, until several copious evacua- 
tions were produced. With infants, calomel and ipecacuanha, 
in large doses, repeated occasionally, were often found sulli 
cieht. 

It should be observed with respect to aperient medicines, 
though active in their operation, they do not weaken the pa- 
tient as generally supposed, for they take away the cause of, 
it least apparent, weakness, and we have often found patients 
in fevers taking bark and stimulants to support them under 
this apparent debility, who after the operation of some laxa- 
tive medicine, required neither. In the employment of this 
remedy, however, it is necessary to attend to the discharges. 
The nurses will often report frequent evacuations, and if ex- 
amined, these maj be found mucous and insufficient, or a wa- 
tery fluid scarcely coloured. It is necessary that the stools 
should be truly feculent, and be continued while the discharges 
shall be dark and offensive. We therefore ought not to be go- 
verned by the number of evacuations; but by the effects, and 
the patient's feelings. If he be relieved after each stool, and 
the pulse becomes softer, the hand more moist, and the head 
ess loaded, he need not be apprehensive, however violent the 
discharge. On the contrary, if the pulse become smaller and 



BILIOI d FE\ it. 233 

more frequent, the face sink, and faintness conies on, however 
little the discharge, it has been too much. 

In some cases, emetics were employed with very good ef- 
fects. They greatly contributed to relieve congestion in the 
liver, and were also useful in determining to the skin as well 
as carrying off the bile. 

When purgatives were not requisite, the febrifuge mixture, 
diaphoretic drops, or antimonial powders were administered in 
their usual doses, every two hours, with the view of promoting 
a gentle diaphoresis, and to assist their effects, the patient be- 
ing directed to take frequent small drinks of some tepid dilu- 
ting liquor. Medicines of this class, b\ exciting perspiration, 
will be found to produce most beneficial effects, in those cases 
where the vital energy is not diminished; but when considera- 
ble debility is present, they frequently fail of having the desired 
effect, and act on the bowels, producing a dangerous diarrhea. 
When the fever manifested a disposition to yield, the infusion 
of columbo or camomile was given, particularly, after the im- 
mediate operation of laxatives; which had the effect of correct- 
ing the bile, restoring the tone of the stomach, and supporting 
the patient's strength. And so soon as there was an intermis- 
sion of fever, or symptoms of the disease assuming the typhoid 
state, the bark conjoined with Virginia snake-root, was given in 
such doses as the stomach would retain, which, together with 
the liberal use of porter and wine and nourishing diet, speedily 
arrested the disease. 

In some instances the nitric acid diluted (Sec Dispensatory) 
was employed as a tonic with considerable advantage, particu- 
larly in delicate habits; or when there were symptoms indica- 
ting the liver to be diseased. With others again the solution of 
arsenic in the usual doses was administered with the most hap- 
py effects. 

The warm bath, in every instance in which it was- employed, 
produced beneficial effects; and when this luxury could not be 
procured, sponging the body and extremities with vinegar and 



234 liKMlTTl 

water, or equal parts of vinegar and spirits afforded greal fi 
lief. 

A few cases occurred of patients of robust constitutions, who 
not only neglected the proper remedies :it the commencement, 
bui aggravated the disease by taking stimulating drinks or ac- 
tive exercise, were at length attacked with great prostration oi 
strength, accompanied with cold clammy sweats, coldness ol 
extremities and impeded pulse. These symptoms indicated that 
considerable congestion had taken place, which would admit ol 
no delay. 1 directed the warm bath, and when this could not 
be immediately obtained, friction and flannels wrung out of hot 
spirits, in which red pepper and mustard seed had been infused 
were applied to the extremities, and renewed as often ;i- they be- 
came the least cold. So soon as the natural warmth was resto- 
red, blood-letting with calomel and other aperient medicine 
were resorted to; and also blisters over the region of the liver 
and extremities. — It will frequently occur in such cases, that the 
action of the heart is so overpowered in the first instance, that the 
blood merely trickles or rather oozes from the punctured vessel 
for a considerable time, being much darker and thicker than 
natural. Yet when a few ounces have been drawn it usually 
flows with freedom, and becomes finally of a brighter colour. 

The deficiency or irregularity of heat on the surface is among 
die first symptoms that indicate congestive diseases, and if the 
skin can be restored every where to its natural warmth, a cure 
may be expected. It is evident the warm bath, frictions of the 
skin, blood-letting, calomel with purgatives, and blisters ar< 
the chief expedients to diminish congestion; but unless these 
be very early resorted to, they will not succeed, so rapidly doM 
the stage of collapse supervene. Recovery very generally 
succeeds if natural warmth be speedly restored, and an univer- 
sal perspiration excited. Upon this principle is to be explain- 
ed the repeated success of the practice pursued by some pi 
titioners in the plague; for immediately after persons were 
perceived to be affected, and consequently while there was 



BILIOUS FEV 235 

00 arterial excitement, they were subject to frictions by warm 
oil, in a close room, and over a brazier of hot coals, until a free 
perspiration took place. 

Some patients in the course of the disease, were afflicted 
witli acid eructations and heartburn, but were relieved by mag- 
nesia, the absorbent mixture or mucilage of gum arabic. These 
medicines were also useful in giving check to watery evacua- 
tions, which sometimes occurred on the exhibition of diaphore- 
tic medicines; others again, on the decline of fever were trou- 
bled with pain, arising from flatulency, whicli required occasion- 
ally a little mint water, ginger tea, tincture of assafajtida or 
spirits of lavender. This symptom, however, seldom came on 
when proper attention was paid to the discharge of the bowels. 

In a few cases the hiccough became exceedingly troublesome, 
but was relieved by taking in turns the syrup of damsons, a 
lump of loaf sugar moistened with brandy, tincture of assafajti- 
da, or the camphorated mixture. When these failed, a catap- 
lasm of mustard seed and vinegar applied over the region of 
the stomach generally succeeded. 

Strangury was another spasmodic affection that required 
particular attention. Although the occurrence of this symptom 
was frequently the effects of blisters, (See suppression of urine) 
yet in some cases, it evidently was produced from a spasmodic 
irritation of the neck of the bladder. And when arising from 
this cause, the camphorated powders, the warm bath, or injec- 
tions of warm camomile tea or infusion of hops, with laudanum, 
proved to be the best remedies. 

Hemorrhages sometimes occurred, and when proceeded by 
head-ache, the pulse full and hard, indicating an inflammatory 
disposition, recourse was immediately had to blood-letting, fol- 
lowed by aperient and diaphoretic medicines; but when the dis- 
charge was attended with faintness, or happened at the conclu- 
sion of fever, the bark, elixir vitriol, or nitric acid, with cold 
drinks, were prescribed. Nitre in doses, often grains every 
hour or two, in a glass of cold water, as well as cold applica- 



-Jo* 

tions near the parts effected, were employed in boiii casertritb 
evident advan; 

Longings for improper fond and drink, with souk- patients, 
were exceedingly troublesome. On the decline ol* fever, when 
dns symptom did not arise from the caprice of the moment, 
and the patient anxiously craved any particular food or drink, 
it was allowed not oni\ with impunity, but considerable ad- 
vantage. 

Those cases in which I was consulted after the typhoid stair 
of fever had come on, as manifested by a disturbed state of the 
brain and nervous system; showing itself in frequent sighings, 
wandering delirium, watchfulness or irregular and interrupted 
sleep ; characterized also in the more advanced stage of fever 
by a deranged state of the secretions and excretions, attended 
with a brown or black state of the tongue, and a cadaverous 
and offensive smell of the whole body, my attention was drawn 
to support the patient's strength by supplying him with nour- 
ishing diet, and giving stimulants both diffusable and perma- 
nent as recommended under the head of Nervous Fever. 

Attention was also paid to tin state of the bowels, and their 
offensive contents were evacuated daily, not by active put 
which in this exhausted state of the system would destroy the 
patient, but by injections, and the occasional use of small 
doses of calcined magnesia alone, or conjoined with a few 
grains of rheubarb. 

I was no less attentive in having the offensive materials, which 
were constantly excreted by the skin, removed by wiping the 
body and extremities twice a day with a cloth wetted with equal 
parts of vinegar and spirits. Care was also taken to have the 
sheets and linen of the patient frequently changed. 

By perseverance in the means above stated, several persons, 
whom I was called to visit at the latter stage of the disease, re- 
covered under the most unpromising circumstances. One case 
particularly deserves to be noticed, in order to show the. im- 
propriety of giving up a patient while, there is life. 



BILIOUS FEVEB- 23-7 

fclrs. Lund Washington lingered under this disease, upwards 
of six weeks, before application was made to me, and learning 
had been given up by her physicians as a hopeless case, I 
was unwilling to attend ; but from the earnest solicitude of her 
son, Mr. Peter Washington, I consented, provided the medi- 
cal gentlemen who attended her would meet me. From some 
oause or other, neither of the physicians appeared at the hour 
•appointed, and as there was no time to be lost, I took the liberty 
©f prescribing in their absence. I found her in a state of ex- 
cessive debility, and on examining her mouth, the tongue was 
covered with small white blisters, and gums with a foul sordes, 
accompanied with a cadaverous breath. Her bowels were in 
a very irritable state, and from the acuteness of pain she occa- 
sionally felt in them, caused her to scream out in a most lament- 
able manner. The state of her mouth readily induced me to 
ascribe the affection of her bowels to the swallowing of some 
putrid matter, and notwithstanding her extreme debilitated 
state, I deemed it necessary to direct a table spoonful of castor 
oil to be given, and its operation encouraged by injections of 
soap-suds. At the same time, her strength was supported by 
arrow-root, made palatable by a plentiful addition of wine and 
nutmeg. I directed, also, fresh charcoal powder to be given 
in doses of a spoonful every two or three hours, which pro- 
duced most beneficial effects, as distressing symptoms soon yield- 
ed. On further examination, I found one side of the hip and 
lower part of the back in a gangrenous state. To arrest this, 
poultices of charcoal and bark were frequently applied, and so 
soon as a bathing vessel could be procured, and a strong de- 
coction of red oak bark prepared, she was taken up in the sheet 
and bathed daily, from thirty to sixty minutes at a time. The 
number of blisters which had been applied, together with the 
large ulcers in her back, occasioned great pain in bathing, as 
well as in moving her from one sheet to another: but notwith- 
standing this, as her stomach would not retain a sufficient 
quantity of either bark or nitric acid, I had the bath continued 

about three weeks, which, together with the most nutritious 
32 



. UK 

diet and a plentiful use of wine, porter, and otln 
her general health was so far iraprov< -1 as to require little o 
attention except to the ulcers. These, alter the mortified j 
had sloughed off, were \n;v deep and extensive, exposing Un- 
bone, and requiring more attention than 1 was able to give. 1 
therefore requested the surgical aid of Doctor Baile) Wash 
ton, and In the skill and attention of this gentleman, tho e ill- 
conditioned ulcers were healed in a lew weeks. And I an; 
happy to add, this most amiable lady is now restored to perfect 
health, to the exceedingly great joy of her affectionate familv 
and numerous friends. 

REGIMEN. With respect to regimen, the food and drink 
should be varied, and adapted to the tast<- of the patient. Na- 
ture, perhaps, generally take! care that no error shall be com- 
mitted in that way, during the continuance of this disease. The 
patient is seldom persuaded to swallow any thing but liquids, 
during the prevalence of the fever, and if by accident he should 
have an inclination for something more solid, arrow root, sago, 
corn, or rice, gruel, mush, panado, custards, roasted ap| 
oranges, grapes, or other mild ripe fruits are all that should be 
allowed. To allay the thirst, barley or rice water, apple water, 
tamarind water, molasses and water, toast and water, or cold 
spring water, lemonade, raspberry or currant jelly, dissolved in 
water, mint or balm tea, acidulated with lamon juice, or other 
•pleasant acids, may be given with great benefit, in frequent, 
but small quantities. These cooling drinks not only quench 
thirst, but also tend to excite perspiration. 

Washing the face and hands of the patient from time to time, 
with vinegar and water, is always refreshing. The room should 
foe somewhat darkened, and kept moderately cool, by a constant 
succession of fresh air; taking care, however, that the current 
of the wind is not immediately directed on the patient. The 
covering of the bed ought to be such as is found most comfort- 
able, and the body kept, as nearly as possible, at rest. When 
Qp fever subsides, and the patient regains a desire for food, it 



BILIOUS FEVER. 230 

will he best, in addition to the mild articles of diet already men- 
tioned, to begin with puddings of various kinds, new-laid eggs, 
boiled soft, soups with vegetables, raw oysters, he. resuming 
his diet gradually, as he finds his health return. 

To keep up the tone of the system, a moderate use of genuine 
wine, or porter diluted, or brandy, or rum and water made 
weak, will be proper, at the same time paying due attention to 
air, cleanliness, and exercise. 

Thus have I detailed, in the clearest manner, according to 
my experience, the best curative means of this the most preva- 
lent and dangerous of all our Southern maladies. It is how- 
ever much easier to prevent than cure diseases; and in order to 
the first, I will point out the general means which have been 
found conducive to this great end, and which constant experi- 
ence has sanctioned. 

Prevention. — To obviate the attack of summer and au- 
tumnal fevers, we should intercept their causes, or guard the 
habit as much as possible against their influence. 

Therefore, on visiting a warm climate where any epidemic 
prevails, the first step is to prepare the system, as much as pos- 
sible, for the unavoidable change it is about to undergo ; and 
this preparation consists in living temperately, and taking every 
other night, or oftener, one or two grains of calomel, or chewing 
rhubarb, or drinking molasses and water, or using sulphur in 
such doses as to increase the discharge by the bowels, without 
debilitating the system. If there prevail a fulness of habit the 
loss of ten or twelve ounces of blood will also be a useful pre- 
caution. In the mean time, an imprudent exposure to the heat 
of the sun, or night air, should be strictly avoided. 

Hard drinking is another cause of disease, which should be 
carefully guarded against in warm climates, particularly by sea 1 - 
men, who of all others are, perhaps, the most inattentive to 
health. The same admonition applies to their sleeping on 
deck during the night, and cold bathing when overheated, or 
in a state of intoxication, which, by suddenly checking the 
copious perspiration, seldom fails to briner on disease* 



I i 

Cold moist air is ri frequent cause of dist ase in warm cli- 
mates; hence too much attention cannot be paid to comfortable 
tires, and suiting the dr< ss to the chftngeM>f the u cat In r. 

Flannel worn nc\t to the skin is one of the chief preserva- 
tives of health. Many people, indeed, clamour against it as 
tending- to debilitate, because it creates perspiration. But this 
is altogether a silly prejudice! ris mild perspiration, or a >oft 
skin, so far from being hurtful, is the very habit of health. Ii 
preserves a proper medium of temperature, by absorbing the 
excessive moisture from the body during the day, and by pre- 
venting the effects of the cold damp air at nitrht. 

Cleanliness, both in our persons and apartments, is so essen- 
tial to health, as to form a leading consideration in all our 
views to that first of blessings. The neglect of this not only 
renders a man loathsome and offensive to himself, but gives 
rise to many of our most inveterate and fatal diseases. 

Among the various means used for the prevention of 
diseases, and for the preservation of health in general, none isj 
perhaps more beneficial in warm climates, than good wine 
prudently used. It increases the circulation of the fluids, pro- 
motes both the secretions and excretions, and invigorates all 
the functions of the body. How much is it then to be lamented, 
that so valuable a cordial cannot always be got pure; from the 
avarice of selfish men, who at a low purchase tart or half-spoil- 
ed wines, and, to render them saleable, adulterate them with 
the most poisonous ingredients, so that they become the most 
insidious foes to health. 

The common red wines are most generally adulterated, and 
artificially coloured, as manifested by a red sediment in the 
glass, as well as in the bottle. But the most pernicious of all 
adulterations of wine, is that of sugar of lead, or lead itself 
which gives it a sweet taste: and therefore it ought to be re- 
membered, that every wine of a sweetish taste, accompanied 
with astringent qualities, may justly be suspected to be adulte- 
rated with that noxious mineral. [See Poison."] 

When genuine wine cannot be procured, good old spirits ar* 



BILIOUS EEvElt. 241 

tff considerable service, especially when taken in small quanti- 
ties, and much diluted. These pleasant preventatives, whether 
under the name of grog or toddy, must, in consequence of their 
gentle stimulant qualities, be peculiarly beneficial to persons 
whose lot is cast in low situations and moist air. But they 
should never forget, that no where is the great virtue of self- 
government more necessary than in their use. For, if in- 
dulged to excess, they seldom fail, whenever a pre-disposition to 
any particular disease lurks in the system, to rouse it to action. 

In like manner, we must have regard to a proper regulation 
of diet, which consists in preserving the happy mean between 
long fasting on the one hand, and immoderate eating on the 
other. Vegetables are peculiarly adapted to warm climates, 
and consequently should constitute the chief part of our diet. 
Sweet oil, when pure, is perfectly wholesome; but rancid oil, 
gutter, fat, or meat the least tainted, must be wholly rejected. 

To those of weak habit and bad digestion, much benefit will 
result from a glass of the infusion of columbo, or camomile, or 
cold water, every morning, on an empty stomach. 

Such are the general' means for preserving health, and pre- 
venting diseases in a southern climate. The chief point is to 
avoid the exciting causes, and keep the bowels always mode- 
rately lax. 

NERVOUS FEVER. 

The fevers already described, and indeed all diseases atteaded 
>Yith a considerable degree of morbid heat, affect in some 
measure the nervous system; but in this particular species, the 
nervous system is more immediately and more violently affect- 
ed, than in any other. When a fever is once produced, froitj 
whatever cause, it seldom fulls, by long continuance, to occasion 
all the symptoms which appear in the nervous or malignant fever, 

This fever has been described by different authors undef 
various names; the typhus or nervous fever, the slow fever, the 
guol fever, the hospital fever, the ship fever, the petechial fever, 
fly? putrid fever, and the malignant fever* 



NERVOUS FEVER. 

The first appellation it receives from its attacking the In-.* i 1 1 
and from the effects it produces on the nervous -\ stt m. The 
second, from the slow and gradual manner in which it some 
times comes on. The third, fourth, and fifth, from their I" 

i gaols, hospitals, and ship>, when numbers of 
men are crowded together, and when sufficient care i< not 
ken to have such places well ventilated and cleansed. The 
sixth, from certain spots which sometimes appear on the skin 
of the patients, labouring under this disease. The seventh, 
from a putrid state, or tendency supposed to lake, place in the 
; and the iast, from the dangerous nature and malignity 
•f the fever: but they are all one and the same disease, various- 
ly (odified, according to the violence of the symptoms, and 
(he different constitutions of the patients. 

SYMPTOMS. — The symptoms are commonly more various 
in this, than in any other lever. It sometimes creeps on in 
such a slow, insiduous manner, that the patient will have suf- 
fered the disease to make considerable progress, before he 
thinks it necessary to use any remedies. On otjier occasions 
it comes on with a ccreat degree of rapidity, and with many of 
the symptoms common to all fevers. 

Thus, it commences with alternate sensations of heat and 
cold, a want of appetite, a nausea, and occasional vomiting. 
These are followed by some confusion of the head, a sense of 
weakness, dejection of spirits, tremor of the hands, and fre- 
quent sighing without knowing the cause. At this stage tin 
pulse is irregular, sometimes a little quicker, at other time-. 
about the natural standard. In some a dull and heavy pain, 
with a sense of coldness, possesses the back part of the head; 
m others, a pain in the orbit of one eye. 

These symptoms gradually increasing, the pulse become? 
smaller, and at the same time cpiickcr, while the arteries of tie 
temples and neck beat with additional force. The patient i- 
generally more restless towards nicrht, the breathing is some- 
what difficult, and very little refreshment is obtained, from his 
short and disturbed slumbers. This gradual increase of symp- 



NERVOUS FEVER '245 

toms, with the peculiar pale, sunk countenance attending fe- 
ver, will give the alarm, even when other nervous diseases with 
which the earlier symptoms have been confounded are present. 

Iti the progress of the disease, the system is unequally affec- 
ted; for sometimes head-ache, restlessness, and uneasiness pre- 
vail in a high di gree, while at the same time the tongue is 
clean and moist; and at other times, while there is no head- 
, or restlessness, the tongue will he dry and foul, and pro- 
fuse sweats will break out. This fever, moreover, is not only 
thus irregular, in affecting various parts of the body differ- 
ently, hut it is also irregular in its exacerbations ; and these., 
instead of taking place in the evening, will arise often in the 
morning. Again, sometimes the fever is very violent for^the 
first three or four days; it then diminishes for a time, and then 
perhaps increases again. After, or about the tenth day, the 
weakness increases considerably; the whole nervous system 
becomes affected with tremors and twitchings; the urine is 
commonly pale; the fingers are in constant motion; the tongue^ 
hecomes dry, of a dark colour, and trembles when attempted 
to he put out; and sometimes the gums and lips are covered 
with a dark viscid substance. To these succeed stupor, cold 
clammy sweats, with a foetid smell, hiccough, and tw itching of' 
die tendons, together with an involuntary discharge of the ex- 
crements. 

In every-malignant case, this fever tends fatally on or before 
the seventh day: but more frequently those who die, are carried 
off about the middle or towards the end of the second week. 
When the patient survives the twentieth day he usually reco- 
vers. When the fever terminates favorably before, or at the 
end of the second week, the crisis is generally obvious; but 
when that happens at a later period, particularly if after the 
third week, the favorable turn is less evident; and sometimes 
several days pass, during which the disease goes ofT so gradu- 
ally, that the most experienced are in doubts whether it abates 
or not. At length, however, it becomes evident by a warn 
moisture on the skin, by the dark-coloured gluey substance- 



244 IN ER VOLS 1 i:\Lt.. 

which adheres to the gums and lips, growing less tenacia 
and being more easily removed; by the stools regaining a na- 
tural colour; In the urine being made in greater quantity, and 
deposi sediment; by a return of appetite, and by tin 

pulse becoming flow or than it was before the CdmmencemeiM 
of the disease. Deafness ensuing, tumours appearing behind 
the ears, a red rash, and an inflamed real) below the nose, 01 
about the lips, are also considered favorable. The symptoms 
which point out the near approach o( death, ;>re a change oj 
voice, a wild stare, a constant inclination to uncover the breast, 
purple or livid spots on the skin, laborious respiration, pro; 
evacuations by sweating or purging, much watchfulness, sink- 
ing of the pulse, great incoherency of ideas, muttering', picking 
at the bed-clothes, considerable dilatation of the pupil of the 
eyes, involuntary discharges by urine and stool, starting of the 
tendons, hiccough, and convulsions. Tf many of these symj»- 
toms occur, little expectation of recovery can be entertained. 

Catsks. — This fever is occasioned by impure air, and pu- 
trid animal and vegetable efiluvia. We are therefore not sur- 
prised to find it often originate in gaols, ships, and flirty dwet 
-, where numbers are crowded together, and where it is not 
possible to have sufficient ventilation. 

Though human contagion, and the effluvia arising from 
putrid animal and vegetable substances, are the most frequenl 
and active causes of this disease, yet they cannot be considered 
as the only ones; for w r e sometimes meet with instances in a 
country neighborhood, of persons being seized with the 
disease in all its malignity; where it is not epidemic, nor can 
it be traced to any place where the human effluvia could be 
supposed to be confined in any uncommon degree. 

Hence nastiness, a moist atmosphere, much fatigue, cold, 
depressing passions, scanty diet, excessive study, too free use of 
mercury, immoderate venery, profuse hemorrhage, or whatever 
weakens the nervous system, may be enumerated among the 
cavsi 



NERVOUS FEVER. 24i 

TREATMENT. — With regard to the cure, when the inflam- 
inatory symptoms appear to run very high, the early use of the 
lancet will be required. It should be observed, however, if 
blood-letting be employed in all the various forms of typhus, 
without due regard to the period of the disease, the quantity of 
the blood drawn, the age, habit and constitution of the patient, 
it will often be followed by fatal consequences. On the con- 
trary, if it be cautiously used in the beginning of the inflam- 
matory typhus, it will be of the greatest utility, as it will render 
the other means more prompt and effectual, and thereby facili- 
late the cure. 

When the lancet is resorted to, the blood should be taken 
away in small quantity, and from a small orifice. And as the 
rising of the pulse, under bleeding, is a certain indication of 
its propriety, so its sinking is as certain an indication of its im- 
propriety; hence we have a criterion to guide us in the operation., 
Towards the close of most acute fevers of severity, there is 
some tendency to a change in the constitution of the fluids ; 
and this may occur so soon as the second or third day, in the 
most malignant cases of typhus. The blood, when drawn in 
this; state, loses its florid colour, and as it flows from the arm, 
exhibits a dirty, dark appearance, sometimes of a muddy blue, 
and sometimes of a deep black. It does not coagulate, but 
continues in a dissolved state in the vessel, which induced the 
ancients to call it putrid. It is unquestionably very unfavora- 
ble, and indicates that depletion is improper. 

In general it will be safest to resort to the evacuation of the 
alimentary canal; therefore, on the first appearance of the 
symptoms, twenty or thirty grains of ipecacuanha, or four or 
five grains of tartar emetic, may be dissolved in a pint or more 
of weak camomile tea; of which the patient may drink a gill 
every fifteen or twenty minutes, until it excites vomiting, which 
ought to be assisted by drinking freely of warm water: or 
should any costiveness prevail, give a dose of calomel alone, or 
conjoined with ipecacuanha, and in a few hours afterward?, 



gome rhubarb, epsom salts, or infusion of salts, senna and n; 
na, in broken doses to evacuate the bowels of their morbid 
contents. Through the- whole course <>f the disease, the bow- 
els musl be kepi in a soluble state, either by some of the above 
medicines or acid laxatives, as cream tartar and tamarinds, b\ 
fruits, or by clysters. Two or three stools daily may be safelj 
borne, though if so great an evacuation should appear to de 
bilitate, even this number should be curtailed. However, th< 
patient should in no case be more than two days without w 
>tool, for a great deal of feculent matter is produced in fevi 
although little food is taken, and costiveness is apt to induce an 
increase of heat and affection of the head as delirium, ixc. In 
administering purgatives, care must be taken not to employ 
them in such doses a^ would operate very copiously, as great 
debility might thereby be produced. So long as the alvinc 
evacuations continue of a dark colour or unnatual appearance, 
calomel should be given not only as an aperient, but also with 
a view of producing ptyalism. The alterative operation of 
this medicine, in the early stage of the disease, is a circum- 
stance highly to be desired, as it equalizes the circulation, and 
diminishes visceral congestions. In typhus proceeding from 
contagion, and of a malignant nature, very (ew hours should be 
lost in these preparatory steps; for the disease often hasten* 
with rapidity, and the worst symptoms sometimes occur, so ear- 
Fy as the fifth day. 

In the early period of the simple typhus giving an emetic, 
and followed the next day by some active purgative medicine, 
have frequently cut short the fever at once; and when this desi- 
rable effect has not been produced, they have hardly ever fail- 
ed to shorten its duration, and to lessen its danger. 

Although medicines, which might excite profuse sweating, 
would be highly improper in this fever, yet those possessed of 
a mild, diaphoretic power, as Dover's powders, the camphorat- 
ed powders or mixture, [See Dispensatory] the spirits of nitre, 
or infusion of \ irginia snake root, may be occasionally em- 
ployed with ad van: 



NBRVOU3 FEVER. 247 

■ rhe saline mixture given in a state of effervescence, every 
two hours, readily abates thirst, and removes the increased uv 
ritability of the system. In like manner, a table spoonful of 
yeast, given every three or four hours, affords much relief, and 
has alone, often proved an effectual remedy. 

The Rev. Edward Cartwright, having read of the power of 
fixed air in preserving meat from putrefying, was induced to 
make trial of yeast on a boy of fourteen years of age, who 
had been ill several days of a putrid fever, for which bark and 
wine had been exhibited without any apparent advantage, and 
where there was but little hope of recovery. He directed two 
table spoonfuls of yeast to be taken every three hours, which 
having been complied with, the boy found almost immediate 
relief, and recovered very quickly. Mr. Cartwright reports, 
that he gave the same remedy to above fifty patients in this fe- 
ver, without losing one. 

Whatever maybe the mode of action of) ? eastin typhus, the 
fact appears to be indisputable, that fixed air takes off that ex- 
treme debility of the stomach so conspicuously marked in dis- 
orders of this nature; and in proportion as that subsides, the 
pulse rises, becomes slower and fuller, the burning heat on the 
skin disappears, and a truce is gained for the reception of 
nourishing supplies. The most agreeable mode of adminisr 
tering yeast, is to add two table spoonfuls of it to a quart of 
beer or mild porter, of which a wine glassful may be taken 
every hour or two. 

According to the practice of Drs. Thomas, Currie, and 
Jackson, as well as other eminent practitioners, the affusion of 
cold water is one of the most powerful and efficacious means 
which we can make use of in typhus fever. Its effects will be 
more salutary, in proportion as it is early adopted, i. e. during 
the first stage of the disease. Such being an indisputable fact, 
established upon the firmest basis, we ought always to em- 
ploy it, very soon after we have evacuated the contents of thf 
alimentary canal. In the early stage of the disease, cold wo 



248 



MEEVOI 5 i-| \l.r. 



ler may be poured in considerable quantity from n height, 
dash forcibly From ;i pail on the patient. 1 5 1 1 1 aspersion or ab- 
lution of the body, by means of a sponge, will be more el 
ble and safe in the advanced periods. The effects produ 
b\ both modes are grateful and refreshing to the patient, and 
they usually bring about an abatement of fever, followed by 
nior of a diaphoresis, and this again by a refreshing sleep. 

Dr. Currie slates, that the eold affusion may be used at any 
time of the day when there is no sense of chilness present; 
when the heat is steadily above what is natural; and when 
then is no general or profuse perspiration. During the eold 
the paroxysm of lever, while there is any considerable 
i of chilness present, or where tin body is under profuse 
ible perspiration, this remedy ought never tobe employed, as 
I \ so doing we might extinguish life. In the advanced stage 
of fi'\ I r, w hen the heat is reduced, and the debility great, some 
cordial, tfiich as wine warmed, with an addition of spice, or 
evei brand} , should be given immediately after it. 

When recourse is had to this remedy, every arrangement 
should be made Cor the affusion before the patient is moved at 
all, and fatigue as well as disgust should be avoided as much as 
possible. In those cases where the delicacy of the system, or 
the apprehensions of the patient or of the by-standers, may 
prevent cold affusion from being employed, we may substitute 
tepid affusion for the more powerful remedy, or we may re- 
commend either ablution or aspersion. The tepid affusion, the 
water being lukewarm, or from 87 to 97 degrees of Fahrenheit; 
produces a cooling effect equal to that of cold affusion, partly in 
consequence of amore speedy evaporation, and partly because so 
great a glow or reaction does not succeed. The important ob- 
ject of diminishing heat, therefore, may be obtained with great 
certainty by the repeated employment of the tepid affusion, 
sufTerhitr the surface of the body to be exposed in the interval 
to the external air. A diminished frequency of the pulse, and 
respiration, and a tendency to repose and sleep immediately 



\er* 249 

ensue, though its effects are not so permanent ul; those of the 

cold affusion. 

Doctor Currie reports, that a putrid fever having made its 

appearance in a regiment quartered in Liverpool, he had the 

men drawn up and examined, seventeen of whom were found 

with symptoms of it upon them — these he subjected to the cold 

affusion once, and sometimes twice a day. In fifteen of this 

number, the contagion was extinguished, and in the remaining 

two, the fever went through its course. The healthy part of 

the regiment bathed in the sea, dail}', and by these means, he 

effectually destroyed the contagion. He further relates, that 

of thirty-two who went through the disease, by its being too 

confirmed to be removed at the time of his first seeing them, 

only two died; and with these, recourse was not had to the cold 

affusion. 

The game remedy has likewise been successfully employed 
by Dr. Currie, and many others in the more advanced stage of 
the fever, so as seldom to fail of procuring a safe termination. 
He relates the case of a soldier who was in the ninth day of the 
disease when he first saw him; his pulse was 100 and feeble, 
his heat was 104, his thirst very great, his tongue foul and black, 
his mind much confused, and at times he was delirious, and 
petechia? were dispersed over his whole body. The mode of 
treatment was as follows: his strength was directed to be sup- 
ported by administering a bottle of wine a day, with an equal 
quantity of gruel; every night he took an opiate draught, and 
his body was kept open by laxative clysters, and when these 
failed, by a few grains of calomel. A bucket-full of salt watei 
was directed to be thrown over him immediately, which was to 
be repeated according to circumstances. 

The effect was, that in a few minutes after the affusion, the 
heat lessened to 98, the pulse moderated to 90, and his mind 
became more calm and collected. Two hours afterwards he 
had relapsed nearly into his former state, but the night was 
passed with greater tranquility. The whole of this practice 
continued with nearly the same result, until the twelfth day 



250 i hi.. 

of the disease, the afibsion having been performed in the even 
. and occasionally st noon. The fever continued it* usual 

period; but on the twelfth day, the heat having sunk to its na 
tural standard, the cold affusion was thenceforth omitted, and 
instead of it, the body was sponged all over once or twice a 
day with vinegar. 

A memorable instance of the good effects of cold affusion 
came under my immediate knowledge some years ago, says 
Dr. Thomas, whilst I practiced in the West-Indies. A pro 
(essional gentleman of my acquaintance, residing in the island 
of Nevis, was attacked with this fever; and it proceeded with 
such violence, that in a few days petechia; appeared on dif- 
ferent parts of his body, and a hemorrhage of blood issued 
from his nostrils, mouth, and other places. Under these un- 
favorable circumstances he was freely exposed to the open air, 
and one or two buckets of cold water were thrown over him; 
he was then wiped perfectly dry, and replaced in his lied; 
which plan of proceeding was repeated twice and sometimes 
thrice a day. By means of this application, the administration 
of an opiate at night, ami a liberal allowance of wine, his life 
was preserved to the great, but pleasing astonishment of all 
his friends. 

The affusion of cold water on the surface of the body, is con- 
sidered, by Dr. Jackson, as a power which makes a strong and 
general impression on the system, and which arrests the dis- 
ease, or changes its condition in virtue of that impression; but 
not by subtracting increased heat, as supposed by Dr. Currie. 
Indeed, the good effects of the remedy in question, cannot, we 
think, be wholly owing to the mere subtraction of heat; for it 
has been used with great advantage in many cases of fever, 
where there has been no perceptible increase of temperature, 
and where, by affusion, ablution, or aspersion with cold water, 
the disease has been cut short abruptly, as well as in, those 
where it had risen to a hicrh point. Therefore we may safely 
infer, that cold affusion, or the suddenly pouring cold water 
over the whole surface of the body, operates as a powerful stim* 



NERVOUS FEVER. 2 it »' 

uiaiit, although its effects probably arc of short duration, 
unless frequently repeated; they are produced by the sudden- 
ness of the application affecting the nervous energy, and by 
the shock rousing the dormant susceptibility, so as to induce a 
new action, as it were, of the nervous system, removing spas- 
modic contraction of the extreme vessels on the surface, carry- 
ing off a large portion of morbid heat by general evaporation, 
and the remaininder by insensible perspiration; thence restor- 
ing the healthy action of the exhalents and capillaries. 

As the danger of this fever is in proportion to the debility, 
the great point is to support the patient's strength and spirits 
by a liberal use of tonics and cordials, which should be early 
employed. At the same time, a nourishing diet should be used, 
suited to the taste of the patient, and the most rigid attention 
paid to cleanliness, and to a free circulation of pure air. In 
having recourse to these means, with a view of supporting the 
vital energy, we must take care to prevent the feculent matter 
from being confined, by occasionally administering laxatives 01 
clysters. 

As we have no other vegetable tonic of equal efficacy with 
the Peruvian bark in this variety of fever, it should be given in 
frequent and as large doses as the stomach will retain. And 
its beneficial effects will be increased by conjoining it with the 
snake-root in proportion of one ounce of the former to two 
drachms of the latter, or by uniting to each ounce a scruple of 
camphor. When this valuable medicine is rejected in its va- 
rious forms, as it frequently is, we should not dispair of finding 
a succedanium so long as our country abounds with the red 
and black oak. From my own observations in practice, fre- 
quent bathing in a strong decoction of the bark of either will 
produce the same salutary effects, as could possibly be expect- 
ed from a free exhibition of the Peruvian bark internally. (See 
Materia Medica — and also Bilious Fever.) 

Th* other tonics of most efficacy in typhus are the mineral 



acids. I have myself employed the nitric acid dilated (-S'ec 
Dispensatory.) in closes of a wine glassful evi <>r three 

hours, with very beneficial effects. Dr. Thomas speaks highly 
of the muriatic acid in all febrile diseases of malignant nature. 
In all such cases he says it will be found a powerful and e/liea- 
cious medicine. His usual plan of administering it is nearly 
as follows. Having relieved the stomach l>\ a gentle emetic, 
where nausea prevails, cleared the bowels of their feculent con- 
tents by a moderate dose of calomel and jalap or rhubarb, and 
subjected the patient to cold affusion when the circumstances 
already noticed have admitted of it, he gave to adults ten or 
twelve 1 drops of the muriatic acid, guarded with five drops of 
laudanum, in an infusion of columbo, Virginia snake-root, or 
bark, and repeated the dose every four hours, gradually increas- 
ing the quantity to eighteen or tweenty drops, or more. He 
says, from using it in this manner, his practice has been attend- 
ed with the most decided success. Dr. Thatcher also bears 
testimony in favour of this remedy. He states a case of putrid 
fever, attended with extreme danger, in which he administered 
the muriatic acid in a strong decoction of thorough wort, with a 
few drops of laudanum. When it had been taken freely for 
about twelve hours, a profuse sweat ensued, of a yellowish co- 
lour, and nauseous smell; a favourable change immediately ap- 
peared, and the recovery was rapid. 

Dr. Armstong states, that he has employed the muriatic acid 

in typhus, with beneficial effects, when it did not excite griping 

pains or diarrhrea. He has prescribed as much a? two drachms 

of it. largely diluted with water, in twenty-four hours, so as te 

it a sort of common drink. 

Another tonic of considerable efficacy in fevers of a malig- 
nant nature, is the solution of arsenic. D'-. Ferrier found, in 
the last stage of typhus, when neither bark, wine, or brandy, 
cold bathing, or even occasional doses of cayenne pepper, bad 
the effect of rousing the powers of life, or of lessening the tl 
crust which covered the tongue, that most singular advantages 



NERVOUS FEVER. £53 

were obtained by giving the arsenical solutions. As soon as 
the febrile paroxysms are stopped, he considers it best to sus- 
pend the use of the arsenical solutions, and to support the pa- 
tient with bark and different cordials. Dr. Thomas corrobo- 
rates the efficacy of this medicine, in stating a severe case of 
typhus which fell under his care; the patient having suffered 
two relapses of the fever, and her life despaired of, when he 
was induced to make use of this mineral solution. Its effects 
exceeded his expectations, for the woman's life was apparent- 
ly preserved by it. The solution of arsenic may be given in 
its usual doses every three or four hours. 

Of every other medicine, cordials only would supersede the 
bark; and with these putrid fever is sometimes successfully 
conducted, when the bark is disagreeable or rejected. The 
chief is wirut, which it is necessary often to give in large quan- 
tities. It must be recollected, however, that wine is an indirect 
stimulant, followed by a narcotic effect,- so that when we be- 
gin, we must continue its use until nature can exert herself. In 
this case, and in all instances of putrefaction, whether general 
or local, our remedies are intended to supply the powers of 
nature. JVhen these are roused, our exertions may be safely 
remitted,- and we find that this effect is produced in general 
fever, when the pulse becomes fuller and softer, the eye more 
quick, the skin more clear, and the tongue more clean and 
moist; in partial gangrenes by a beginning separation of the 
mortified part. 

It is impossible to fix the precise quantity of wine that ought 
to be given, as it must be varied according to the nature of the 
existing symptoms, the age, constitution, and previous habits 
of the patient. Madeira is unquestionably preferable to every 
other wine, but unfortunately, it is seldom to be procured 
genuine from the retail stores; consequently, it is better to ob- 
tain the Sicily, dry Sherry, Lisbon, or Tcneriffe wine. These 
should not only be given at first diluted, but in small portions 
at a time. A mixture of wine and milk, in proportion of one 
part of the former to three or four of the latter, constitute? 



¥$&■ NERVOUS FBI LR 

an exceHeht drink, as well as diet, in the advanced stage of 
tophus. When the stronger wines excite too much, the weak- 
er, such as claret, may be tried: and if these should not an- 
swer, small repeated draughts of brisk ale or porter, may be 
given, and in many cases with more salutary effects than wine: 
either being calculated, in the last stage of typhus, to give 
that degree of vigour to the system, requisite to remove those 
partial congestions which often exist at that period in combi- 
nation with general debility. Good cider is another substitute 
for wine; and brandy, rum, or whiskey, may, though with less 
decided success, supply the place of either. 

Although stimulants are indispensably necessary, where 
there is a loss of tone in the vascular system, and real debili- 
ty existing, yet to employ them inconsiderately, will often be 
attended with bad consequences. 

Dr. Armstrong observes, that it would be quite as rational 
to give a half intoxicated man a tolerably free allowance >l 
ardent spirits, with a view to make him sober again, as to at- 
tempt to restore, while the stage of excitement continues, a 
typhus patient, by the administration of wine; for he may ! »c 
said to be, in some degree, intoxicated by the stimulous of the 
fever, and he will therefore be more affected by every glass of 
cordial that, is administered. Dr. Potter, also, judiciously re- 
marks, that the prescribing d>ffusable stimuli in every fever 
that has the name of typhus attached to it, is one of the great- 
est absurdities and strongest infatuations, that infests the prac- 
tice of physic. There in no fever that will bear, much less 
require, such agents to remove it in its first stage. 

It should be remembered, that when strong stimulants are 
incautiously administered, they have a powerful tendency to 
produce inflammation or congestion in the visceral organs, and 
thus to render the chance of recovery, at the best, very daub 
ful. Therefore it is important in administering wine, or any 
other stimulant, to give it at first sparingly, and notice its 
effects carefully. If on trial the patient sleeps well, breathes 
easily, and fiels a universal :1 w, we may safely go on with 
it; but if, on the contrary, it produces restlessness, difficulty 



JVEKVOUS L'EVEJt. 255 

of breathing, the tongue becoming drier, and the pulse more 
tense and rapid, its further use should be omitted until the in- 
flammatory diathesis is removed. In habitual drunkards, the 
stage of collapse sometimes rapidly supervenes, and they 
should always have an earlier and a more liberal allowance of 
stimulous, than those who have lived in an abstemious man- 
ner, otherwise they will sink under the evacuations which 
may he indispensably necessary to remove the disordered con- 
dition of certain organs. 

By this general plan, a cure will, fur the most part, be ef- 
fected; but in the progress of the disease, particular morbid 
symptoms will require especial treatment. Thus affections 
of the head, with stupor and delirium, will sometimes be re- 
lieved by frequently washing the temples with cold vinegar 
and water; and occasionally bathing the feet in warm water. 
But if these affections, notwithstanding, should continue, it 
will be necessary to shave the whole of the head, and apply 
cl<>ths wrung out of cold vinegar and water, which should be 
frequently renewed; and if the delirium be accompanied with 
wildness of the eyes, a blister must be applied to the head. 

Where there prevails any unusual coldness in the lower ex- 
tremities, recourse m'tst immediately be had to the warm bath, 
orto some warm stimulating applications externally, as well as 
the exhibition of stimulants internally, in order to restore the 
circulation to the surface. The efficacy of the bath will be 
greatly increased in such cases by having it strongly impreg- 
nated with salt, and the patient should remain in it, till his 
skin become warm, and on being removed to his bed, he should 
be well rubbed all over with hot flannels, and bottles of hot 
water, or heated bricks with vinegar poured upon them and 
enveloped in flannel applied to his feet, legs, and under the 
armpits. When a bathing vessel cannot be procured, use, as 
an embrocation, a strong solution of table salt, in heated spir- 
its, which admirably recalls the languishing circulation to the 
surface. 

A depression of the animal beat will sometimes come on in 



-™ M-.nvoi b rr.vKK. 

the collapse of typhus without any apparent cause. The puJ 
becomes very small, and the extremities very cold; and if 
some warm cordial, as mulled wine, hot toddy, or ginger tea, 
sweetened, with the addition of a little spirits, be not immedi- 
ately administered internally, and warm stimulating applica- 
tions applied externally, death will soon follow. Blisters, as 
well as sinapisms in such cases, have frequently been employ- 
ed, and are serviceable by their stimulating effects: but they 
should not be continued on long at a time; and when a blister 
is raised in this disease, the sore should be frequently washed 
with an infusion of red oak bark; and nothing ought to be ap- 
plied to the part which may tend to increase the discharge; for 
that, by debilitating the system, would prove injurious. 

If nausea or vomiting continue, apply flannels, wrung outol 
hot spirits, in which red pepper or mustard seed has been 
steeped, to the stomach and lower extremities. These failing, 
give the saline or camphorated mixture, and apply a poultice 
of mint leaves Jor cloths moistened with laudanum and cam- 
phorated spirits to the stomach, and cataplasms of mustard 
seed and vinegar to the feet. 

A slight purging, attended with a gentle moisture of the 
skin, not {infrequently arises towards the close of this fever, 
and now r and then assists in carrying it off: but where it docs 
not seem to produce a critical effect, it ought to be stopped 
speedily as possible by giving charcoal or the absorbent mix- 
ture, with a few drops of laudanum, or by clysters of starch, 
or the decoction of red oak bark, containing in each a tea- 
spoonful of laudanum. When the purging is not considerable, 
wine or brandy mulled up with spice, or a free use of arrow 
root, with plenty of nutmeg, or rice milk with cinnamon boil- 
ed in it, is often sufficient. 

If purging be produced from swallowing putrid matter, 
give a small dose of ca9tor oil or rhubarb and magnesia, and 
afterwards charcoal. [See Bilious Fever.] In the stage of 
excitement, a diarrhsea accompanied with bloody stools some- 
times occurs, indicative of either a preternatural fulness of 



NERVOUS FEVER. 257 

the liver, or inflammation of the mucous membrane of the 
bowels. In this case we must resort to the warm bath, muci- 
lagcous drinks, and evacuants, as calomel, and castor oil. 

It not unfrequently occurs, that patients, kept in very close 
apartments, have, on the approach of the last stage, black, 
bloody stools, without any offensive odour. About the same 
time petechial or purple spots begin to show themselves upnj 
the extremities, which at first are only few in number, and 
appear as if drops of black ink had been allowed to dry here 
and there upon the skin: but becoming numerous, they soon 
spread over different parts of the body, and are generally ac- 
companied by discharges of blood from the nostrils, mouth, 
bladder or bowels. When tlWse symptoms are accompanied 
with a weak, quick, thready pulse, we may he sure the. stage 
of collapse is at hand. In such cases, recourse must he had 
to the most powerful antiseptics, sac!) as vegetable and mine- 
ral acids, yeast, liquors in a state of fermentation, wine and 
bark, and aromatics with very small doses of laudanum. At 
this momentous crisis, bathing the patient frequently in spi- 
rits, or in a bath composed of equal parts of whiskey and 
decoction of red oak bark, with a free admission of air, will 
not fail to produce good effects. In addition to this mode of 
treatment, when the hemorrhage proceeds from the nose. 
mouth or ears, it is advisable to make use of local applications, 
as lints dipped in a solution of alum, or blue vitriol, or some 
powerful styptic. 

Miliary eruptions sometimes appear as the crisis to this 
fever, and ought, therefore, on no account to be checked by 
any kind of evacuations; nor should the patient, on the con- 
trary, be kept too warm with a view of forcing them out. 

Profuse sweats are to be obviated by sponging the body and 
extremities daily with equal parts of vinegar and spirits; by 
being lightly covered with bed clothes; by admitting fresh air 
freely into the chamber, and by giving whatever he drinks, 
cool, and agreeably acidulated with lemon juice or elixir 
vitriol. 



5oB MERVOUS llAKR. 

IF hiccoughs or starting of the tendons supervene, it will he 
necessary r.n give camphor and volatile sal-ammoniac in huge 
doses, with the warmest cordials. 

In cases of retention of urine, the treatment mnst be varied 
according to circumstances. In some instances the kidneys 
become inilamed, and in this state very little urine is secreted, 
untti the healthy action of rhe vessels be restored by adminis- 
tering calomel and mild purgatives, swallowing freely of de- 
mulcent drinks, and, occasionally, using the warm oath. In 
the iow typhus, the kidkneys an* rendered incapable of per- 
forming their functions from a loss of tone, and in such cases 
stimulants and tonics, with cold applications over the region of 
the bladder, as cloths wrung out of spirits, or equal parts of 
vinegar and spirits, are the best remedies. When the bladder 
is over distended, or inflamed, indicated by acute pain and 
some tumor, the catheter is indispensably necessary to draw 
off the water. In febrile complaints, it will be found that^ 
where a small quantity of urine is secreted, the sediment is 
proportionality copious; and, on the contrary, where a large 
quantity is secreted, the sediment is proportionally scanty. 
If attention be paid to keeping the bowels open from the com- 
mencement of fever, a suppression of urine will hardly ever 
take place. 

In an advanced stage of the disease, it sometimes happens, 
that in addition to a profuse secretion of vicid saliva, little 
white ulcers, or apthse, appear in the mouth. In such cases 
the detergent gargle [See Dispensatory'] should be frequently 
employed* and the mouth occasionally washed with a solution 
of alum in water, an ounce of the former to a pint of the latter, 
and this will quickly take away the stench that arises from 
them. The viscid phlegm, which collects about the tongue 
and teeth, may be wiped away with flannel, dipped in vinegar, 
or salt and water, or after washing the mouth with sharp 
vinegar or some austere acid, it may be scraped off with a 
knife, or a piece of whale-bone bent. 

rom the want of sleep, much rambling and low delirium some- 



tfEfiVOUS FE.VEK. 259 

limes ocrur, which will require an opiate at early bed time. 
The most advisable way of giving it, to prevent any deleterious 
effects, is to conjoin laudanum, with the camphorated mixture? 
or the opium with a few grains of camphor, volatile sal-ammo- 
niac, or some mild diaphoretic, as Dover's powder. Opiates 
arc more admissible in this fever than in any other, and, as it 
is of the utmost consequence to procure rest, they should, with 
this view, be employed every evening, where there is no great 
delirium. In all fevers where we wish to procure sleep, and 
«annot have recourse to opium, on account of delirium being 
present, a pillow of hops laid under the patient's head, has 
been used with singular advantage 

In case of watchfulness, the camphorated julep, or porter and 
mater, wiil generally succeed. W hen, however, these means 
fail, and there is great prostration of strength, followed by 
3t<>;'or, and a train of the most distressing symptoms, wine 
si ild be exhibited in large quantities, and it will be found 
that tie patient will show a relish for this valuable cordial, 
alter refusing medicines and every kind of nourishment in 
a solid form. At first it is better relished mulled; but after- 
wards the patient will take it freely in its pure state, and in 
tin quantity of one or two quarts a day, without intoxication* 
Tin quantity of wine should be regulated by the degree of de- 
bility present, the age of the patient, and the effects produced 
by it. 

The proper rule to be observed in the use of wine, is to give 
it until the pulse fills, the d< lirium abates, and a greater de- 
gree of warmth returns to the extremities. And upon the 
smallest appearance of the stupor returning, the pulse quicken- 
in/'-- and sinking, for they usually go together, the wine must 
be resumed, and continued in that quan'ity which is found 
sufficient to keep up the pulse, and ward off the other bad 

8} til j tOIHS. 

V hen wine cannot he had, rum or brandy diluted with milk 
or water swe< trued, wni answer; and with ! i patients is 
better renshed. '1 lie iriends ot the sick should never bedis- 



«!t>U NERVOUS FEVER. 

heartened too soon, for here, if any where, we may say, 
"while there is life, there is liopc."' And 1 can truly aver, 
that 1 have often seen the patient raised, as it were, from the 
dead, hy the determined use of generous w ine alone, especially 
old Madeira. 

As soon as the patient be able to take nourishment, such as 
panado, arrow-root, &c. the quantity of wine must be gradual- 
ly diminished. For although it be absolutely necessary to 
take it so liberally, during the continuance of this fever, yet, 
as soon as that shall have left the patient, much caution be- 
comes necessary in the use of it; since the third part of what 
formerly had proved a salutary cordial and restorative, would 
in this state of convalescence, occasion a dangerous intoxi- 
cation. 

It sometimes happens at the close of tyhus that the patient 
is affected with a slight degree of mania or temporary aliena- 
tion of the mind. In such a case it will be necessary to sup- 
port the patient with a generous, nutritive diet; to keep him as 
quiet as possible; and to give him tonic medicines, as bark and 
elixir vitriol, nitric acid or tincture, or rust of steel, carefully 
avoiding evacuations. 

If the appetite does not readily return on the cessation of 
the fever, the mineral acids, or stomachic bitters, will be pro- 
per. Bathing daily in a strong decoction of red or black oak 
bark, will be found an excellent remedy in removing the irrita- 
bility and weakness which are left behind; and when there is 
no visceral obstruction, the shower bath will be attended with 
beneficial effects. 

We repeat, it is of the utmost importance throughout the 
whole course of the disease, that the most rigid attention be 
paid to cleanliness, and the communication with the external 
air kept up in different degrees day and night, according to 
the state of the atmosphere. None but those whose business 
it is to attend the sick, ought to be allowed to go near the pa- 
tient, except when there is little or no affection of the head. In 
such cases the presence of a friend may soothe the mind and 



AERVOUS FEVER. 261 

help to dispel gloomy ideas; by comforting the patient with the 
hope of ;i *peedy recovery, and diverting his thoughts from 
that anxiety and dread of danger which invariably attends this 
complaint. 

Regimen. In addition to the mild articles of diet enumer- 
ated in the bilious fever, bread and milk, with a little water, 
sugar, and the pulp of a roasted apple, form a most grateful 
and nutritii us food; and for the sake of variety, cider, porter, 
or any other drink which the patient covets, should always 
be allowed. 

It has been observed* that this fever often originates from 
corrupted air, and of course must be aggravated by it; great 
care should therefore be taken, to prevent the air from stag- 
nating in the patient's chamber. When that is small, and 
cannot be well ventilated, the patient should be carried into 
the open air, and allowed to sitthere two or three hours every 
day in mild weather. When this cannot be conveniently done, 
every means in our power to ventilate the room should be 
employed. Strong scented herbs ought every day to be 
strewed about the room, and vinegar frequently sprinkled, 
about the bed clothes, and some evaporated, by pouring it on 
hot iron. The bed clothes ought to be in no greater quantity 
than is agreeable to his feelings, and when he can set up, with 
his clothes loosely put on, it is often a refreshing change of 
posture and si i nation. The patient should have his linen and 
bedding changed often, and the stools removed as early as 
possible; for nothing refreshes the sick more than cool air and 
cleanliness. 

In the early stage of this disease, when there is much pre- 
ternatural heat, washing the face and hands often in cold vi- 
negar and water, and wiping the body with wet cloths, will 
he highly refreshing; and in the more advanced stage of the 
disease, when there is less febrile heat, the vinegar should be 
united with an equal quantity of spirit. In all cases where 

<he, fever is unusually protracted, and leaves the patient inev 
35 



lti-2 VOl - FE\ ER. 

cessive weakness, the recovery is slow and precarious, and 
the greatest care is i-crjaircd to prevent any error in diet, du- 
ring the convalescence, as a very small degree of excess at 
this time, will produce very troublesome consequences. Food 
of flasj dig siion, taken in small quantities and often repeated; 
gentle exercise when the weather is favorable; attention to 
prevent costiveness, by some mild laxative; and the use of 
bitters to assist digestion, or the rust of steel, when there is 
anj prevailing acid on the stomach, are the most certain 
means of re-instating iicaltb. 

Contagion. Having in the preceding chapter enumerated 
the different means for the prevention of diseases, I shall now 
point out such as are most suitable to arrest the progress of 
Contagion when commenced. 

When a contagious fever makes it appearance, the first 
precaution is to seperate the sick from the healthy, and 
thus to cut off, as much as possible, the intercourse hi ceii 
them. The next step should be, to purif) both beds and 
clothes from every particle of filth. The chambers must be 
often fumigated, bj burning good sharp vinegar or tar, and 
the floor washed daily with lie, or the solution of pot-ashes, 
or strong soap-suds. A cloth wetted in lime water and hung 
up in the room, and replaced as often as it becomes dry, is 
also a great mean of purifying infected air. 

W hen a contagious disease originates on ship-board, quick- 
lime should always he added to the water which is used for 
common drink, in the proportion of one pound of qui* k-lime, 
to a hogshead of water; but if the water be impure, a larger 
quantity of lime will be necessary; and som- of it should be 
put f»lso into the ship's well, to prevent the putrid and foul air 
arising thence. 

When th:-se means are ineffectual to stop the progress of 
any contagious disorder, fumigation with the nitrous vapor, 
will undoubl dly succeed; and tie method of preparing it, is 
'o put half an ounce of vitriolic acid into a cup, warm it over 



NERVOUS FEVElt. ii6L/ 

a shovel of coals, adding to it, by iiirlo and little, about the 
same quantity ol powdered saltpetre, and stirring it occasion- 
ally with a slip of glass, as long as the vapor arises. 1 he 
vessel is then to be carried about the room, the doors and 
windows being close shut, and put in every corner and place 
where it can be suspected there is any fo.d air; the fumigation 
to be continued for one or two hours every day, or oftener, 
until the contagion shall be destroyed. 

If the vapor should irritate the lungs, so as to excite much 
coughing, fresh air should be admitted, by opening the door 
or windows of the room. However, after a little familiarity 
with it, this vapor will not offend the lungs, but on the contra- 
ry will prove highly grateful and refreshing. 

The vapor of muriatic acid has also been successfully em- 
ployed in purifying infected air, and destroying contagion. 
It is made use ol in the following manner. Put one pound of 
common salt into an earthen vessel, and pour ov» r it, from 
time to time, a small quantity of sulphuric acid, till the whole 
salt is moistened. If the air be foul, and p culiarly offensive* 
apply a gentle heat under the vessel, to extricate a larger 
quantity of vapor; but in general, the simple addition of the 
acid to the salt will be found sufficient, unless the apartment 
be very large. 

On the first appearance of typhus or any infectious disorder 
in a gaol, hospital, boarding school, or any other place where 
many persons are crowded together, one of these gaseous fu- 
migations should be employed in every room, in addition to 
a free ventilation and the greatest cleanliness. 

An cminentphysieian of the marine barracks of Brest, states, 
that previous to visiting the hospital, he was in the habit of in- 
troducing into his nostrils sponge cut into proo»r size and 
shape, and moistened with some essential oil. He also kept 
in his mouth a piece of orange-peel; and in thi* simple method, 
he escaped several putri:! and pestilen »ial diseases, which in 
one. year killed eleven physicians and one hundred and thir- 
teen students. 



ib4 



I ML ! 



Vr here any one is apprehensive of baring caught infection, 

which may be sus \ it bad taste of the mouth, and want 

of appetite, an emetic should be given towards the evenings 
and on the patient going to bed ho ma) be allowed a little mul- 
led cider, oi- wine whey, with a small dose of the anodyne 
sudorific drops. (See Dispematbry.) 

The warm bath, if such a lux. 117 can be commanded, would 
here be found exceedingly refreshing and beneficial.* 

INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 

When fever is attended with an inflammatory diathesis, or 
when actual inflammation affects any part during the exist- 
ence of fever, the patient is said to labor under one of an 
inflammatory kind; but according to the different parts in which 
the inflammation is seated, different denominations are given 
to the disorder. This disease, howf ver, exists when there is 
no topical inflammation, anil is distinguished by more consid- 
erable heat than usual, indicating an increased action of th< 
arterial system. The fever continues for several days with 
nearly the same violence, the morning remissions being scarce- 
ly ever observable. 

Symptoms. A sense of lassitude and inactivity, succeeded 
by vertigo, chilliness and pai'is over the whole body, but more 
particularly in the head and back; which symptoms arc 
shortly followed by redness of the face, throbbing of the tem- 
ples, great restlessness, intense heat, unquenchable thirst, op- 
pression of breathing and nausea. The skin is dry and 

*To tills disease the philanthrophic Dr. Benjamin Rush, of Pbila- 
phia, fell a victim, in the year 1813; a man distinguished through 
a long ard brilliant life, by his private and social virtues He 
efficiently engaged in promoting the Independence of the United 
States in the war of the revolution; and contributed chiefly to the es- 
bment of the Medical University of Pennsylvania, in which he 
filled successively the most important chairs. His memory is cherish- 
ed witl the greatest respect, not only by the members of the profes- 
ion oi which he was tl nt, but also by the people of the 

ed States. 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 265 

parched, the eyes inflamed, and incapable of bearing the light, 
the pulse >»ard and quick, beating from ninety to one hundred 
and thirty in a minute. 

The disease unusually goes through its course in about 
fourteen days, and terminates critically, either by a diaphore- 
sis, diarriisea, hemorrhage from the nose, or a deposite of 
copious sediment in the urine — otherwise it changes to a ty- 
phus. 

Causes. Sudden transitions from heat to cold, the applica- 
tion of cold to the body when warm, swallowing cold liquors 
when much heated by exercise; too tree a use of spirituous 
liquors; violent passions of the mind; exposure to the rays of 
the sun; topical inflammations; the suppression of habitual 
evacuations, and the sudden repulsion of eruptions. 

Treatment. The symptoms which attend this fever indi- 
cate most strongly the necessity of having an early recourse 
to the lancet, which should be freely used. In repeating the 
operation we must, however, be governed by the effect it pro- 
duces on the pulse, and by the appearance the blood puts on 
after standing sometime. It the former continues full, strong, 
and tense, and the latter exhibits a huffy, sizy coat on its sur- 
face, the bleeding should be repeated by all means. The pulse 
in this fever is apt to become fuller and stronger after bleed- 
ing, which may easily be explained; for the plethora may be- 
so great as to distend the vessels beyond their proper tone. In 
such cases, the vessels cannot act fully, and the pulse is con- 
tracted: but when the plethora is taken off by copious bleeding, 
and the vessels are allowed to contract properly, the pulse be- 
comes fuller, which shows that the remedy is proper. 

When the fever has been of several days' standing, and the 
head is much affected, either with severe pain or delirium, 
topical bleeding, by the application of three or four leeches to 
each temple is advisable, should the pulse not justify the use 
of the lancet. 



266 INFLAMMATOR1 FEVJ 

Applying linen cloths, wetted in cold vinegar and water, to 
the forehead and temples, will often afford const erahle relief. 

If nausea or sickness prevail at the commencement of the 
disease, it should be relieved bj a gentle emetic But when 
the determination to the head is violent and the vessels have 
not been sufficiently depleted by blood-letting, the aperient 
and diaphoretic pills, or a dose of calomel, or infusion of 
salts, senna and manna, will be most proper. Cathartic medi- 
cine will notonly relieve the head; but prevent determinations 
to the lungs and liver; and medicines of this (lass should be 
repeated every day or two during the continuance ol much 
febrile action. 

Diaphoretics are remedies also of great utility in continued 
fever. Therefore, with a view to determine the Circulation to 
tin- surface of the body, give the febrifuge powders or mix- 
ture the Saline mixture, spirit of Mindererus, diaphoretic 
d; ps. Dover's, or antimonial powders in their usual doses. 
[See Dispensatory,] llie warm bath will be found of consider- 
able efficacy in encouraging the diaphoretic powers of rhese 
medicines. In many cases it will b sufficient to induce per- 
spiration for t!i patient to bathe his feet in warm water, to lie 
in bed and drink plentifully of diluent liquors, as balm, 
ground ivy. or flaxseed tea, with the addition of a little nitre; 
but should these simple means not prove < fiicacinus, it will 
then be necessary to resort to more powerful agents. 

It ought to be remembered, in the whole of the inflammatory 
cases, we should never have recourse to diaphoretics, till arte- 
rial action and general excitement arc considerably redui ed by 
blood-letting, and aperient medicines. And, it should also be 
laid down as a general rule, in every species of inflammatory 
fever, to solicit perspiration rather by simple m ans, than to 
force it by any violent measures. When the means employed 
have a tendency to allay heat, soften the skin, relieve delirium, 
ami induce sleep, we may be assured of their propriety. But 
sweating, when excited in fevers by st mulant, heating and 
inflammatory medicines, is almost sure to prove hurtful. It 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 267 

likewise proves injui \uun win ri exe ited hv much external heat, 
or a load of brtl-clothes: as also wen , instead of relieving, it 
ratlter increases the frequency and hardness of the pulse, the 
anxiety and difficulty of breathing, the head-ache and delirium. 
When sweating is partial, and con feme I to the superior 
parts of the body, it will be more likely to prove hurtful than 
sa.utary. 

The torpid state of the vessels of the surface, renders it, 
sometimes, necessary to have recourse to artificial heat, in 
order to equalize the circulation and produce perspiration. 
Therefore, when neither the warm or vapor bath can be 
procured, hot bricks, after being dipped in water, or vinegar 
poured upon them, and surrounded with flannels, should be 
applied to the feet, between t'».e th'ghs, the sides, or arm pits, 
while the patient is moi'erateiy covered, so as to confine the 
steam oj vapors. These means will verj generally and 
speedily cause a relaxation of the surface, and produce an 
abundant perspiration. 

In having recourse to the warm hath, it is worthy of re- 
mark, that the natural temperature of the human species is 
about ninety -eight degrees, but owing to the cooling process 
constantly taking place on the surface, it is here considerably 
lower, and hence we feel the sensation of warmth, at several 
points below animal heat. It is this circumstance which ren- 
ders it difficult to adjust a precise standard, though, perhaps, 
we aj not err by fixing it from ninety to ninety-six degrees. 
However, it will be proper, from the different suscep'ib lities 
of persons, always to consult the feelings of the individual, 
and so to regulate the bath that it may impart a slight, but an 
agreeable sensation of warmth. But, though the application 
o' heat to the surface, in the mode which we have described, 
wiil very generally excite sweating, it does not do so uniform- 
ly. There are cases att« tided by great heat of the surface, 
particularly in the early stage of the nervous and scarlet fever, 
which is aggravated bv all the mcuns we have enumerated, as 
designed to create perspiration. And in uiseases of this na^ 



\ 



-OS IMATORV FEVER. 

lure, the effusion of cold water will be found more effectual in 
removing the constitution of the cutaneous vessels* thitn \\<irm 
applications. 

In the progress of this fever, it sometimes happens that 
particular parts of the body are much affected, and that there 
prevails either great oppression of breat. ing, or that violent 
pains in the head, stupor or delirium ensue. In all such cases 
the application of a blister mar the part affected, will be pro- 
per, and relief will often be quickly procured by it. >Vhcre 
there is any unusual coldness of the extremities, with a sink- 
ing pulse, blisters to the inside of the legs will likewise prove 
highly serviceable. Their efficacy in such cases may he in- 
creased by the application of stimulating cataplasms, to the 
soles of the feet and palms of the hands. Blisters very pow- 
erfully restore the balance of the circulation, and diminish 
morbid congestions. In all cases of fever there is a fulness 
of the vessels; and we find the vessels of the eyes red, the 
face flushed, and the eye-ball itself apparently enlarged; but 
congestion produces also irritation, and often a less degree of 
phrensy. The usual wanderings of the mind are more rapid, 
the voice quick, the temper irritable, unreasonable, and occa- 
sionally violent. In each state, blisters are indicated, and 
often produce the happiest effects; sleep frequently coming on 
as soon as the plaster begins to stimulate. The milder symp- 
toms of congestion yield frequently to purgatives; and when 
these have been freely used, blisters are often necessary. 

In this fever, as in most others, sleep is much interrupted; 
and from a want of this, delirium often arises. Opium here 
would be an uncertain medicine; for should it fail to procure 
rest, the delirium would be greatly increased by it. In such 
cases, a pillow of hops laid under the prtient's head, or a 
strong tea of this herb, will generally have the desired effect 
of procuring refreshing sleep. The camphorated powders or 
julep are of considerable utility in fevers, and in many in- 
stances have procured sleep. The calmness which camphor 
often seems to inspire; the screnitv, and even the temporary 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 28? 

e, which are among its first effects, render it peculiarly va-. 

tuable. 

Hemorrhages sometimes occur in this fever, and at times are 
difficult to be restrained. If the pulse be full and hard; if much 
headache has preceded, the bleeding must be continued. But 
if it happen at the conclusion of fever, or be attended with 
faintness, antiseptics constitute the proper remedies. (See Bi- 
lious and Nervous Fevers.) 

Palpitation of the heart, is frequently a troublesome symp- 
tom in fevers. It is often produced by a redundancy of blood, 
as indicated by a florid countenance, in which case the lancet 
must be resorted to. It sometimes proceeds from the state of 
the stomach and bowels, and may then be relieved by evacu- 
ants; but it arises also, in many cases, from a diminution, or an 
irregular distribution of the nervous power; and shows that 
the degree of debility is considerable when stimulants will be 
required. 

In some instances, the fcver is -continued and kept up solely 
by debility. In sucli cases, the bark may beemployed, provided 
on using this medicine, the patient sleeps well, breathes easily, 
and does not find any increased heat; but if, on the contrary, 
it produces difficulty of breathing, and restlessness, its use 
should be omitted. If by a prudent and judicious use of the 
uemedies pointed out, we can lessen the congestion in the head, 
preserve the strength by the clue regulation of temperature, 
and support it after the first days by more nourishing diet, we 
shall find little occasion for administering bark or other tonics 
Cordials are however often necessary; and of these, wine is the. 
most efficacious. 

In this fever, partial evacuations, such as purging and sweat- 
ing, which have no tendency to prove critical, often arise. 
When these happen, we must put a stop to them by resorting 
to the means recommended in such cases, under the head 
of Bilious and Nervous fever. Critical evacuations may 
be distinguished from those which are not so, by attend- 
ing to the appearances which take place in other parts of 
the svstem. For instance, if a purging should arise, and the 
36 



2-70 I.M l.AMMAJOKi FEVEft. 

tongue continue foul, and the skin dry, without any abatement 
of heat and thirst, then we may regard it ;b by no means criti- 
cal; but if, on its talcing place, the tongue becomes clean and 
moist, the pulse moderates, the febrile s\ mptoms abate, and a 
gentle sweat is universally diffused over the skin, then a crisis 
may be expected. 

When this fever does not yield to the remedies pointed out, 
and assume the symptoms of tyhus, it is then to be treated as 
advised under the head of Nervous Fever. 

Among the sequels of lever are cough, night sweats, an ir- 
ritable and irregular state of mind, a capricious, and often an 
inordinate appetite. These are, in general, marks of debility 
only, and disappear with returning strength. Hark and tonics are 
Usually employed for a time with little effect. The constitu- 
tional powers are at last exerted, and the patient gains in hours 
the strength which, with the most powerful tonics, it did not at- 
tain in days. The powers of digestion, however, do not return 
in the same proportion as the appetite, and relapses arc not un« 
common from unlimited indulgence. 

Regimen. Throughout the whole course of the disease 
the patient is to abstain from solid food and animal broths. 
The diet should be chiefly gruel, barley, or rice water, arrow 
root, subacid fruits, water acidulated with lemon, the jelly, of 
currants, or similar sharp fruits. It may be drank warm or 
cold, as is most agreeable to the patient. His chamber is by 
uo means to be kept warm, either by fires or by being closely 
shut up, as is too generally the case; on the contrary, it should 
be of a proper temperature, by allowing the admission of cool 
air into it from time to time. His bed ought to be lightly co- 
vered with clothes. The patient may sit up a little each day, 
according to his strength, for this will lessen the fever, head 
ache and delirium; but when a salutary perspiration comes on* 
it should be indulged in bed. 

On his recovery, a strict attention should be paid to diet, 
scrupulously avoiding to everlead the stomach, and partaking. 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 271 

of such things as are light, nutritive, and easy of digestion; all 
■ rther causes likely to induce a relapse, are also to be carefully 
-shunned. 

Fresh air, gentle exercise on horseback or in a carraige, 
agreeable company, and a moderate use of wine, will greatly 
contribute to the recovery of convalescents. Should the appe- 
tite not readily return, or the digestion prove weak, the tincture 
of bark, stomachic bitters, or nitric acid will be proper. 

Having pointed out, in an intelligible manner, the most ap- 
proved method of treating the intermittent, remittent, and con- 
tinued fever, as well as the means of prevention, it seems ad- 
visable to give some useful hints with regard to the prognosis 
by which the attentive reader may also be instructed in the art 
of foretelling what may happen to the patient, with respect to 
the termination or charge of a disease either by death or reco- 
very. 

Prognosis of Fevers. In treating the prognostics of 
fevers generally, we shall first present some useful admonition^ 
which are given in the symptoms of impending disease. 

The prognostic of an impending disease may be drawn from 
the aspect of the countenance, the mode of living, the changed 
rn habits or situations, and the cirtical period of life. If a 
person from a healthy state, becomes sallow, weak, with loss of 
appetite and spirits, or with disturbed sleep, we may reasonably 
suppose, that some disease threatens. If these indexes shall 
be gradually disclosed, with a countenance tinged lightly with 
yellow, obstructions in the liver have probably taken place; if 
more rapidly, with slight shiverings occasionally, a fever im- 
pends. A regular evening exacerbation, with cough, portends 
a hectic; a more violent shiver,, with considerable heat, a con- 
tinued fever, a deep redness in the face, with inflammation in 
the eyes, plainly point out accumulations in the head and chief- 
ly venous ones; but these often arise from diseases impeding a 
free circulation through the lungs; so that the state of these or- 
gans must be considered in forming the prognosis. They of- 



-72 INFLAMMATORY FIVES. 

ton exist together, and aggravate each other. \ talent I 

pains in the head, recurring- at irregular intervals, and usually 
excited by every cause of increased circulation, generally show 
that some fixed obstruction prevents the free course of the blood 
through the organ; and this is followed by convulsions, and 
some times insanity, and frequently a sadden termination of 
life. A fulness in the stomach and abdomen are certain sign 
of accumulation, audit depends on the comparison of the other 
symptoms, whether it be obstructions of the viscera, accumul 
contents, or merely flatulency, and the prognostic must be re- 
gulated by comparing the symptoms of each disease. 

The mode of life will often lead- us to form some prognostic 
of an impending disorder. Late hour* cannot be borne with 
impunity, except by a very few; and their principal effect is to 
induce obstructions in the abdominal viscera. If connected 
with drinking spirituous liquors, the affect is usually felt in th( 
liver. The sedentary student has reason to apprehend biliary 
accumulations, with costiveness, and a train of hypocondriac 
symptoms. Excess in eating or drinking will equally lead u> 
to foretel diseases of the stomach, often of the head, conm •■ 
with the stomach; but retributive justice is frequently seen to 
punish former error with the greatest severity, in the feeling 
of the patient by loss of appetite. Almost every situation i 
apparently consistent with health, if free air be admitted; but 
its deficiency leads to a variety of diseases from debility, which 
may be easily foreseen, and only can be avoided by a change. 

Changes of habits and situations are frequently the source ol 
different diseases, which we can often prognosticate, and some- 
times guard against. 

Abstemiousness, suddenly adopted after free living, and the 
contrary, are sources of disease, the former chiefly of complaints: 
arising from insufficient stimulous, the latter from too great ex- 
citement. A sedentary, after an active life, is often attended 
with languor, low spirits, and visceral accumulations; the con- 
trary, at first with languor and fatigue, soon followed by in 
creased tone and vigor 



I.Vr'LAJiMATORl FEVER. 27J 

The critical periods oflife merit attention also in our prog- 
stics of various diseases. If scrofulous affections do not yield in 
the early period of life, there is little prospect of cure. The same 
irtay be said of epileptic fits and of Saint Vitus's dance, though 
to tiie latter there are many exceptions. The critical period 
of the female life is that of the cessation rather than appearance 
of the catamenia, for unless hectic symptoms come on, the dis- 
charge, though at a much later period than usual, becomes regu- 
lar. The period of cessation, if not preceded b}' free, often 
copious discharges of the menses, prognosticates a less healthy 
old age. 

Prognostics in diseases are usually drawn from the vital, 
animal, or natural actions. The vital actions, which give the 
best information, are the states of the circulation and the res- 
piration. The first is chiefly known by the pulse. But be. 
fore we proceed further on this subject, it may be proper to 
describe its action. The pulse consists in the reciprocal con- 
traction and dilatation of the heart and arteries, by the former 
of which the blood is propelled through every part of the body. 
Much attention is required in feeling the pulse, since it often 
misleads, unless the practitioner is accustomed to its examina- 
tion. In estimating its strength or weakness, it is necessary to 
consider the sex, temperature, and age of the patient. The 
pulse in women is quicker than in men; in the sanguine than 
in the melancholic temperament; in youth than in age. Du- 
ring the first year of an infant, its pulse is from one hundred and 
eight to one hundred and twenty; during the second from nine- 
ty to one hundred and eight; the third from ninety to one hun- 
dred. It varies little till the seventh year, when it is about 
seventy-five; and in the following year scarcely exceeds seventy.. 
These numbers are subject to great variety. The pulse is quick- 
ened after a full meal, or taking any stimulous; after exercise or 
any agitation; it is also quicker when standing than sitting, and 
in the latter posture than when lying down. In hysteric pa- 
tients it is excited to an inconceivable rapidity by the slightest 
circumstances without portending danger. A fat person has 



274 INFLAMMATORY 1 l.\ IK 

naturally a weak pulse; but it beats also to a dfsad\aritagr be- 
neath a layer of fat. This circumstance should also he attend- 
ed to in our estimate. The size of the artery we can often es- 
timate, for we can feel, in thin persons, two-thirds of' its circum- 
ference, and errors can scarcely arise from this source. A na- 
tural pulse is from GO to 80, more strictly from G5 to 75. On 
feeling the pulse the artery should he first felt gently, and if any 
doubt arises whether the pulse is weak, it should be compres*- 
f sed strongly by three fingers, and the two uppermost slow Ij 
raised. If the pulse is. strong, and seemingly weak only from 
compression, the blood, rapidly returning, will strike fully tin- 
finger below. If realy weak, it gradually recovers its former 
force. 

A strong, firm pulse is consistent with high health, but if it 
strikes the finger like a tense cord, it shows a tendency to dis- 
ease, and if with this hardness, it is increased in frequency, in- 
flammatory fever is present. A throbbing pulse which strikes 
the finger with apparent but not real firmness, will sometimes 
be mistaken for what is styled the hard pulse. But this has 
not the same firm resistance which we have described. It strikes 
sharply but not strongly, and the relaxation is as rapid as the 
pulse is transitory. When there is internal irritation, the throb- 
bing pulse will continue often to the last, showing, in every suc- 
ceeding moment, its peculiar character more strongly; but in 
the commencement of fevers it often so nearly resembles the 
strong pulse as to deceive. A small pulse will also be mis- 
taken for a weak one, unless by a practitioner of experience, but 
the lightness of its strokes depends on the small size, sometimes 
the depth of the artery. If a pulse is at 55 or 50, there is rea- 
son to apprehend some compression on the brain. A constant 
pulse of 90 in a minute, rising occasionally to 108, shows a 
considerable irritation in the system, and is not without dan- 
ger. 

If, in the early stages of fever, it rises to 120 in a female, 
trot peculiarly irritable, it portends considerable danger, either 



IM'J.AMMATORY FEVER. 2J« 

froVa debility or irritation. If, at any stage it exceeds 120 or 
considerably exceeds it, except for a short time, we have the 
greatest foundation for apprehension. 

An intermitting pulse is a mark of considerable debility, and 
prognosticates a dangerous disease. It is also a symptom 
of organic affections. This alarming view of the subject re- 
quires, however, some alleviation. An intermitting pulse is 
frequently owing to fullness of the stomach and bowels, and 
often arises from agitation of mind. It is also habitual, a cir- 
cumstance not uncommon. 

In such constitutions, the usual intermission, on the access 
©f fever, often disappears, and the first symptom of amend- 
ment is the return of the intermission, which at the end of the 
long fever may appear alarming, if not connected with other 
favorable symptoms. In general, the favorable signs are pulses 
more soft, somewhat fuller, and in a slight degree more slow.. 
The unfavorable signs are, more thready pulsus, as if the arte- 
ry was smaller, pulsations quick, weak, and irregular. 

The state of the circulation is also known by the complexion. 
A sallowness, and a want of transparency show that the blood 
is not carried to the extreme vessels; and even when the cheek* 
•are flushed, if the skin round the lips and nose is of an opaque 
sallow whiteness, the conclusion will be the same, and strength 
of the constitution is sonsiderably impaired. The appearance 
of the eyes is equally indicatory of strength and weakness, 
and the character of the features is preserved in proportion tff 
the remaining strength. Each appearance depends on the state 
«f the circulation. 

Respiration is a vital action connected with the state of cir- 
culation, and of the greatest importance as a prognostic. 
Respiration slow, full, and deep, shows the strength and all the 
vital organs to be unimpaired, and in every situation is highly 
favourable. The iveak, slight and insufficient respiration is, in 
general, a mark of weakness; the uffocating of obstruction; 
the quick of considerable irritation, exciting rapid expiration. 
The stertorous shows insensibility, from compression on the 



INFLAMMATORY FTSVfifi 

brain; the siriduhms, inflammation of the trachiaj theraMUag, 
accumulations of phlegm often unconquerable; and the inter- 
mittent, attends the last effort! of expiring life. 

The animal actions from which we may draw prognostics,. 
are, the senses, muscular action, and sleep. Violent delirium i- 
a symptom oi' active inllammation in the brain, and is danger- 
ous only so far as it shows a violent acute disorder. The 
wandering delirium in levers of a low kind, is a symptom of 
danger, unless it comes on early, and in a degree di- 
ced to the state of the fever. In other complaints it 
will excite serious apprehensions, and shows that the inequality 
of excitement depends on debility. If it persist after the ces- 
sation of the fever, unless evidently in consequence of debility, 
there is reason to suspect an organic injury in the brain, and 
more so if violent delirium has occurred in the early part of 
(he complaint. Delirium, arising from want of sleep, is said 
not to be dangerous, but the want of sleep itself is generally 
owing to a languid inllammation of the brain. General rest- 
lessness is a symptom of the same kind. 

Of the external senses, and their organs, the pye affords the 
most particular symptoms by which the event may be foretold. 
The sensation of black spots, which induces the patient to 
pick the clothes, as if he could remove them, is a symptom of 
debility, and is attributed to a partial palsy in the retina. It is 
certainly a highly dangerous symptom, though by no means a 
desperate one, as it has been represented. A more dangerous 
svmptom is double vision. It is in general an early symptom 
of hydrocephalus. When the eye-lids fall, and can scarcely be 
elevated by the exertion of the will, it shows considerable weak 
ness, and when the patient sleeps without closing them, great 
insensibility. The latter symptom i=, however, often owing to 
an irregular contraction of the muscles of the eyes, for in such 
cases the pupil is drawn up under the lid. The symptom is 
not, however, on this account, less alarming. The clear natu- 
ral appearance of the eye is a favorable symptom; but too 
great brilliancy, or too quick motions of this organ, show 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 277 

approaching delirium. A severe fixed look, without an object, 
is a similar symptom. The appearance of the eyelids some- 
times points out a weak state of the system, particularly when 
Ihere is a blackness in the lower lid, towards the inner corner 
of the eye. 

A noise in the ears in fevers, is said to be a sign of approach- 
ing -delirium, though frequently a symptom of weakness only, 
and often occurs from this cause in weak and old people. If 
this noise occurs in the beginning of fevers, it is said to foretel 
at violent and a tedious disease. Hearing particularly acute is 
often a precurser of delirium, and without fever, it is the effect 
of strong excitement in the brain. Deafness in fevers is said 
to be a favorable symptom: we can at least observe that we have 
not found it unfavorable. Depraved taste is very common and 
offers no particular prognostic. 

La>situue on the attack of fevers, in so great a degree as to 
produce fainting, is always a very dangerous occurrence. If 
attended with a considerable wandering, the clanger is greater. 

It is a favorable sign if, in the beginning of a fever, the 
patient can sit erect with his head elevated. And, if the patient 
flan support himself in bed, and occasionally turn on his side, 
about the tenth or twelfth day, circumstances are favorable. 

Sleep, if calm and refreshing, is always a favorable symp- 
tom; but if interrupted, broken by terror, excited by dreadful 
images in dreams; if, instead of tranquil rest, the patient starts, 
catches, talks in a hurried manner, though not conscious of 
terror, it is unfavorable. Deep sleep is itself a disease, and 
shows considerable oppression on the brain; yet, at the period 
of a crisis, if attended with a soft pulse, moderately slow, and 
a soft moist skin, it is salutary. After a crisis, the deepest, long 
continued sleep is not dangerous, if not attended with a stertor, 
(a sound like snoring) or with a pulse preternaturally slow r . 

The natural actions which furnish prognostics, are digestion 

and its consequences, and the various excretions. In fever the 

appetite is at once destroyed; nor is it a favorable sign, in an 

acute disease, that it should remain or return too soon. 
37 



I.\"l I kMNATQRl ( l.\ BR 

The appearance of the tongue is of considerable importance 
as a prognostic. Whitness of ks surface is a - i ^i 1 1 offerer 
and if white and dry, it shows the fever to I"' more considers 
ble. In the progress of a fever it becomes brown, ;i darker 

brown, and even black; and these colors are usually seen 
when the tongue is dry and hard. While the edges continue 

clean, and of their natural speckled appearance, there is little 
danger; and indeed fevers have terminated favorably, though 
the tongue ha> been, i'nr many days, dark, dr\ , and e\ en black. 
The tongue sometimes in the course of fever becomes suddenly 
clean, and of a shining red. This, in general, shows that the 
fever will be of some continuance. The tongue sometimes 
cleans slowly in elderly and debilitated constitutions. And, 
independent of fever, in such habits, the tongue is often blacl 
at the back part. 

A heavy load in the stomach is an unfavorable symptom, 
unless it arises from indigestible food, since it shows either an 
accumulation of viscid mucus, or a want of energy i" the organ. 
W hen the irritability of the stomach is exhausted by excessive 
stimuli, the effect is a heavy load. 

Vomiting is the connecting symptom between affections of 
the digestive organs, and those of the secretory ones. When 
violent and incessant, without previous accumulation of bile, it 
is an unfavorable symptom, as it generally arises from irritation 
on the brain. Even when from b le it is distressing, for the 
act of vomiting emulges the biliary duct, and the inverted 
motion of the duoderum carries the bilious fluid back into the 
stomach, thus furnishing new fuel for the flame. 

A frequent diarrhoea, independent of mucus inflammation, 
is dangerous, as it shows considerable debility, and a difficulty 
of retaining the food so long as is necessary for its assimila- 
tion. 

The other excretions, which have attracted attention as prog- 
nostics, are the perspiration; the urine and alvine evacuations. 
Tt is generally acknowledged, that the salutary perspiration is 



INFLAMMATORY FEVER. 279 

Mot attended with heat, is not clammy to the touch, is generally 
diffused without any load, uneasiness, or anxiety. The sweat 
of an opposite kind does not relieve, but debilitate. Cold 
clammy sweats arise from a total relaxation of the exhalents, 
and are, in general, the preludes of death. 

The state of the urine has also afforded numerous prognos- 
tics, and the discrimination of its clouds, its sediment, he. 
have been peculiarly minute. The greater number of these 
appearances may be disregarded. Urine must be examined 
only after it has been made for some time. It should be poured 
into a glass while yet warm, and kept in air moderately cold. 
With such precaution, some useful lessons may, perhaps, be 
drawn from its appearance. 

The quantity of urine varies in different persons, and, in the 
same, at different periods. Hence, from this no conclusion can 
be drawn. In general, where it is remarkably deficient, it is at 
other times equally redundant; and this chiefly occurs in hys- 
terical constitutions. The excess is also at no time dangerous, 
unless the quality of the urine is changed, since it only depends 
on irregular action of the renal vessels* When the urine is in 
small quantity, its color is necessarily high; and at the conclu- 
sion of a gouty paroxysm, as well as of a paroxysm of an in 
termittent, it throws down a brick colored sediment. When 
highly red without depositing any sediment, it shows a violent, 
and probably a long fever. In general, a scum on the top, in 
the early period of fevers, seems to show considerable debility; 
and we have usually found such fevers slow and tedious. A 
cloud, suspended at first near the top, and afterwards falling 
lower till in succession it reaches the bottom of the glass, are 
favorable signs; and a suspended cloud, previous to the four- 
teenth day, shows that the disease will terminate at that period. 
If it appear after the fourteenth day, the disease terminates at 
the twenty-first, gradually lessening on the intervening days. 

The progress of the cloud in the urine, in cases of fever, itf 
Regular. It is at first suspended at the top, gradually falls 



^80 INFLAMMATORY KMVtil 

though for a day or two, often stationary near the middle of thf 
glass, and at last retches the bottom. It falls to the bottom 
often some days before it is accompanied by anj sediment; but 
when a white or redish sediment also falls down, the crisi 
nearly complete. The urine is sometimes turpid, if not ;it the 
moment of discharging it, very soon afterward-; and this, 
according to the authors of prognostics, is said to show an 
insidious disease. Frothy urine, or which long retains the air 
bubbles, is said to show a tedious disease, or a slow consuming 
fever. In bilious fevers, the urine is sometimes of a green or 
blaek color, which shows a highly putrid state. The black 
is more dangerous, but unless highly foetid, we have frequently 
seen it without its being followed by a fatal event. In chronic 
diseases, red mine, depositing a copious, red, scaly, or branny 
Sediment, is a mark of considerable debility. A mucus and 
viscid sediment is usually alarming from the apprehensions 
which it excites of abscess in the bladder. Mucus is, however, 
light and equable, wholly free from fetor, and arises from an 
inflammation of the mucous membrane. It arises .' i from 
any irritation of the neck of the bladder; and is a frequent 
Symnton of gravel and calculus. 

The nature of the ■' e is of considerable impor- 

tance, and these should be frequently examined with attention- 
In acute diseases the discharge is often estimated by the num- 
ber of motions rather than their appearance, and we have 
been told there has been a free discharge from the bowels, 
when the stools had not the slightest feculence. Liquid, frothy, 
watery motions, with little color or smell, show, in general, a 
tedious fever, for in every fever there seems to be an obstinate 
retention of the faeces, and motions of this kind show that the 
spasm is peculiarly violent. When the stools, in the beginning, 
are highly foetid and bilious, it has been accounted a dangerous 
symptom; but if the discharge be free and copious, they are 
rather favorable. Calomel w II, through the whole course of a 
fever, often bring oh sueh motions by its superior power on tin 



INFLAMMATORY FfiVEil. 281 

biliary secretion. Small, black, pitch-like motions, are always 
dangerous, and show equal weakness in the alimentary canal 
and the bihary system. On the contrary, hardened excrement., 
brought off with little straining or cholic, is favorable. 

From the remarks which have been offered, it will appear 
that our prognostics of fever must be taken generally from the 
Signs and degree of debility. This is obvious often to the 
sight. Every circumstance which regards a patient in a fewer, 
will, by attentive observation at the bed-side, throw some light 
on this subject. 

The situation of the patient is dangerous, if the character 
of the countenance is soon lost; if die eyes apparently glare on 
vacancy; if the answers are rambling and incoherent; if slight* 
partial, involuntary contractions occur in the features; if the 
tongue trembles, or is soon dry and dark; if he soon declines 
turning on his sides, lies on his back, and sinks down on his bed; 
if the extremities are cold and benumbed; if the tendons are 
particularly tense, and occasionally start; and if he appears to 
pick off or remove any dark spots on the bed clothes, or wishes 
some supposed dark object to be removed; each of these symp- 
toms is a mark of debility; and the earlier they occur in fever, 
the greater is the danger. 

If, however, in a fever, the expression of the countenance is 
unchanged; if the mind is steady and unruffled; the sleep, 
though short and interrupted, refreshing, and the patient is 
sensible of having slept; if the tongue is clean at the edges; the 
abdomen neither tense nor painful; if the patient lies on either 
side, and awakes without hurry or Confusion, we may prog- 
nosticate a safe termination. 

In the more usual cases of fevers, if the disease is properly 
managed in its earlier period, and the circumstances are on 
the whole favorable, there are few instances in which a salutary 
change does not take place on the tenth or fourteenth day. 
Where this is not observable, a gradual amendment takes place, 
which is clearly conspicuous on the seventeenth, and the fever 
lias disappeared before the twentieth. 



COLD, 

Or, in the language of the Nosologic Catarrh is *> 
disease of the inflammatory kind, which occurs more frequently 
on sudden changes of the weather, and attacks persons of all 
constitutions, but especially those of consumptive habits. 

It is also at times epidemic, when it is known by the name of 
influenza, 2tnd has been erroneously considered as depending 
upon a specific contagion for its cause. 

The influenza generally pays us a visit every six or seven 
years. The season of its visitation is the middle or latter end 
of autumn, after a long spell of dry weather. It would appear 
to be no respecter of persons, knocking equally at the door of 
the rich and the poor, and attacking the young no less than 
the aged. 

Symptoms. Its first symptoms are a stoppage of the nose, 
dull pain, with a sense of weight in the forehead; stiffness in 
the motion of the eyes, and soon after cough, hoarseness, an 
increased secretion of mucus from the nose, and tears from the 
eyes, attended with more or less fever, and sometimes sore 
throat. 

Cause. This disease is generally the effect of cold, which, 
by obstructing the perspiration, throws the redundant humors 
upon the nose, fauces, and lungs; or to those great physical 
changes which give rise to epidemics. 

Treatment. The treatment of this disease, as of all 
others of an inflammatory nature, consists of the antiphlogistic, 
or cooling remedies. Where it is slight, little else will be 
necessary than to pay attention to the state t f the bowels; live 
abstemiously, avoid cold, and whatever may increase the fever- 
ish habit. 



COLD. 28o 

Bathing the feet in Iuke-warm water, or bran and water, a 
little hotter than milk just taken from the cow, at the sametime 
that something warm, as a glass of hot toddy, punch, or mulled 
wine, is taken internally, forms a remedy upon which many 
people place their . sole reliance for the removal of their colds. 
But this, unquestionably, is a hazardous practice; for it maybe 
regarded as a general rule, in inflammatory diseases of what 
ever description, that all attempts to excite perspiration by sti- 
mulating and heating drinks, will be uniformly injurious. 

Foot-bathing is certainly a simple, and often found to be a 
powerful assistant of the operation of other remedies, by 
equalizing the circulation and promoting perspiration. In this 
practice, however, much caution is necessary not to get fresh 
cold; the feet should be carefully and speedily wiped dry, and 
afterwards wrapped up in a warm dry flannel, or the patient 
should immediately go into a warm bed. 

When there exists any febrile action, the free use of cold wa- 
ter in the early stage of the disease, forms a safer and a much 
more efficacious remedy than the administration of warm or 
stimulating liquids. A glass or two of cold water, taken upon 
going to bed, is a very common and sometimes a successful re- 
medy for cold. 

The impression of cold drink upon the stomach, indepen- 
dently of its general refrigerant operation, seems to have the 
effect of promoting the action of all the secretory and excretory 
vessels. Taking a draught of cold water every hour or two 
with ten or fifteen grains of nitre dissolved in it, will be found a 
remedy as effectual as it is simple in almost every case of inflam- 
matory catarrh. Should it be observed that the nitre has a 
tendency to increase the cough, nauseating doses of tartar 
emetic should be added to each draught of cold water, which 
promote expectoration as well as diaphoresis, without, at the 
same time, increasing arterial action. When recourse is had 
to this medicine, dissolve three grains of tartar emetic in a 
quart of pure cold water, of which solution a gill to a half pint 



iB4 cold. 

may be given to an adult e\cr\ three or four hours, or at 
intervals as will prodaoe b verj gentle nausea, wdthout creating 
any considerable degree of uncomfortable sensation. The 
consent of the stomach with ever} part of the animal system is 
go generally acknowledged, that this organ«is now admitted to 
be tlie medium through which almost all medicines, taken inter 
nally, produce their effects upon every part of the frame 
11< r.rv cold applied to this viscus must be attended with more 
sp< edy and certain effects than to any other part whatever. It? 
operation in this case is simple; it produces its effects merely by 
the abstraction of the st'nnulous of heat. 

Although it will be admitted these two plans of cure, howevei 
Contradictory, have both occasionally succeeded; yet the cool 
mode of treatment, when employed with a due decree of cir- 
cumspection, is unquestionably the most advisable, for the suc- 

ssfiil removal of the disease in its incipient state. Of all 
the improvements which have been made for many years, in 
the practice of medicine, the introduction of the use of exter- 
nal cold, in the treatment of acute diseases, may be regarded 
as one of the greatest importance. The theory upon which it 
is founded is rational, and the practice it has led to, has been 
attended with the most happy effects. In fevers, inflammations, 
and eruptive disorders, it has restored thousands that would 
otherwise have perished; but its free and extensive use in 
catarrh, is inadmissible, as by exposing the body afresh to a 
Tow temperature, the original mischief would be often spread 
wider, or the foundation would be laid for other diseases more 
formidable. However, upon the accession «f the symptoms 
indicating the commencement of the disease, the air which 
immediately surrounds the body, and which is inhaled in respi- 
ration, should be as cold as is consistent with comfortable feel- 
ing. Perhaps a temperature from forty to fifty degrees, will 
be most salutary. An approximation to this may always be 
effected by the patient remaining, in cold weather, in a room 
warmed ©nly by a small fire; and in the milder months, by a 



free exposure to the open air; in all cases carefully avoiding 
the chums winch operate in rendering the cold air injurious. 
The covering of the body, both day and night, should be as 
light as the external temperature will allow, and every thing 
taken in the stomach should be perfectly cold. By pursuing 
the refrigerating plan, the activity of the whole arterial sys- 
tem is diminished, the inflamed vessels are relieved from that 
redundancy of blood, and increased action, in which the dis- 
ease consists, and finally recover their wanted healthy tone 
without any morbid relaxation of their extremities. Where- 
as, the mode of treatment which admits of warm drinks, warm 
rooms, and warm air, when it operates in a manner the least 
dangerous, produces, by excessive excitement, such a relaxa- 
tion of the exhalents of the bronchice, as to admit of a secretion 
of mucus, or pus, which, though it relieve the topical inflam- 
mation, by what is called expectoration, either lavs the foun- 
dation for chronic catarrh, or terminates in consumption. 

Full vomiting, at the commencement of the complaint, will 
seldom fail to prevent its further progress. The operation 
of an emetic, besides its more immediate effVct in evacuating 
the contents of the stomach, produces such a universal com- 
motion in the system, as to excite ev^ry minute fibre into ao 
tion; and in this way it is that emetics prove salutary in the 
majority of complaints in which they are administered. They 
excite anew and powerful action, which expels or overbal- 
ances the pre-existing weaker one. Thus they arrest the pro- 
gress of fever, and thus, if administered at the accession of 
catarrh, they will prevent the occurrence of the, symptoms 
which would otherwise infallibly ensue. In three cases out of 
four, perhaps, if upon feeling a stuffing of the nose, dull pain 
in the head, sneezing, and other symptoms which mark the 
commencement of the complaint, a person has resolution to 
try the experiment, he will find a brisk emetic have the effect 
of completely restoring him to his natural feeling. Emetics 
will also prove beneficial, not only at the commencement, but 
at other periods of thu disease, particularly when the lungs 

arc oppressed with phlegm. 

38 



j86 ilu. 

In tlic treatment of this complaint, the indications whicii 
arise to be fulfilled, may be reduced to the following heads: — 
To reduce inflammatory action in the early stagt — to palliate 
urgent symptoms — and to diminish irritation in the protracted 
stage. 

When the disease is violent, aperient medicines, in conjunc- 
tion with Mood-letting id a larger or smaller quantity, should 
be resorted to, and repeated as the symptoms may require. 

Altho igb the occasional use of ap< rients is indispensable, 
and should be had recourse to early in the complaint; yet very 
active purging is often found more prejudicial than service- 
able, by diminishing expectoration. 1 he saline aperients, as 
cpsom Hi- glauber salts, in tm? form of the cathartic mixture. 
Dispensatory] have the advantage over others in febrile 
(lis "ases, being sedative and cooling. Those, however, who 
have an aversion to salts, may substitute any other opening 
medicine, as castor oil, rhubarb, sulphur* and cream of tartar, 
or senna and m anna. Hut the purgative which of all others 
is moa powerfully fcbrifuge is calomel, which may always bo 
administered with perfect safety, provided the patient guard 
properly against imprudent exposures to wet and cold at the 
time he is nm\cr its operation, and there is no peculiarity of 
temperament that militates against its use. When recourse 
is had to calomel, give it in the form of the aperient and dia- 
phoretic pills, [See Dispensatory] or conjoin therewith n few 
grains of ipecacuanha, or a small portion of tartar emetic; 
and in a few hours after swallowing the medicine, or, if it be 
taken at bed-time, on the next morning give a small dose of 
cpom salts or castor oil. 

In catarrh, the means which nature occasionally takes for 
its removal, or, in other words, the symptoms which mark its 
critical or spontaneous termination, are, principally, a copi- 
ous and equable flow of sweat, an increased secretion of mu- 
cus from the membrane of the trachea and bronchia, the pro- 
duction of a diarrhaea; and hence, an indication for the use 
uf diaphoretic a, expectorants, and laxatives. Therefore, with 
the view of regulating and promoting the salutary efforts e! 



COLD. 287 

nature, it is advisable, (luring the interval of purging, if the 
skm remains obstinately dry, and there exists a general fever- 
ish disposition, to give the saline mixture, in the state of ef- 
fervescence spirit of Minder* rus, the febrifuge mixture or 
drops, Dover's, antimonia!, or febrifuge powders, [See Dispen- 
satory'] or infusion of seucra root in their usual doses, with 
diluting liquors; as flaxseed, balm or ground ivy teas, weak 
wine whey, barley water, &c. in order to produce a detei mi- 
nation to (he surface. 

When the cold chiefly occupies the head, it has b^eri ad- 
vised, to suffer the whole head to remain, for a considerable 
time, in contact with the sleani of water, as hot as the patient 
can bear. And t!><s is to be done in the following manner: — 
While the patient sits up in bed, a vessel containing two or 
three quarts of water- may be placed immediately under and 
before his f«ee, 1« tting it r^st on his la]), and a piece of flan- 
nel or thin blanket being put over the head, and extending 
under and around the p*n; this will keep the steam in contact 
with the fare. neck, and head, and at the same time, will admit 
suhVient air for respiration. In cases of great ; stuffing up of 
the nose, and difficulty of breathing through the nostrils, this 
practice has frequently had the effect of removing tln-se symp- 
toms in the course of a few hours; but it is seldom successful, 
where there is considerable pain and oppression at the fore- 
part of the head, in consequence of some inflammation occupy- 
ing the cavities communicating with the nostrils. In such 
cases, a pinch of snuff, united with cayenne pepper, has afford- 
ed some relief. But where the pain is extremely severe, the pa- 
tient will experience most relief from a blister applied to the 
back of the neck, or to one or both temples. 

When the mucus membrane of the nose is much affected, it 
should be washed frequently with a thick mucilage of gum- 
arabic, or pith of sassafras, [See Materia Jledica] or smeared, 
from time to time, with a little tallow, thorn-apple, or simple 
ointment. [See Dispensatory.] 

An inflammation of the throat, producing soreness and dif- 
ficulty of swallowing, is an occasional symptom of this com- 



288 cold. 

plaint; and where it is slight, it will readily be mnovcd by 
taking Hit" nitre lozenges, [See Dispensatory] or small portion! 
of uitrt*- in the mouth, and Swallowing them as the\ slowly 
dissolve. Where it is of a more severe nature, the application 
of onions to the feet, [See Materia .Medira] or the remedies ad- 
vised under the head ol sore throat must be resorted to. 

In ease of pain or oppression at the breast, alter the inilam- 
maiory action of the system is pretty well subdued, the appli- 
cation of a blister as near as possible to the affected part 
should not be omitted. 

The most prominent symptom of col ! is cough, which being 
uniformly present, and often very distressing, is usually that 
to which the patient directs the chief part of his attention. — 
The medicines to be resorted to for the purpose of alleviating 
Sough, and producing expectoration, are mucilagenous and 
sheathing drinks, as flaxseed tea, bailey water, &c, or taking, 
now and then, a table spoonful of the flaxseed syrup, or a tea 
spoonful of eq lal parts ol sweet oil and honey, or a mixture 
composed of one part oil, ami two of honey 01 syrup, or some 
of the more .simple pectoral mixtures. [See Dispensatory.'] 
After the inflammatory symptoms have abated, the pectoral 
mixtures combined with laudanum or paregoric, [See Dispen- 
satory] will afford the greatest relief; and where tin patient's 
rest is particularly disturbed in the night, an opiate at bed 
time will be highly necessary, but it should be combined with 
some diaphoretic, as in the form of the anodyne sudorific bolus 
or draught, [See Dispensatory] or by giving two parts of 
paregoric with one of antimonial wine in some warm tea. 

Barley, hoarhound, and sugar candies, liquorice, and vari- 
ous syrups of indigenous simples, arc universally employed 
for the purpose of allaying the tickling which produces cough. 
The effect of all remedies of this kind, is to smear over the 
glottis or fauces, and, by thus sheathing them, rendering 
them less susceptible to the irritation. As they have the ad- 
vantage of being innocent, and are usually found to afford a 
temporary relief, they may, in every case, be resorted to with 
advantage, as palliatives. 



cold; QS& 

Whenever a roW, cither in consequence of its severity, or 
from its having been neglected in the first instance, runs out 
to a considerable length, it is usually kept up by a suite of 
»\m\Ae irritation of the part, which supervenes upon (lie disap- 
pearance of the inflammation, and becomes as it were habitual, 
exciting the vessels to an increased secretion of mucins and 
producing cough by sympathy with the larynx. In this pro- 
tracted stage of the complaint, when tlie, cough and spitting 
alone remain, it is absolutely necessary that the patient should 
carefully guard against all unnecessary exposure to cold, 
and to defend particularly the breast anil feet; and when 
obliged to go into an air of low temperature, to increase !::s 
clothing, and bold a thin pocket handkerchief before his mouth 
and nose. The vessels are in a state of relaxation or debility, 
when the cough is long protracted, and the consequence of 
any unusual application of cold is very generally a suppres- 
sion of their excretions, and a subsequent renewal of the 
inflammatory afFertion. And it is in this way that colds are 
often kept up for months, until thoy degenerate into a perma- 
nently morbid state of the lungs. In such cases the nitric lac 
ammoniac, [See Vi'.pcnsatorij'] in doses of a table-spoonful in 
a cup of flaxseed tea, or sweetened water, every four hours, 
to adidts, will be found a most valuable remedy. Benefit will 
also be derived from wearing a burgundy pitch, or some warm 
adhesive plaster, upon the breast, or between the shoulders. 

Should these means prove ineffectual, one or two grains oi* 
calomel, with double the quantity of powdered squills, taken 
by an adult at bed-time, and continued until a ptyalism is 
produced; and afterwards the nitric lac ammoniac, adminis- 
tered as above directed, may be depended upon. 

Another remedy which has succeeded in this state of the 
disease, is the tincture of digitalis, in doses of ten drops, three 
times a day, to adults, and its efficacy will be increased, by 
using tin 1 vapor bath. 

Inhaling the vapor of hot water is a remedy which has 
rong been in use, in all inflammatory complaints of the chest; 



>LV. 

However, upon the first commencement of catarrh, it has had 
the effect of rendering the subsequent symptoms more s>^ 
hut at a more advanced period of the complain'* ' r tends pow- 
erfully to arrest its progress, by increasing the secretion from 
the glands and vessels of the part, and thereby diminishing 
their inflammatory action. The vapor has been found most 
efficacious when impregnated with vinegar or camphor, or in 
fusions from emollient herbs. The inhaler, invented by Dr. 
Mudge, of rmglanl. is well adapted to render the process per 
ler.tly convenient for children. But a common funnel will 

i a very good succedaneum for the inhaler, when this can- 
not be conveniently procured, th<> broad part being inverted 
aver a vessel containing the water, and the steam bring 

veil by the mouth applied to the small em!. Should a fun- 
nel not be at hand, a tea or coffee pot, may be substituted, and 

operation continued from a quarter to a half hour. In 
this manner the vapor bath may be received twice or thrice 
a day, carefully avoiding sudden exposure to the external cold 
air. According to Dr. Mudge, a tea-spoonful of paregoric, 
taken at bed-time, in some warm liquid, and the use of the 
warm vapor arising from simple .water, through his machine, 
will be sufficient to cure a catarrhous cough in a night's time. 
An unpleasant and not unfrequent sequel of this complaint, 
s a hoarseness or diminution of voice, depending upon a state 
of the muscles, subservient to speech, approaching to palsy. 
This is generally of a temporary nature, though it has been 

vn to continue for several months* In such cases the 
infusion of seneka-root, with one-fourth of honey, has been 
♦nnployed in doses of a table-spoonful every two or three 
hours, and at the same time some of it used as a gargle, with 
the most happy effects. Jt has also been readily cured by 
aking a tea-spoonful of the syrup of horseradish every hour 
or two; or by retaining in the mouth a piece of this root, or 
oy gargling the throat frequently with an infusion of red pep- 
per, mustard seed, or horseradish. This symptom has been 
know* to he instantly removed by means of eleGtricity, and. 



GUL]*». 

aiso oy inspiring oxygen, or pure air. It is of importance, i 
tin* patient be in a debilitated state, to invigorate his constitu- 
tion by nutritions diet, regular exercise, and removing to a 
more salubrious air. A popular writer of considerable celeb- 
rity, Br, White, states a case in which not on)) a loss of 
voice, but a partial palsy of the muscles of deglutition, producing 
an imperfect, and, at times, a total incapacity of swallowing, 
ensued upon the disappearance of a severe catarrh, attended 
with sore throat; and which did not go off for the space of a 
month. In this case, the patient was in the habit previous to 
an attempt of deglutition, to suffer a tea-spoonful of brandy to 
pass over the affected parts; after which, she immediately 
became capable of swallowing with ease, but again lost the 
power of doing so, after the effect of the stimulous had worn 
off. 

Should hoarseness occur in the inflammatory or early stage - 
of the disease; inhaling watery vapors, bleeding, cold water, 
and demulcents constitute the proper remedies. 

Although the attendant symptoms of cold, in its incipient 
stage, seldom amount to such a degree of urgency as to 
demand the antiphlogistic mode of treatment in its more 
active forms; yet, if it be aggravated or rendered frequent in 
its return, by neglect or imprudence, it becomes a malady 
which not only combats, but often defeats the skill of the most 
experienced physician. And it should be remembered, when- 
ever the cough is frequent, the fever considerable, and the 
breathing intercepted by transient pains or tightness of the 
chest; unless the most powerful means, as bleeding, purging 
and blistering, with diluting drinks, be early employed, inflam- 
mation of the lungs will succeed, which, if not speedily 
removed, will inevitably terminate in consumption. 

I have how presented to my readers, in a manner familiar 
to every capacity, the most approved plan of cure of this de- 
structive complaint. Should it be adopted in the domestic 
management of colds, T shall not have wholly failed in my 
earnest endeavors to lessen some ef the dreadful fl!s: for, of 



all the diseases incident to the human species, there is noj 
fi*cqiient i;> its occurrence — none which excites so little atten- 
tion — and none, perhaps, when neglected, is so often followed 

by fatal consequences, as that under the name of cold ,>r cough. 
It is the rock upon which the health and lives of thousands 
have been wrecked. 

The frequency of this disease, from the sudden changes of 
weather to which our climate is subject, and the Blight degree 
ol alarm generally excited by what is called "only catching a 
cold" too often occasions that neglect, which gives rise to the 
most distressing maladies, such as quinsy, pleurisy, inflamma- 
tion of the lungs, rheumatism, &C 

Fully satisfied that numbers fall victims to the supposed 
insignificance of this insiduous enemy, L have thought it my 
duly thus to warn the inattentive. 

Rbgimek. A rigid attention to diet, is not to be looked 
for at the occurrence cf rvery slight attack of cold; but when 
the disease rises to such a degree as to produce a state of 
general febrile indisposition, it will be absolutely necessary 
for the patient to abstain from every tiling of a stimulating 
iro. He should confine his diet to light things, of easy 
tion, as arrow-root, sago, tapioca, rice-milk, custards, 
jellies, fruits, &c. ftc. Where the symptoms are so trifling 
as not to render an abstinence, from animal food requisite, 
those means of a more digestible nature should be chosen; and 
if the patient has been accustomed to the use of spirituous 
liquors, he should substitute for them, porter, cider, or wine, 
diluted with water. Every thing which either stimulates the 
glottis and fauces in deglutition, or pr v s indigestible alter 
being received in the stomach, invariably increases the cough, 
anfj consequently is injurious. 

Prevention. To guard against this disease* the utmost 

ntion should be paid to a due regulation of the clothing. 

which ought to be neither too thin, nor so irregularly disposed. 



COLD. 295 

to leave one part of the body naked, whilst the rest is 
burthened, and too warmly clad; an error frequently commit- 
ted among children and young persons. Warm rooms and. 
impure air may weaken the body, but warm clothing can 
never he injurious in cold weather. The use of flannel can- 1 
not he too highly recommended as a preventive of this dis- 
ease; and if an objection should be made to wearing it next 
to the skin, on account of the irritation it occasions, it may 
be worn over the linen. 

But while thus careful to guard against the morbid influ- 
ence of cold, by accommodating our dress to the weather, we 
should be equally cautious not to run into the opposite extreme. 
Too much clothing produces a delicacy of frame that dis- 
poses no less to disease, than an imprudent disregard of neces- 
sary covering. 

There are two parts of the body more especially liable to 
receive the ill impressions of cold, and communicate them to 
tho rest — the feet and the chest, and with the delicate and 
susceptible, if fashion govern in all other respects, these at 
least should he defended with the utmost care. 

Whenever the whole or part of the body has been exposed 
to the long-continued action, or otherwise to the sedative 
influence of cold, it is said to be chilled, or in other*words, it 
falls in a state of atony, in consequence of the reduction of its 
nervous energy, and is thereby deprived of the faculty of 
duly supporting its natural heat. This state occurring uni- 
versally, and to a great extent, usually proves destructive to 
life. When local or general in a less degree, it proves the 
exciting cause to various diseases of the active kind, deter- 
mined in their seat by the particular predisposition of the per- 
son: the weakest part, of the body invariably receiving the 
noxious impression, however generally applied. Thus those 
whose pulmonary system is weak and irritable, will have 
catarrh, or inflammation of the lungs; others, whose muscular 
fibres are most susceptible, will be attacked with rheumatism* 
an those addicted to drunkenness, will, perhaps, be afl!ic v d 
with an inflammation of the liver; and so of various other in- 
flammatory affections. Colds, however, are by far the most 
frequent, which, perhaps, may be accounted lor, in a grea^ 

39 



•1294 



l OLD. 



measure, from the luiiirs being so particularly exposed to all 
the Minnies of atmospherical temperature. 

A person not particularly liable to catarrh, would proba- 
bly seldom feel ill effects from being (lulled In an exposu to 
the cold air, if lie were careful to restore the natural warmth 
of the bod) by degrees; hut if, during the presence of that- 
ttncomfortable state of feeling, produced by the diminished 
temperature, he either suddenly come into a warm room, or 
drink of warm stimulating liquids, he will seldom escape with 
impunity. 

It should be remembered that when any part of the body has 
been exposed to cold, it is liable to be much more affected by 
heat, than before the exposure. Of this, the method of treat- 
ins: frozen limbs in cole countries, affords a beautiful and 
decisive proof. Were a frozen limb to be brought before the 
i , or immersed in warm water, a violent inflammation 
v i come on, and speedily terminate in mortification. 
The} therefore rub the parts benumbed with snow, and then 
very gradually expose them to a warm temperament. 

Hence it will evidently appear, that strong drinks, both be- 
fore and after exposure to severe cold, must be highly danger- 
ous; and it should always be remembered, that when the body 
has been either chilled or much heated, it must be brought 
back to its natural state by degrees. 

The common prudence of shunning, when heated, a torrent 
of cold air from the crevice of a door or window, or throwing 
off the clothing immediately after taking exercise, are so 
obvious, as not to be requited to be enlarged upon. Putting on 
wet; clothes, or lying in dam]) sheets, or sitting in wetted 
rooms, are also so well known to be injurious, that it is hardly 
necessary to admonish people against such obvious improprie- 
ties. 

The operation of moisture in producing catarrh, appears 
to act in the same way as cold, by proving a sedative. The 
£eet being most liable to receive the impressions of damp, as 
they are of cold, one of the most frequent causes of catarrh 
ting them wet; to guard against which, is of importance 
to thos liable to the com 'taint: and when a person has been 
exposed to the. wet weather, the clothes should be changed as 



COLD. 

soon as possible, after wiping the body and extremities with 
a cloth wetted in spirits, to which a little table salt lias been 

added. 

The predisposing causes of catarrh are, 1st. Original pecu- 
liarity of constitution; secondly, an acquired morbid irrita- 
bility of the pulmonary system; thirdly, a morbid delicacy of 
frame, induced by enervating indigencies, or weakening oc- 
cupations; or occasional and accidental debility. The exciting 
causes are those, which, when applied to the body, under a 
state of predisposition, excite disease into action. 

It is worthy of remark, that however predisposed to dis- 
ease the constitution may be, by carefully guarding against 
the causes which more immediately produce it, its dreaded 
incursions may usually be prevented, and health may often be 
preserved to old age. The importance, therefore, of avoiding 
the exciting causes of a disease, so insiduous in its nature, 
.cannot be too strongly insisted upon, more particularly in the 
ca.iy periods ol life, and in constitutions peculiarly obnoxious 
to its attacks. 

Some persons are so susceptible of cold, as to be unable to 
endure the least change of temperature, without having a vio- 
lent fit of sneezing, coughing, and other symptoms of incipi- 
ent catarrh. And these will recur so frequently, and of so 
temporary a nature, as to justify the expression, that they arc 
seldom free from cold. The means of obviating this suscepti- 
bility is, by gradually and cautiously inuring the habit to the 
impressions of cold, by accommodating dress to season and 
personal feeling, and when changes from cold to heat, or the 
contrary, are unavoidable, in guarding against the transition 
being sudden and immediate. 

Nothing so much contributes to enervate the powers of the 
human frame, as an excess of artificial heat. The ruinous 
effect of this indulgence is, that our health and comfort are 
destroyed by the frequent recurrence of some one or other of 
those disorders, which have their origin in cold. Debilitated 
by the perpetual stimulus of heat, we become sensible to 
every, even the slightest, variation of atmospherical temper- 
ature. Few, indeed, of tins refinements of modern luxury 



296* ( 0\ OH. 

are moro prejudicial to health, by rendering tho body suscep- 
tible of cold, than the living in rooms heated by stoves or 
enoi'mous fires. Lei those who have at heart the preservation 
ol' their health, and the vigor of whose frames is as yet entire, 
carefully avoid making this effeminate indulgence necessary 
to their comfort. Lei them, by gradually training themselves 
to bear the impressions of cold, endeavor to ind ice that en- 
viable s'ate <>!' hardiness, that will enable them to b ave, with 
impunity, the vie ssitudes of the atmosphere of our climate. 
It is in the p#wer of every one, to render the apartments they 
Occupy, conl and airy; and there are none, perhaps, who have 
it not in V<c'v power, more or less, frequently, during the 
day, to breathe the open air without doors. In endeavoring* 
however, to habituate the system to two degrees of tempera- 
ture, one caution is of the most essential importance to be at- 
tended to, namely: never to remain inactive, either in the open 
air, »r in cool apartments, long enough to induce a continued 
and unpleasan sensation ol* actual eold. This, in all cases, 
would effectually counteract the design proposed; and by fre- 
quent repetition, would, in all probability, ultimately be suffi- 
cient to injure the strongest constitution. 

fly attention to these precautions, those inflammatory dis- 
eases, for which cold only prepares the system, may be easily 
avoided. 



COUGH 

Is produced by the violent, and for the most part, involun- 
tary motion of the muscles of respiration. It proceeds from 
various causes, and is therefore as variously to be treated. 

The seat of every cough is generally in the breast, and the 
principle parts diseased, are the wind-pipe, and the ramifica- 
tions, which are irritated by inflammation, obstruction, or 
foreign bodies introduced; but the morbid irritation may be in 
the adjacent part, as the diaphram, the stomach, the pleura. 
the oesophagus, the liver, &c. Thus, coughs attend pleuri- 
sies, wounds about the neck, inflammation of the liver, acrid 
matter in the stomach, or in the duodenum. Spasmodic di 1 - - 



COUUH. 297 

orders are often attended uith a cough, the lungs suffering, 
dither by consent tioru the source of the spasm, or becoming 
in their turn, the seat of that which produced the spasm in 
snim distant part. The most frequent cause, however, is 
suppressed perspi ration. 

Coughs are generally at first, dr\; but at last, expectora- 
tion conies on, and a hectic fever is the consequence. It 
sometimes happens, however, that a cough continues during 
along life, wit out inconvenience; and though it does not 
lead to consumption, induces at last, asthma, or dropsy of the 
breast. 

bo far as coughs are connected with the state of the lungs, 
they have already been considered under the head of cold, and 
Will be further noticed in treating of consumption, so that we 
shall here chiefly notice the symptomatic coughs. 

The cure of the symptomatic coughs depends upon the re- 
moval of the original disease; hence, ihe absolute necessity in 
all chronic coughs, of investigating the cause before we can 
expect to find the appropriate remedy. 

Sometimes, coughs have their origin in the stomach, af- 
fccting the lungs by sympathy, in which case, recourse must 
he had to emetics, aperients, stimulants, ami tonics, with the 
view of cleansing and strengthening the organ primarily af- 
fected. 

Should the liver be the seat of the disease, calomel in small 
doses, together with the. nitric lac ammoniac, [See Dispensd- 
tory] constitute the best remedies. 

It is very evident that coughs more frequently arise from 
hepatic affections than is generally suspected. The coughs 
of those who have long resided in warm climates, very gener- 
ally proceed from a diseased liver. And we are fully per- 
suaded those cases of hectics which have been cured by sali- 
vation, originated from scirrhus of that viscus. 

Women, in the last months of pregnancy, arc sometimes 
afflicted with a troublesome cough, but which will readily 
yield to small bleedings, at the same time keeping the bowels 
in a soluble state, and avoiding food indigestible and of a flat- 
ulent nature. 



298 on. 

"With children, a dough is occasionally produced by teeth' 

ins;, as we!.' as by worms; n both of which (uses, it i.s to be 
cured by sorb medicine* as an adapted to those complaints. 
Coughs which attend the dyspeptic, chlorotic, and hys- 
teric habits, arc styled neromu. In ibis, as in other convul- 
sions, increased irritability, with a less evident stimulus, or 
sometimes with a stimulus which escapes observation, in- 
duces a violent degree of the complaint It is supposed, 
cough of this kind proceeds from repelled eruption, gout, or 
tbe translation of some disease to the lungs. In such cases 
much benefit will be derived from the warm and vapor bath, 
and when the secretion of the chest is greatly lessened and 
debility aloue remains, we must endeavor to give tone to the 
system, by substituting the cold for the warm bath; by ad- 
ministering the cold infusion or decoction of bark; by tran- 
quility of mind; by moderate exercise, together with a nour- 
ishing and generous diet. It is necessary, however, to observe 
in having recourse to the cold bath, should the patient led 
chilly and uncomfortable, instead of feeling a universal glow 
over the system and being invigorated, it must not be repeated 
until tbe visceral obstructions are removed. Neither will it 
he proper to continue the use of tbe bark or any other tonic 
if it be found to check expectoration, or produce a difficulty 
of breathing. In several instances of unconquerable coughs 
of this kind, which have come under my notice, calomel, 
united with squills, or given alone in small doses to produce 
ptyalism, has effected a cure. Tbe operation of calomel in 
the cure of obstinate coughs is, by producing a determination 
to the liver, and thus, by an increased secretion from that or- 
£an, securing more the vital parts and relieving those affect- 
ed; and by exciting a new and general action in tho arterial 
system, which shall transcend or supersede the existing mor- 
bid action. 

When the cough is kept up entirely by irritation, arising 
from an increased secretion of mucus, under a weakened state 
of tbe lung 1 -, a dose of paregoric at bed-time, will prove ex- 
ceedingly beneficial; so the occasional use of some of the 



OOUOH. 29Q 

peftftraJ mixtures. [See Dispensatory.) In thia state where 
inflammatory action lias totally ceased, some of the balsamic 
medicines may also be employed with safety and advantage, 
and of these the tola is the most valuable. It is a very grateful 
medicine, in consequence of its fragrant smell, and having a 
warm sweetish taste. The dose of the tincture or sirup to 
adults is a tea spoonful, in some mucilage or sirup, three 
or four times a day. Dr. Hill's balsam of honey is nothing 
more than the tincture of tolu sweetened with honey. Tar 
united with bark, and formed in pills, have been administered 
in doses of six or eight three times a day, with very good 
effects. In like manner tar water, taken to the quantity of a 
quart daily, has been found useful in coughs of long contin- 
uance. 

In coughs of aged people, or in all cases wheretthe lungs 
are heavily oppressed, and expectoration difficult, gum am- 
moniac in doses of ten or fifteen grains dissolved in mint 
water or ginger tea, or administered in the shape of pills, or, 
which is preferable, given in the form of the nitric lac ammo- 
niac, [See Dispensatory] will not fail to produce expectoration 
and abate the distressing fatigue of cough. 

From the variety of causes which produce coughs, it must 
be evident, the mode of treatment should vary, and here we 
would earnestly entreat every one who values the preservation 
of health, never to trust for the cure of any complaint, more 
especially affections of this kind, to patent medicines. Let it 
ho impressed upon their minds, that most of these advertised, 
as infallible remedies for the cure of coLte and coughs, are 
either perfectly inert, or really hurtful. And even supposing 
the medicine employed to possess the virtues ascribed to it, 
by the proprietor, can it be applicable to all the various forms 
and stages of the complaint, for which it is recommended? 
If in one state of a disease, judiciously administered, it prove 
a successful remedy, in another it must of consequence be in 
the highest degree injurious. [See Preliminary Obsei-vationsQ 

By resorting to medicines of this description they frequently 
tot slip the favorable opportunity, when, by more rational 



300 DPIDBMK . 

means their Tier 1 tT i might have been easily restored, and th 

plainl thus gaining ground* under the use of an ineffectual 
remedy, will oft6n become inveterate in its nature* and set all 
human skill at defiance. 

Mow lamentable it is that An many valuable lives are yearly 
sacrificed hy persisting in tbe use of quack medicines. 

It is to the credulity ot the lower class of society, that they 
are most liable to be taken in by the infamous venders of 
poison, since they very generally prefer tbe use of a patent 
medicine to tbe advice of a practitioner. But bow astonishing 
it is to find this fatal prepossession extend further; for wc 
have frequently observed persons of higher order, and w bo it 
was expected would have had better understanding, persist in 
their use, and become a sacrifice to tbe delusion. 



EPIDEMIC. 

The attention of the medical gentlemen of our country, 
w drawn to a disease, which, during the three last winters, 
pervaded every *lale in the Union, and in most of them, ac- 
o the statements of the physicians, assumed every 
va' ; ape, and •••'quired no little diversity of treatment. 

In some places, tbe lancet was us'd freely; and in others, re- 
medies h»gl v Btitnulant were administered. In spite, how- 
ever, n! the vi rv different practice pursued, the disease con- 
ti • d its ravages, which, in many places, resembled those of 
the plague, sweeping w ifcle families into tbe grave. 

Extreme dehility appears to have been the characteristic 
re >f the disease, for all accounts agree, that «n whatever 
form it commenced, there ensued a great, and sometimes, a 
v< rv u en pr stration of strength. 

This alarming pestilence did not appear in tbe city of 
"W. shington, until the winter of the vear, 1815, and even then, 

not s .; ,.|\ s any other nla^cs. Most of the 

cases which I saw, resembled very much tbe bilious pleurisy 



EPIDEMIC. 3QJ 

ol oup country. They commenced with chill antl fever, ac- 
companied with pain « n the si(,e a,ul chest, with a dry skin 
and rather laborious respiration. JJut the cough was by no 
means so frequent and distressing, as in pleurisy orpcripneu- 
mony. The eyes were wild and red, and the countenance 
uniformly indicated great anxiety and distress. In some in- 
stances the throat ami head were very much affected. The 
pulse was full, though soft and readily compressible* indeed 
it sometimes indicated so much action that a practitioner not 
conversant with its peculiarity of type, would be very apt to 
treat the complaint as an inflammatory affection. This coun- 
terfeit character, however, did not continue long, for in a 
very short period it assumed the typhoid form. 

Of the causes of the disease little has been ascertained. In 
common with other epidemics, its origin is involved in obscu- 
rity. As yet, we know only that it commences in cold weather, 
and is generally dissipated by the warmth of spring. 

In the treatment of those cases which came under my care, 
I generally commeneed with an emetic, and if this had no ef- 
fect on the bowels, it was followed by a dose of salts, or an 
infusion of salts, senna and manna. During the operation of 
the cathartic, I sometimes found it necessary to support the 
patient, by having wine added to the gruel with which the 
medicine was to be worked offo 

As the cure of this formidable disease depended principally 
on exciting perspiration, I lost no time after the operation 
of the medicine, in having sudorifics administered; and of this 
class, I found nothing superior to the Seneka and Virginia 
snake-root. [See Materia Medicq.] In the insipient stage of 
this disease, I directed a strong decoction of the former to be 
taken in doses of a tea cup full every hour or two, and as the 
disease advanced, or the pulse began to sink, the latter was 
administered in the same manner. In addition to this, mulled 
wine or cider highly spiced, or hot toddy, was given very 
freely in those cases which indicated great prostration ofpo 
er. It was also my uniform practice, to have a blister apf 



30* hiku.\c\. 

cd as speedily as possible on the breast or side, over the pan. 
M part. If the head were most affected, the blister was put 
between the shoulders: and when the throat was complained 
of, a cataplasm of mustard or garlic [Set Materia Jfedica] was 
applied around the neck. Flannels, wrung out of hot spirits, 
in which, mustard-seed or red pepper had been steeped, wePi 
constantly applied to the extremities, and assisted greatly in 
producing the desired effect. 

As the disease advanced, bark, (unjoined with Virginia 
snake-root, proved a useful auxiliary in facilitating the cure. 

Dr. Cutbush pursued a very similar plan, in the treatment 
of his patients, with the same fortunate result. 

Many other practitioners bear testimony in favor of this 
mode of practice. The ingenious and learned professor 
Chapman, in his very interesting lecture on this epidemic 
which 1 had the pleasure of hearing, stated, that, in no in- 
stance, did any patient die under his care, after perspiration 
was induced. It was his practice also, to combine with the 
diaphoretics, the most cordial stimulants; and of this class of 
remedies, he spoke highly of volatile alkali, in frequent and 

large doses. 

As malignant as this disease was, it appeared to pay some 
respect to persons. For the rich, or rather those who lived 
generously, were seldom attacked with it; while the poor, and 
the intemperate, in those places where its ravages were most 
destructive, hardly ever escaped. 



PHRENSY, 

OR INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN. 

Symtoms. A deep seated headache redness of the eyes and 

face, violent throbbing or pulsation in the arteries of tin 

nd tempfes, incapability of bearing light or noise, a consent 

ate: ins- or delirium, with picking the bed-clothes. The 

dse, although sometimes languid, is generally hard, tense, 



PHRENSY. $03 

and strong. The mind chiefly runs upon such subjects as 
have before made a deep iinpr ssion upon it, and sometimes, 
from a sudden silence, the patient becomes, all of a sudden, 
delirious and quite outrageous. 

An approaching phrensy is announced by intense continual 
wati hings; or, if the patient sleeps, his sleep is interrupted 
and troubled: he starts, and is affected with terrible dreams, 
soon forgetting what is said. if, at any time, he returns an 
answer to a question, his fierceness and anger seem to be in- 
creased; a pain is constantly felt in the back part of the head, 
and, as the disorder increases, the eyes become more fixed and 
red, tears at the same time flowing from them. The tongue 
is dry, rough, and of a yellow or black colour, the face o a 
deep red, and the pulse small, quick, and hard. 

Phrensy is distinguished from mania, by the sudden attack, 
the violent fever, pain in the head, and an evident exciting 
cause; and from that species of delirium which occurs in low 
fevers, unaccompanied with inflammation, by the appearance 
of the countenance and eyes; for, in True phrensy, the features 
are rather enlarged than shrunk, and the eyes protuberate and 
sparkle; whereas, in the delirium supervening to low fever, the 
face is pallid, the features are shrunk, and the eyes pearly. 

Causes. Exposure of the head to the scorching rays ot 
the sun; to deep and long continued thinking; excessive drink- 
ing; suppression of usual evacuations; concussion of the brain* 
and whatever may increase the afflux of blood to the head. 

Treatment. Blood-letting is the "anchor of hope 9 * in 
this disease, which should be employed copiously on its first 
attack, and repeated as the symptoms and strength of the 
patient will permit. Immediately after bleeding, a dose of 
calomel, followed by a large dose of salts, or some cooling 
purge must be given. Ice pounded and put into a bladder, or 
folds of cloth wet with vinegar or cold water, should constantly 
be applied to the head and temples; and if the symptoms 



304 MIRHJfBY. 

prove obstinate the head ought instantly to he shaved, and thu 
whole of thv' scalp covered with a blister. When the pulse 
has been reduced hy blood -letting from the arm, f the pain 
in the head continue severe, let cups or leeches he forthwith 
applied to the temples, forehead, and hack of the head. 

Bathing the feet and legs in warm water, or wrapping 
them up in flannel wrung out of hot water, is also of great 
service, by producing a revulsion of blood from the head. 
"With the same view sinapisms should be employed. 

Our of the antiroonialor camphorated powders [See Dispen- 
satory] given every two hours, or large portions of nitre dis- 
solved into the patient's drink, will he useful. 

If the disease he occasioned by a sudden stoppage of evacu- 
ations, every means to restore them must be tried. In all 
inflammatory affectiolfe of the head, a copious discharge 
from the intestines will be found highly beneficial, hy diver- 
ting the humors from the head; and when we cannot employ 
purgatives, laxative clysters should he used. 

To assist also in diminishing the determination of the blood 
to the head, the patient should he kept as near the erect pos- 
ture as can easily be borne. 

In symptomatic phrensy, particular attention should be paid 
to the primary disease which has given rise to it, and the 
treatment ought to be varied according to the nature and 
progress of the disorder which h;'s occasioned it. In its early 
or inflammatory stage, copious bleeding will be necessary;, 
hut if it has been of some continuance, drawing blood from 
the temples, by means of leeches, or cupping with scarifica- 
tions will be preferable. The application of a blister to the 
neck or between the shoulders is not to be omitted, as it is well 
adapted, by keeping up a steady discharge, to lessen the 
accumulation. When the accumulation is removed, its efT ct, 
unsteadiness of mind, often continues. This is sometimes 
supposed to be owing to remaining inflammation, and the 
violent evacuations are with little discrimination employed; a 
plan which increases instead of mitigating the disease; for it 



PHRBNSV. -30^' 

depen.de on <he too great previous excitement. We have 
found no mode of conduct particularly serviceable, except 
absolute rest of mind, with moderate exercise of body. The 
camphor, bark with valerian, and some other medicines of 
this tribe, with cold bathing, and gentle alvine evacuations, 
seem occasionally to have contributed to the relief; but from 
time alone a cure may be expected. 

Regimen. The diet should be of the lightest kind, as- 
ripe fruits, with dilutent drinks, such as cold water, tamarinds 
and water, &c. freely used. The patient to be kept in a dark 
room, as cold and quiet as possible, avoiding all irritating 
causes, and breathing a current of fresh air.* 

*It was of this disease, generally termed a stroke of the sun, that 
the brave General Greene, an officer second only to Washington, 
died at Mulberry Grove, his country seat near Savannah. A true 
Republican, he delighted in exercise, particularly that of gardening, 
of which he was so fond as sometimes to continue it under the meri- 
dian blaze. It was in this garden that the last summons found him. 
His honorable friend, E. Telfair, Esq. had often cautioned him 
against imprudent exposure to the Georgia suns: but believing that 
he possessed the same nerves that sustained him in the hot field of 
Monmouth, he still pursued his favorite exercise: but while busily 
adorning the soil which his own valor had so gloriously defended, a 
sun-beam pierced his brain, and in a short time translated to heaven 
as noble a spirit as ever fought under the Standard of Liberty. 

*h\ 1818, the medical community lost, by this inexorable disease, 
John Syng Dorsey, M. D who, by his acquirements and peifor- 
mances, had attained to very great distinction, as a physician and 
teacher. Having been adjunct professor of Surgery, with his venera- 
ble uncle, Dr Physic, in the medical school of Philadelphia, and filled 
with great brilliancy the chair of Materia Medica, he was unanimously 
elected to the chair of anatomy, as successor of professor VVistat; 
and, but a few days before his lamented death, had delivered, with 
great eclat, his introductory lecture to his intended course. The chair, 
to which he had been promoted, was long filled by Dr. Shippen and 
I)r VVistar; with what success and popularity, need not here be par- 
ticularised. The generous and benevolent Shippen has always been 
accounted one of the fathers, and Wistar not the least magnificent 
pillar of that Scientific Edifice, which has contributed a full share of 
glory to our nation. — The immediate predecessor of Dr Dorsey, was 
admired, not only for his professional cmahties, but for his charming 
social virtues, and uniformly dignified, and polished hospitality. His 
house was wide open as the benevolence of his heart; and his daily 
aompanies comprised the learned of our country, and the enlightened 
visitors from Europe. On his death, he le ( 't vacant the chair of anatomy 
io the University of Pennsylvania, and the presidency of the Ameri- 



QUINSY, 

OH INFLAMMATORY SORE THRQAT. 

Symptoms. Is distinguished by ;i sense of heat, pain ami 
tiglltness in the fauces and throat, acco npanied by a difficulty 
of swallowing, particularly fluids. In general, the inflamma- 
tion begins in one tonsil, a gland on each side of the palate, 
then spreads across the palate, and then seizes the other ton- 
si;. When the inflammation possesses both s lies, the pain 
becomes vV>rj severe, am! swallowing is performed with 
extreme difficulty; but if it attack the upper part of the wine 
pipe, it creates great danger of suffocation. 

Causes. Cold, wet feet, throwing off the neckcloth, or 
drinking cold water when overheated. 

Trkatment. The same rules are to be observed, in this 
as in all cases of disease highly inflammatory, such as bleed- 
ing, purging, and other cooling means. The extent to which 
these are to he used, can only be ascertained by the violence 
of the disease and the constitution of the patient; but from the 
danger of this complaint, they should be early and freely cm- 
ployed, particularly if there exist any fever. 

Local applications have also their good effects, and in slight 
cases, are often sufficient to remove the inflammation. Re- 

(van Philosophical Society. To the former, Dr. Dorsey, one of his 
favorite pupils and hourly Companions, was unanimously elected, and 
carried with him the confident expectation of every one, that it would 
not only be reputably sustained, but adorned by his various ge 
attainments, and popular eloquence. To say nothing of the great dis- 
appointment which his veiy sudden death created in the University, 
extending alike to the trustees, faculty, and students, we should have 
left more than enough to fill up this passing tribute of a friend, in the 
recollections of the infinitely varied attractions of n private character. 
He was manly and generous; kind and benevolent; honorable and 
faithful; gay and go- d-natared; instruct ive and entertaining; and died, 
il like him, deeplv and universally regreted. 



INFLAMMATORY SORE THROAT. 307 

ceiving the steams of warm water, or vinegar and water, 
through a funnel or spout of a tea-pot, will give great relief. 
Much benefit may be derived from the use of gargles, com- 
mencing wit . the common, and after the inflammation is con- 
siderably abated, using the astringent gargle. [See Dispensa- 
tory.] At this stage of the disease gargles of port wine, or 
brandy and water, answer every purpose, to restore the tone 
of tie fibres, relaxed from overdistension. 

External applications are, ikewise, of great use. In slight 
cases it will be sufficient to have the neck rubbed twice or 
thrice a day with the volatile or camphorated liniment, [See 
Dispensatory] and a piece of flannel applied. The embroca- 
tion will be rendered still more stimulating by adding a small 
portion of the tincture of cantharides. But in those cases 
where the inflammation is considerable, the early application of 
leeches, or a blister or cataplasm o: mustard around the neck, 
is most to he relied on; which, by exciting external inflamma- 
tion, will lessen the internal. Onions [See Meteria Medico] 
arc also excellent when applied externally in this disease. 

In addition to those remedies, the antimonial mixture or 
dec > rion of rattlesnake root, [See Materia Medico] given in 
sue', doses as will excite pcrspi ariun, is much to be depended 
on, when the inflammatory symptoms run high, and before 
the febrile symptoms are any way violent, the timely exhibi- 
tion of an emetic often proves extremely useful, and somc- 
ti s checks its complete formation. 

Should these means prove ineffectual, and there appears a 
tend ncy to suppuration, it ought to be promoted by frequent- 
ly I •!, ,ng inro the fauces the steams of warm water, or apply- 
ing wa<'m poultices to the neck. As soon as a whitish tumor 
with fluctuation of matter is discovered, it should be opened 
by the lancet, and then the detergent gargle [See Dispensatory] 
should be used. If in consequence of the largeness of the 
tumor the patient cannot d ;,<1 must be supported by 

nourishing clysters of broth, gruel, or milk. 



"SOS NSY, OR 

If persons', as soon as they discover any uneasiness in the 
throat, were to use the nitrous lozenges, [See Dispensatm 
orsmal portions of nitre as recommended under the head of 
cold: bathe tdeirfeet in warm water; apply flannels moistened 
with one of the above linimentsj and keep comfortably warm, 
this disease would seldom proceed to a great height. 

Regimen. With respect to the regimen, it must he of the 
cooling kind, except the application of cold. Barley/ or rice 
water, flaxseed tea, and such like, rendered agreeable to the 
palate by the addition of jelly or honey, should be often taken, 
although difficult to swallow: for the pain consequent on swal- 
lowing is more owing to the action of the inflamed parts, by 
which deglutition is performed, than by the passage of the 
liquid which is swallowed. 

Prevention. For the prevention of this disease, the 
directions should be adverted to, which have been given under 
the head of cold. Where it becomes habitual, an issue behind 
the neck does often succeed in preventing its recurrence.* 

•Well knowing how deep an interest the world always takes in 
great mn;, I trust it will not prove unacceptable to my countrymen, to 
learn that the above malady, the Quinsy , was the messenger whereby 
God was pleased to introduce into his own presence, the soul of that 
purest of human beings, George Washington. 

On the afternoon of the 13th December, 1799, riding out to one of 
his farms, he was caught in a driving rain, which, soon turning into a 
snow storm deposited a considerable quantity of snow betwixt his era 
vat and neck Long accustomed to brave the inclemencies of weather, 
he paid no regard to this circumstance; but having brushed off the 
snow on his return, he supped and went to bed, as usual. Some time 
befove day, he was awakened with the sore throat, and difficult breath- 
ing, which constitute quinsy. A faithful domestic, who always carried 
a lancet, was called up and bled him, but without affording any relief. 
About day break, my near relative and honored preceptor, Doctor 
James Craik. of Alexandria, the inseparable friend and physician 
of Washington, was sent for, who reached Mount Vernon about 
ten o'clock. Alarmed at the general's symptoms, he communicated 
his fears to Mrs. Washington, who immediately despatched ser- 
vants for Doctors Dick and Brown Noching was omitted that human 
ingenuity and skill could do for a life so dear, but all in vain. It ap- 
peared in the result, as the illustrious sufferer previously declared, 
fiat his hour zvas come. 



PUTRID SORE THROAT. 

This is a contagious disease, and appears more generally 
in autumn, after a hot summer. It oftener attacks children, 
and persons of relaxed habits, than those of vigorous health. 

Symptoms. It generally comes on with a sense of giddi- 
ness, such as precedes fainting, and a chilliness or shivering 
like that of an ague fit, soon followed by a great heat, inter- 
changeably succeeding each other dur ng some hours, till, at 
length, the heat becomes constant and intense. The patient 
then complains of an acute pain in the head, of heat and sore- 
ness in the throat, stiffness of the neck, anxiety and nausea, 
with vomiting and delirium. On examining the mouth and 
throat, the uvula and tonsils appear swelled, and are of a deep 
red, or shining crimson color; soon after covered with white 
or ash-colored spots, which, in a short time, become ulcerat- 
ed. The. pain in swallowing is slight, in proportion to the de- 
gree of inflammation. The patient often complains of an of- 
fensive putrid smell, affecting the throat and nostrils, some- 
times occasioning nausea, before any ulcerations appear. On 
the third day, or thereabouts, a scarlet eruption is generally 
thrown out on the skin; first, on the face and neck, and then, 
over the whole body and extremities. 

From the first attack of the complaint, there is considerable 
fever, with a small, frequent, and irregular pulse; and every 
evening, there appears a manifest exacerbation, and in the 
morning some slight remission, together with a debility and 
general loss of strength. 

In slighter kinds, the course is not very different from that 

To oblige Mrs. Washington, he continued to take medicines 
offered him, till the inflammation and swelling obstructed the power of 
swallowing; when he undressed himself and went to bed, as he said, 
"to die." About half an hour before he died, he desired his friends 
to leave him, that he might spend his last moments ivith Goo. Thus, 
after filling up life with glorious toils, he went to rest, "in a good old 
age ladened with riches aud honor." 

"Let the poor witling argue all he can, 
"It is religion still that makes the mail." 
41 



,U» PUTRID SORE ; HROAT. 

of the inflammatory species, though seemingly' slight* with 
alternate < .i.iis and heals, pain in the head, &c. till tne debility 
appears, wh»n every other had symptom immediately folio? 
Every Bon throat should, therefore, he carefully examined. 

The putrid sore throat sometimes attends on measles which 
are pf a mat gnarn nature. 

In a (list ase winch runs its course generally in less than 
five, always m seven days, no prognostic is to he depended 
o\v, but a more florid appearance in the throat, and a more 
healthy aspect of the edges of the sores. 

Causes. The same which give rise to the nervous or pu- 
trid fever, as bad air, damaged provisions, &c. &c. 

Treatment. The indications of cure are similar to those 
of the nervous or malignant f ver, as it is analogous in some 
essential circumstances to that disease: to which we must add 
the healing of the ulcers. 

Therefore, on the first attack of the putrid sore throat, an 
emetic may be given, w ich may he repeated on the next day, 
and followed by a mild cathartic. Afterwards it will be 
necessary to recruit the patient with hark and wine, or milk 

toddy. 

The ulcers in the throat demand early and constant atten- 
tion, as a loss of substance here cannot but threaten much 
danger to We, or injury to the parts, if the patient should 
survive: hence the use of gargles must be obvious to every 
one. When the disease is of a mild aspect, the common and 
astringent gargles, [See Dispensatory] frequently used, are 
often sufficient: but when the symptoms are urgent, the ten- 
dency to putrefaction great, the sloughs large, and the breath 
offensive, the detergent gargle must immediately be resorted 
to. Independently of gargling the throat, it is essential that 
some of the same liquid be injected into the fauces, with a 
small syringe. 

In young subjects, this method is the more necessary, as 
they do not know how to manage a gargle to any purpose, 
did the soreness of the parts permit them to do it. 






tfUTRU) SORE THROAT. 31 1 

When the tlirout is painful, the application of a piece of 
flannel moistened with the volatile liniment spirits of camphor, 
or tincture of red p pper, to excite a slight degree of inflam- 
mation externally will be attended with good effect But 
blisters, from the prevailing disposition to putrefaction, must 
be carefully avoided. 

According to Di: Curri*, the affusion of cold water is also 
beneficial in tins disease. It was his practice, after a copious 
affusion, to have his patient wiped dry and put into bed, and 
givi-n about eight ounces of wine, if an adult, and so in pro- 
portion to children; which plan it appears was very success- 
ful, for in fifty out of sixty-two cases, where he had adopted 
it at the commencement of the diseas* , lie. succeeded. 

Dr. Thomas states, that, when he was in the island of St. 
Christophers, in the year 1787, this dfoease prevailed a uni- 
versal epidemic among children, and a vasj number of them 
fell mnrlyrs to it, in spite of the utmost endeavors of the 
profession to save them; when at last the most happy effects 
wre derived from the use of a remedy, the basis of which* 
was cayenne pepper. The medicine was prepared by infu- 
sing two tablp spoonfuls of this pepper and a tea-spoonful of 
salt in half a pint of boiling water, adding thereto the same 
quantity of warm vinegar. After standing for about an 
hour, the liquor was strained through a fine cloth, and two 
table-spoonfuls were given every half hour. 

The speedy and good effects produced by the use of this 
medicine, in every case in which it was tried, evidently points 
out the utility of giving warm ar miatics, which will bring on 
a timely separation of the sloughs, as well as other antisep- 
tics, to correct the tendency in the parts to gangrene. Since 
the period above mentioned, many practitioners bear testimony 
in favor of caynne or red pepper, [See Materia Medical in the 
putrid sore throat. Pepper-corns constantly bitten and the 
saliva swallowed, have been highly useful. 

The grand objects to be kept in view, in this malignant dis- 
ease, should he, to check or counteract the septic tendency 
which prevails, to wash off, from time to time, the acrid mat- 



I'KID SOKE l HROAT. 

tor from the fauces, and lo obviate debility. With this m 
give bark in large doses every two hours in ginger tea, or a 
strong infusion of Virginia snake-root. These may be washed 
down with punch, milk toddy, porter or cider. It will be 
necessary also to make a liberal use of wine, which may he 
given to persons unaccustomed to it. from w»e to three quart! 
within twenty-four hours. Even sleep is less necessary than 
wine ami bulk, and should it continue above three hours. 
the patient must be awakened, for the loss ol time cannot be 
regained. The quantity of the wine and bark must be regu- 
lated by the effect. II we gain nothing in the fust thirty -six 
Hours, wc may depend on a fatal event; if we lose ground in 
twenty-four hours, our hop s will be inconsiderable. In 
addition to th.-se remedies we would earnestly recommend 
bathing the patient frequently in a strong decoction ol oak 
bark, with one fourth whiskey. This valuable remedy sho'ild 
always be resorted to with children, as it is often impractica- 
ble to prevail on them to take the bark in any form, it is also 
advisable with such patients to administer this decoction in a 
clyster; or use as an injection two drachms of Peruvian bark 
with a gill of thin gruel or barley water, which should be 
given every three or four hours to young children; and ahout 
half an ounce, in a proportionate quantity of the liquid to 
those of eight or ten years of age. Should the first clyster 
come away too soon, from five to twenty drops of laudanum 
may be added to the subsequent ones. 

Should any particular symptoms arise during its progress 
which may tend to aggravate it, such as vomiting, diarrhea, 
hemorrhage, or suppression of urine, the same remedies must 
be resorted to as advised under the head of JNervous Fever. 

Regimen*. Medicine will prove of little efficacy, if the 
animal powers be not supported by proper nourishment: the 
attendants must, therefore, constantly supply the patient with 
arrow root, sago, panado, gruel, N.c. to which may be added 
such wine as is most agreeable to the palate. 

Ripe fruits^are peculiarly proper, and fermented liquors, as 



I ALLING OF THE PALATE. 

cider, perry, &c. should constitute the chief part of the pa- 
tient's drink. But previous to taking any nourishment, gar- 
gles and injections should be very carefully employed; for 
cleansing away the sharp, acrid humor from the mouth and 
throat, to prevent as much as possible its being swallowed. 
The patient should be so placed in his bed, that the discharge 
may freely run out at the corners of the mouth, and great at- 
tention should also be paid to cleanliness. 

The feelings of a tender parent, who views the progress 
of the disease on a beloved child, cannot but excite our tender- 
est sympathy. Too often, from an ill-judged tenderness to 
the child, the parent will not suffer this dreadful disease to 
be checked by medicines. But it should be remembered, that 
although the pain is for a moment increased by these harsh, 
but necessary means, yet the quantity of pain must, on the 
whole, be much lessened, and besides, which is the sweetest 
consideration of all, a precious life thereby saved. 

Prevention. The same means as devised in the nervous 
fever, to correct infectious air, must strictly be attended to 
here, and especially with a view to prevent the progress of 
this disease* 



FALLING OF THE VALATF-. 

The falling down, or elongation of the palate, is attended 
with a sense of tickling in the fauces, and soreness at the 
roots of the tongue. 

Treatment. Avoid speaking, and gargle the throat with 
the astringent gargle, [.See Recipe 41] or when there, is little or 
no inflammation, apply salt and pepper by means of the han- 
dle of a spoon. 

If fever accompany this affection, b!ee' : and give cooling 
purgatives, using nothing but a vegetable diet. 



MUMPS. 

A contagious disease, affecting the glands and muscles oi 
the neck externally. 

Symptoms. Slight fever, which subsides upon the appear- 
ance of a tumor under the jaw, near its extremities: some- 
times only on our side, but more frequently on both. It in- 
creases till the fourth day, and then declines gradually. 

Treatment. This disorder is often so slight as to require 
vi-ry little more than to use a spare diet, and keep a laxative 
state of the bowels. If, however, there be much fever and 
pain in the head, it will be necessary, in addition to the above, 
to bleed, blister behind the neck, and lake freely of diluting 
drinks, as flaxseed tea, barley or rice water. 

It has been usual to keep the neck warm, but this is im- 
proper. It will be found, generally, those who have been 
most neglected, have been soonest restored to health. 

There is a singular peculiarity now and then attending 
this complaint; for sometimes the swelling ol the neck sub- 
sides, the test cles of the male, and breasts of the female, air 
affected with hard and painful tumors, and frequently when 
one or other of thes* 1 tumors has suddenly been repressed, a 
delirium of the milder sort occurs. In this event, bleed mo- 
derately, apply a blister between the shoulders, give a dose 
of calomel, and endeavor to reproduce the swelling by warm 
fomentations and stimulating liniments. 

When these tumors are painful, every precaution should be 
used to prevent suppuration from ensuing, by bleeding, ca- 
thartics, antimonial powders, r mixture, dilutent drinks, and 
by cooling and disrutient applications, as cloths wet with lead 
water [See Dispensatory'] and cold vinegar and water. It is 
necessary, also, that the swelled testicle should be supported 
by a suspensory bag. 



SORE EYES, 

A disease so well known as to render all description of h 
unnecessary. 

Causes. External violence done to the eye-lids, or to the 
eye itself; extraneous bodies under the eye lids, as particles 
of dust and sami — acrid fluids or vapors — exposure of the 
eyes to a strong light, and night watching, especially sewing, 
reading or writing by candle light. 

Inflammation of the eyes may also be the consequence of 
bad humors in the system, or may accompany other diseases 
of t lie eyes, and of the neighboring parts, such as the turning 
inward of the eye-lids, or styes growing on them. 

Treatment. When the disease is moderate, and the ex- 
citing cause no longer exists, the cure is perfectly easy, re- 
quiring little more than external application, such as washing 
the eyes frequently with warm milk and water, mixed with a 
little brandy, or using for a lotion, mucilage of sassafras, 
[See Materia Medica] simple rose water, or about eight grains 
of white vitriol dissolved in a gill of spring water. 

But in more severe affections, bleeding, blistering behind 
the ears, on the temples, or nape of the neck, with gentle pur- 
gatives and the cooling regimen, will be found eminently use- 
ful. The greatest benefit will also result from v soft linen 
bandages wet with cold water, applied to the eyes, and fre- 
quently renewed cntil the heat an d inflammation have sub- 
sided. Soon as this is affected, use the anodyne eyewater. 
[See Dispensatory] or two or three drops of laudanum drop- 
ped into the eye, or bathe the eyes in cold water, or brandy 
and water, to restore the tone of the parts. 

In all inflammations of the eyes from common causes, the 
remedies above specified will generally succeed; only we 
should be careful not to use any of the more stimulant appli- 



316 SORE El 

cations, til! the inflammation begins to abate of its violence, 
otherwise they will rather increase than subdue the malady. 

In obstinate cases, there is no remedy so effectual as a 
blister plaster immediately over the eye. For this very im- 
portant discovery, I am indebted to the adjunct Professor of 
Surgery, Dr. Dorsey, whom, on his own polite invitation, I 
accompanied to the hospital, where he showed me a case in 
point. A man, whose inveterate ophthalmia, after obstinately 
resisting all the usual applications, was completely cured by 
a single blister, about an inch and a half in circumference, 
employed in this novel way. 

When the pimples on the eye attend an inflammation and 
mrate, they should be opened with the point of a lancet, 
and washed with the solution of white vitriol. 

If the eye remains very weak after the inflammation abates, 
the best applications are the alum curd, [Sec Dispensatory] 
which may be spread thin on a rag, and applied over the eyes 
every night; and a solution of alum in the proportion of a 
drachm to half pint of water; to which may be added the 
white of one ce;^. Bathing the face and eyes every morning 
in the coldest water, will also be found excuedingly useful. 

Sometimes the edges of the eye-lids become swelled and 
ulcerated, and from the discharge puts on the appearance of 
fistula lachrymalis. When the disease is violent an adhesion 
of the eye to the upper lid sometimes takes place, which 
should be rarefully separated by raising the lid, and dissect- 
ing cautiously with a round-edged scalpel. In chronic affec- 
tions of this kind, the application of an ointment prepared by 
mixing a scruple or half a drachm of white vitriol with half 
an ounce of fresh hogs lard to the eye-lids, is sometimes alone 
successful; but when the disease is violent, the mercurial oint- 
ment is required to give a more active stimulus. If the ulcers 
are not cicatrized by these means, the solution of blue vitriol, 
in the proportion of fifteen grains to an ounce of water, will 
be useful. Each application must be made by means of a 
camel-hair pencil, and the ointment softened by a gentle heat- 



SORE EYES. 317 

When the ointments are used, tliey must be applied in the 
evening, and continue on the part all nig;it; the solution must 
be used two or three times a day, and the redundant fluid 
washed away with a syringe and a little cold water. Lauda- 
num may occasionally be employed. In the genrt'al conduct 
of all these remedies, they should excite on their application, 
a slight irritation, by which the puriform secretion is at first 
increased; but by degrees the edges of the eye-lid« become 
soft, the glands lessen, the internal surface of the palpebral 
become smooth, and of its usual paleness. 

Inflammations are sometimes followed by specks on the eye, 
which, if not early attended to, will obstruct the sight. They 
may be removed by daily blowing into the eye, through a 
quill, a little of the best loaf sugar, finely powdered. When this 
does not succeed, unite to the sugar an equal quantity of w :te 
vitriol or tutty, finely levigated, or blow calomel into the eye. 

When this disease is occasioned by morbid humors in the 
habit, as the scrophulous or venereal, we must use the remedies 
pointed out in the treatment of those complaints. I dirt or 
foreign matter be lodged in the eye, it maj soon be removed, 
by passing a small hair pencil between the eye-lids, and the 
ball of the eye. 

The defending of the eyes from the light hy confinement in, 
a dark* room, or wearing a piece of green silk over thnn, is 
a caution, which, though too obvious to be pointed out, is toa 
important to be omitted. 

Prevention. To persons liable to this complaint the fol- 
lowing instructions may be useful. When the eyes are weak, 
all painful and fatiguing exertion of them should he carefully 
avoided, such as looking at the sun, sewing or reading by 
candle light, or sitting in a smoky room. 

If there be well grounded suspicion that the inflammation 
of the eyes originates from the suppression of any of the 
customary evacuations, those evacuations should* as soon as 
possible, be restored; and until then, an issue or blister on the 
neck should be kept running, as a necessary substitute, 
13 



PLEURISY. 

Symptoms. Av acute pain of the side, which reaehw t» 
-the throat, iii some, to tks hack, and others to the shoulders, 
hut it. general, s s< at< d near tin fleshy purl of the brest, with 
a high fever, hard and quick pulse, difficulty of breathing, 
and a teaz ng con . tiin< v s moist, but most frequently 

dry. The scat of the inflammation, and consequently of the 
pain, may varj in different cases, ! nt this is not of much im- 
portance, as the same mode of treatment is required in inflam- 
mations of the viscera contained in the cavity of the chest, 
c membrane which invests them. 

Causes. The pleurisy, like other inflammatory disrases, 
proceeds from whatever obstructs the perspiration, as expos- 
ing tlie body to the cold an when overheated. It may like- 
wise be occasioned by whatever increases the circulation of 
the blood, as violent exercise, or an imprudent use of ardent 
spirits. 

Trkjttmbkt. In thecUre of pleurisy or inflammation of 
the viscera, our success d< pends on subduing the violent ac- 
tion of the vessels, by bleeding, blistering, and employing 
such remedies as are calculated to keep the bowels open, and 
to determine the fluids to the surface. 

Hence, at the onset of tins disease, a large bleeding is always 
necessary, succeeded by a dose of salts, senna and manna, 
castor oil, or some cooling purge, and so long as the blood 
exhibits a slzy crust on its Burface, when cool, and the vio- 
lence of the symptoms continue, the lancet should be used 
once or twice a-day, with this exception, that after a Iree ex- 
peclurat.oii has co I, it will be less necessary. 

A blisti r over the pained part, after the pulse has been re- 
duced by bleeding, is by no means to be omitted; and if the pain 
obstinate, wh run one side ceases to discharge 

freely, appjj other side. When blisters cannot 



PLEURISY. 31g 

foe obtained, some substitute must be resorted to, as a cata- 
plasm of mustard and vinegar. Warm cabbage leaves, or a 
bladder nearly filled with warm water, applied to the aflf< cted 
side, and repeated as often as it becomes cold, will sometimes 
afford a little relief. 

During this treatment, the patient should take freely of 
warm diluent drinks, as flaxseed, balm, or ground ivy t^as, 
barley or rire water, to which may be added a little of the 
juice of lemons. 

The decoction of pleurisy, or seneka or rattlesnake root, 
[See Materia Meuica] exhibited in doses of one or two table- 
spoonfuls every two or three hours, abates the febrile heat, 
and products expectoration. The antimonial powders or 
mixture, or camphorated powders [See Dispensatory.] also 
produce these beneficial effects. When these medicines are 
not at hand, portions of nitre dissolved in the patient's com- 
mon drink, and ipecacuanha exhibited in such doses as will 
kei-p up a nausea at the stomach, without vomiting, wili an- 
swer every purpose. 

Inhaling fhe steam of hot water from the spout of a tea- 
pot, or applying a large sponge dipped in warm vinegar, to 
the mouth and nostrils, will be beneficial. Flaxseed sirup 
[See Materia Medico] is a valuable medicine in this complaint, 
in allaying the cough, a symptom exceedingly distressing. 
When this is not convenient, make use of some of the pectoral 
mixtures, as advised under the head of cold. In the advanced 
stage of the disease, when the inflammatory symptoms are 
almost wholly abated, and the cough proves the chief cause 
of pain and loss of sleep, then opiates may be given with the 
greatest advantage. 

It should be observed in the exhibition of opiates, that if they 
be administered in the commencement of inflammatory. dis<- 
ease, before the necessary evacuations are made, they increase 
the inflammation, and consequently injure the patient; but if 
given near the close of such maladies they are of the greatest 
service, and complete the cure. When perspira-ion is ob- 
structed, they should be coupled with some emeti« drug, as 



520 PLEVRI8T. 

In tbe form of the anodyne sudorific draught or bolus, [AM 
cisut ..rii] but when tins is not t opium or lauda- 

num alone should be administered, and that in small doses, 
\\lis n tbe patient is much debilitated from previous evacuations. 
A half grain of op. urn, >r fifteen drops ol laudanum, or thirty 
fir i>s of paregoric, given about an hour before the evening 
exacerbation, alleviates the symptoms, and if repeated for a 
few evenings, gradually increasing the dose, ensures the cure. 

II the pulse sinks ami becomes languid, blister the extremi- 
ties, ;tnd give six or eight grains of volatile salts every three 
hours with inuiled wine. The bowels, in the course of the 
disease, must be kept moderately open, by emollient injection! 
or mild laxatives, as castor oil, or the cathartic mixture. 

The bastard pleurisy is often confouuded with true pleurisy. 
It consists of a rheumatic inflammation of the intercostal mus- 
cles, often of tbe other muscles, of the breast or abdomen. 
Tbe disease is distinguished by external soreness, and is re- 
lieved by bleeding, blistering and exhibiting the sencka-root 
in decoction. 

Regimen. In no disease is a strict abstinence more neces- 
sary than in this, since, in proportion to the nourishment taken, 
will be the increase of the blood, and consequently of fever. 
Nothing but diluent drinks, as toast and water, barley water, 
bran, or flaxseed tea, ought to b<' allowed, until the violence 
of the disease is subdued; and these liquids should be taken 
often, but in small quantities at a time and never cold. When 
-nourishment is required, the lighter kinds only should be used, 
as arrow root, sago, panado, &c. After recovery, great care 
must be taken to prevent a relapse; the. sparest diet should 
therefore be used; tbe inclemencies of the weather carefully 
guarded against; moderate exercise cmplojed, and the chest 
protected from the action of cold, by wearing flannel next to 
the skin. In this state of ronvahscencv , a prudent use of wine 
with bark or columbo, will assist digestion, and give tone to 
tire system generally. 



PERIPNEUMONIA 

OR INFLAMMATION OF THE LUNGS. 

Symptoms. Febrile affections, succeeded by difficulty of 
breathing, cough, and obtuse pain under the breast bone, 
or betwixt the shoulders, increasud on inspiration. A sense 
of fulness and tightness across the chest — great anxiety about 
the heart, restlessness, loss of appetite and sleep — the pulse 
quick, sometimes hard, and seldom strong, or regularly fill!: 
the breath hot, the tongue covered with a yellowish mucus* 
and the urine turbid. From the obstruction to the free pas- 
sage of blood through the lungs, the veins of the neck are 
distended, the face swollen, with dark red colour about the 
eyes and cheeks- The pain in the chest is generally aggra- 
vated by the patient lying on the side most affected, and very 
often he can lie only on his back. 

Causes. Cold, obstructing perspiration and thus produc- 
ing a morbid determination to the lungs, or violent efforts, by 
over-distension. 

Tteatment. Such is the delicate structure of the lungs-^ 
that they will not sustain inflammatory attacks many hours 
before their important functions are destroyed, or so much 
mischief produced, as to lay the foundation of consumption. 

The antiphlogistic plan, therefore, as advised in the pleu 
risy, for the resolution of the disease, should be put into im- 
mediate operation, and not by degrees, as is ofyen the case, 
by which many lives are lost, but should be ca. i : ied to the 
utmost extent, particularly the taking away of blood in con- 
siderable quantities from the arm. 

We would remark, however, although the evacuating plan 
is indispensably necessary in the early stage of the disease, 
yet it should not be continued too long, for the truly salutary 
discharge is by <»xpertorati n; and if the strength is too far 
reduced, this will be prevented. 



INFLAMMATION Oh' THE 

LIVER, 

Is of two kinds, the acute and chronic; and consequently, 
requires variation in the mode of treatment. 

Symptoms. The acute is marked by a pungent pain of 
the right side, rising to the top of the shoulder, something like 
that of the pleurisy, attended with considerable fever, difficult 
fty of breathing, dry rough, and often bilious Vomiting. 

Tlte chronic inflammation of the liver, is usually accompa- 
nied with a morbid complexion. The symptoms are some- 
times very obscure, and confined rather to the common marks 
of stomach complaints, as flatulence and frequent eructations* 
The appetite, in consequence, fails, and occasional uneasiness 
or pain is felt in the region of the liver extending to the right 
shoulder, the characteristic of the disease. An obscure fever 
prevails, which is generally worse at night, inducing larigor, 
want of sleep, and much oppression. The patient has gene- 
rally clay-coloured stools, and high-coloured urine, depositing 
a red sediment, and ropy mucus. In the progress of the ma- 
lady, the countenance, seems livid and sunk, and the eyes of a 
dull white or yellowish hue. I'ndcr these symptoms, the bo- 
dy becomes gradually emaciated, while, in the region of the 
liver, is felt a sense of fulness, with a slight swelling and dif- 
ficult breathing, attended with a hoarse, dry cough, particular- 
ly aggravated when the patient lies on the left side. 

As the disease advances, dropsical symptoms, accompanied 
with jaundice supervene, and under these complicated mala- 
dies, the sufferer sinks. Sometimes an ah cess opens exter- 
nally, which, if it do nottffecta cure, at least prolongs the 
life of the patient. 

Causes. Violent and repeated shocks from vomits — sud- 
den changes in the weather, but especially, cold nights aft 



•INFLAMMATION OP THE LIVER. 323 

Ytoy hot days sitting in a stream of air when overheated— 

drinking strong spirituous liquors, and using hot spicy ali- 
ment. 

Treatment. In this, as in all other cases of visceral in- 
flammation, the same means to take off inflammation, as ad- 
vised in the pleurisy, should be carefully observed. And as 
it is an object of the first importance, to prevent the forma- 
tion of matter, we should adopt these means as early as possi- 
ble, to produce resolution, the only salutary termination. — 
Scarcely any complaint requires such prompt and copious 
blood-letting, as acute inflammation of the liver. After the 
acute stage is over, we may consider the affection of a chro- 
nic nature, and the mode of treatment must be regulated ac- 
cordingly. 

In the chronic species of this disease, the cure depends 
principally upon mercury, which may be employed in the ear- 
ly stages of the complaint. The mercury may be introduced 
in the system, either by taking one or two of the mercurial 
pills, night and morning, or by rubbing as frequently on the 
part affected, the ointment about the size of a nutmeg, con- 
tinuing the one or the other, until a ptyalism is produced, or 
ihe disease is subdued. 

During this course, the use of the tonic powders, or pills, 
[See Dispensatory] or bark and snake-root, when febrile symp- 
toms have abated, will greatly hasten the cure. 

The nitric acid, with patients who are scorbutic, or much 
debilitated, is far preferable to the calomel, on account of its 
antiscorbutic and tonic powers. It should be given t » the ex- 
tent of one or two drachms daily, diluted with water, in the 
proportion of one drachm of the acid to a quart of water. At 
first, it ought to be given in small doses, ami frequently re- 
peated, and the dose gradually increased, as circumstances 
require. This medicine, like calomel, must be continued un- 
til the mouth becomes affected, the salivary glands enlarged, 
and their secretion increased: and when this takes place, the 



324 INFLAMMATION OP THE LIVER. 

disagreeable symptoms will bo removed, and the patient, from 
being debilitated, becomes bealthy, vigorous* and cheerful. 

My own experience of the efhYacy of the nitric acid in 
chronic affections of the liver, induces ine to spc^ik well of itj 
and I am happy to add, it was a favorite remedy of that cele- 
brated anatomist, and distinguished physician, professor 
AY istar, in this distressing disease, particularly when there 
wan an enlargement of the liver. 

Obstructions and indurations of the spleen, bear some re- 
semblance to a diseased liver, and are very prevalent in low, 
marshy and aguish situations. Their treatment consists in 
the use of the same means recommended for the cure of this 
disease. 

Regimen. The food should be easy of digestion, such as 
veal, lamb, fowls, or fresh beef. Watercresses, garlic, and 
other pungent vegetables are useful. A change of climate, 
and moderate exercise in the open air of the country, is both 
agreeable to the patient, and very salutary.* 

♦Of this formidable disease, died, on the 29th October, 1823, 
Charles Carroll, of Bellevue. Maryland This inestimable 
friend was ex< ensively known, and wherever known, was justly es- 
teemed for his intelligence and moral excellence. Whatever of man- 
ly grace and virtue belongs to the human character, shone conspicu- 
ously in him An affectionate husband and a kind parent, a generous 
friend aihI a polished gentleman; he stood among Ins fellows, a bright 
example of what a man should be. His philanthrophy prompted him 
to devote a considerable portion of his fortune, which was, at onetime 
ample, to the alleviation of the distresses of his fellow men. In more 
than one instance, as the author is able to testify, individuals owed 
much of their prosperity and happiness in life to his unsought bounty. 
Soon after the late war, Mr. C. removed from this city, where he had 
resided several years, to Oenncssee, New York. Early in the year 
1822, he was induced to accept an office under the government of the 
United States, in Missouri. In that state, he contracted the disease, 
which, eighteen months afterwards, terminated fatally; and there, 
too, by a calamitous coincidence, Henry Carroll, [.formerly p,.j_ 
vate secretary to Mr. Clay, while minister at Ghent ) met with an un- 
timely and violent death. The memory of Mr. Carroll's worth is 
det plv engraven on the hearts of all who knew him, and his name 
will, hereafter, stand high in the annals of virtue and benevolence. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE 

STOMACH. 

Symptoms. Acute pain in the stomach, always increased 
upon swallowing even the mildest drinks. Inexpressible anx- 
iety, great internal heat, something like heart-burn, constant 
retching to vomit — and, as the disease advances, the pulse be- 
comes quick and intermitting — frequent hiccoughs, coldness 
of the extremities, and the patient is soon cut off. 

Causes. Arrid or hard and indigestible substances, strong 
emetics, or corrosive poisons taken into the stomach, or 
drinking extreme cold liquors, while the body is in a heated 
state. It may also be occasioned by external injury. 

Treatment. Unless the inflammation can be resolved inr 
the very beginning, it rapidly terminates in a mortification. 

Therefore, a violent pain in the region of the stomach, with 
sickness and fever, should always be very seriously attended 
to. Copious and repeated bleedings, not regarding the small- 
ness of the pulse, are absolutely necessary, and is almost the 
only thing that can be depended on. In no inflammation is 
the immediate use of the warm bath so necessary as in this, 
which attacks at once the "throne" of life. If a better bath- 
ing vessel cannot be had, a barrel or half hogshead, filled with 
warm water, about blood heat, will do. Let the patient be 
instantly put in it, covering the top with a blanket. Keep 
him in as long as he can bear it, and when taken out and 
wiped dry with warm cloths, he should immediately have a 
large blister or cataplasm over the stomach. The bowels 
must be kept open by the nipdest clysters, as water gruel, or 
weak broth, with the addition of a little salt petre, and sweet 
oil or sugar. These injections answer the purpose of inter- 
nal fomentations, and also nourish the patient, who is often 
inable to retain any food, or even drink, upon his stomach. 

*«* On the preceding page, the reade'- is requested to supply an 
omission which occurred m the notice o* Mr. Carroll. In the 5th line 
Mom the bottom, after the word •'coincidence," read, his tniiiablc anil 
■rrc cm/, lis he d a o n , ifr . 
VI 



INFLAMMATION OF *HE LNTESTIft 

The cry thematic inflammation of toe stomach often arise 
in putrid diseases, and cornea on insidiously. It <s evident, 
by the inflammation appearing on the internal surface of ili« 
mouth. When, therefore, an inflammation of this kind affects 
the mouth and fauces in the bilious, typhus, or puerperal fe- 
vers, with a frequent vomiting, and an unusual sensibility in 
fchc stomach, we may suspect that the same affection extends 
downward. In such cases, or when the state of inflammation 
is approaching to gangrene, spirits of turpentine, in doses of 
a tea-spoonful, given alone or in a little water, upon the high 
authority of professor Chapman, will arrest the disease. — 
This medicine is to be repeated, more or less frequently, ac- 
cording to the urgency of the symptoms. When the disease 
is a little alleviated, the infusion of bark, with a lew drops of 
any mineral acid, is borne with case, and is highly beneficial. 

Hegimen. When the stomach will admit of nourishment, 
only that of thp lightest kind should be allowed; barley wa- 
ter, and mucilage, of gum-arabic, moderately warm, are tin 
most suitable drinks. Every thing of a heating and irritat- 
ing nature, must be carefully avoided for some time after the 
attack. 

INFLAMMATION OF THE 

INTESTINES. 

Symptoms. Tension of the belly — obstinate costiveness — 
great internal pain — external soreness, especially about the 
navel, and so severe as scarcely to bear the slightest touch- 
great debility — hard, small, and quick pulse. 

Causes. The same, generally, that induce the preceding 
disease. It may also be the sequel of other diseases, as rup- 
ture, colic, dysentery, worms, &c. 

Treatment. Whatever may b<* the cause, we must en- 
deavor to bring about, as quick as possible, resolution, lest 






INFLAMMATION OF »HE KIDNEYS. 327 



mollification be the consequence. The treatment of inflam- 
mation of the stomach will also be proper here, as copious 
bleedings, emollient clysters, frequently repeated, the warm 
bath, and immediately afterwards, a blister on the belly. — 
Cupping on the belly is also useful. 

Such is the nature of this complaint, that we cannot be too 
cautious in the administration of medicines or diluents by the 
mouth. But the frequent use of emollient injections will, in 
great treasure, supersede their necessity, anci at the same time, 
act as fomentations to the parts. Fresh olive-oil, in the dose 
of a table-spoonful, is perhaps the only medicine that can be 
admitted with safety. When the violence of the disease shall 
have considerably abated, we may venture to give some ape- 
rient medicine by the mouth, as castor oil, not rancid, calo- 
mel, or cathartic mixture. 

In this stage of the disease, laudanum may be employed 
with great advantage, particularly by way of injection. 

When the disease is combined with spasmodic colie, the 
application of cold to the abdomen, either by means of pound- 
ed ice, cloths wetted with very cold water, or cold water dash- 
/ ed from a pail immediately over the belly, has sometimes suc- 

ceeded, when all other means have failed, in removing the ob- 
struction; producing an increased action of the intestines, from 
sympathy with the external parts. 

Regimen. After the disease is subdued, the diet should 
he, for some time, of the lightest kind, and not flatulent. — 
The patient must be kept quiet, avoiding cold, severe exercise, 
and all irritating causes. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE 

KIDNEYS. 

Acute pain and heat in the small of the back — great numb- 
ness along the thigh, and not unfrequently, a retraction of one 



328 INFLAMMATION OF TIIK lUDNWf*. 

of the testicles — retching to vomit — voiding the urine in small 
quantities, sometimes very pale, and other tunes, of high red 
colour, attended with febrile affections. The patient gene- 
ral^ feels gnat uneasiness when lie endeavors to walk or sit 
upright, and lies with most ease on the affected side. 

Causes. Excessive exertions, external injuries, violent 
strains, exposure to cold when heated, and calculous concre- 
tion in the kidneys. 

Treatment. Bleed copiously, keep the bowels open 
With castor oil and emollient clusters, use the warm hath, or 
foment the part with a hot decoction of camomile or hitter 
herbs, or hot water alone; give, mucilaginous and diluting li- 
quors, as flaxseed tea, barley water, and thin gruel, with the, 
camphorated powders, [Sec Dispensatory] or small portions of 
nitre. A decoction of peach leaves [See Materia Medico] is 
also ben lit ial in this complaint. Flannel wetted with spirits, 
and hartshorn, or tincture of Spanish flies, may be applied to 
the small of the hack, for the purpose of exciting some degree 
of inflammation of the external parts. After the inflamma- 
tion has somewhat abated, the exhibition of laudanum in its 
csual quantities, either by mouth or clysters, will add con- 
eiderably to the cure. This disease is often removed by a 
moderate ptyalism. 

If the disease have been treated improperly, or neglected at 
the onset, and a suppuration take place, known by a discharge 
of matter with the urine, use uva ursi, [See Materia Medical 
or balsam capiva, twice or thrice a-day, for a week or two, 
and afterwards, take bark or steel. 

Regimen. The diet should consist of the most mucilagi- 
nous substances, as arrow root, sago, milk, buttermilk, cu.s 
tards, flaxseed tea, barley, or rice water, &c. In the con- 
valescent state, moderate exercise in the open air is of great 
service* 



INFLAMMATION OF THE 

BLADDER. 

Symptoms. Acute pain at the bottom of the belly, whicAi 
is much increased by pressure — a frequent desire for, and dif- 
ficulty in making water, and frequent efforts to go to stool,, 
attended with febrile affections. 

Causes. Calculous concretions, suppression of urine from 
obstruction in the urethra, Spanish flies taken iuternaliy, or 
applied to the akin, wounds, bruises, he. 

Treatment. It must be treated as the preceding disease^ 
excepting that, where there is an entire retention of urine, the 
patient should drink no more than absolutely necessary. Gum- 
arabic kept in the mouth will sheath the inflamed parts without 
adding to the quantity of urine. If necessary, the catheter 
must be introduced, though much care is required in the at- 
tempt, which often fails. After using tne warm hath, a cata- 
plasm of mustard and vinegar applied to the pcrinceum or some 
rubefacient, to excite external inflammation, will be attended 
with good effects. 

The lovers of wine and cider should remember that those 
beverages, however pleasant and exhilarating, have a tenden- 
cy to aggravate all diseases of the kidneys and bladder, espe- 
cially when they originate from an acrid state of the fluids. 



HEADACH. 

If a foul stomach be the cause, give an emetic, after whicL, 
take columbo three times a-day. If from a plethoric habit, 
which is known by a heaviness of the head, and flushed face, 
bleed and give opening medicines. If from rheumatism, ap- 
ply a blister to the back part of the neck, or between the 
saoo!dcrs v ; and at bed-time^ bathe the feet in warm water, and 



iu-:vi>\( it. 

take the anodyne sudorific draught [See Dispensatory.] t[ 

from a weak habit, and where the pain returns at stated peri- 
ods, as in cases of interraittents, and confined on one side of 
the head, as over an eye, the cure will generally depend upon 
the free use of bark and snakeroot, or the solution of arsenic, 
twice or thrice a-d ay, which seldom fails, especially if preced- 
ed by a brisk purge. In this, as well as other periodical 
pains, laudanum exhibited in a pretty large dose an hour or 
two before the expected fit, will often prevent its coining on. 
./Ether externally applied over the pain on a piece of linen, 
with a warm hand to confine it, will afford immediate relief in 
headache attended with cold skin. Cayenne pepper mixed 
with snuff, by irritating the membranes of the nostrils, has al- 
so given much relief in cold or nervous headachs. 

It is not unfrequont that the partial or nervous headach, as 
it is termed, is produced from a decayed tooth, which, on dis- 
covery, should instantly be extracted. 

Symptomatic headach is a disease of so many organs, that 
it is diflicult to ascertain the organ primarily affected. But 
when the real nature of the complaint is ascertained, the 
practice to be pursued, will, of course, be obvious. Where 
the causes arc beyond our reach, the disease may be mitigated 
at least by some of the remedies wc have pointed out, such as 
paying attention to the state of th« bowels, blistering, and 
keeping up a determination to the surface. 

The sympathy between the head and the stomach has been 
already noticed. It is the subject of such constant experience, 
that to enlarge on it would be superfluous. Headach attends 
fever of almost every kind. Every obstruction in the bowels; 
every accumulation of sordos, or indigestible matter in the 
stomach produces the same disease; every obstruction to the 
regular evacuation of any gland, particularly those of the 
surface; every nervous affection, either from excessive ex- 
citability or exhaustion, lias a similar consequence. 

Repelled fluids from the surface produce very constantly a 
symptomatic headach. A cause of this kind is the repulsion 
of acrid matter from the surface, by the application of astrin- 
gent washes to cutaneous affections} by satiirine or mercurial 



JtfEADACH* 331 

applications as cosmetics, from which the head generally suf- 
fers, though the mischief is often more extensive, and apo- 
plexy or epileptic fits the frequent consequences. Repelled 
gout is a still more serious cause. 

We have not mentioned the mental causes, anxiety, fear, 
suspense and grief; for these seldom produce the complaint 
until the hody, or, in general, the stomach, is affected. The 
hcadach of students is often a nervous affection merely. — 
Whatever be the action of the nervous fibres in intellectual 
operations, its excess is often a cause of pain; though in many 
instances, the hcadach of students is connected with obstruc- 
tions of the bowels, and very often with increased determina- 
tion to the head. The hysteric headach partakes ol' this ner- 
vous cause, particularly, when the pain feels as if a nail was 
fixed in the brain. Are we then to be surprised at its fre- 
quent occurrence? Is it not wonderful that the head is ever 
free from pain? 

In the nervous headach, which occurs more frequently than 
is generally suspected, I have found no remedy so effectual as 
genuine wine. It may he given during the paroxysm, to per- 
sons unaccustomed to it, from a half pint to a quart, without 
producing any other than the pleasing effect of mitigating the 
pain. It is also the best preventive of all nervous diseases, 
when used regularly and in moderation. [See Vine. Materia 
Medico..] 

When headach is accompanied with a coldness of the ex- 
tremities, bathing the feet in warm water, rubbing them with 
flour of mustard or tincture of cayenne pepper, and keeping 
up a general circulation to the surface by flannel next the 
skin, will often afford immediate relief. And in cases of 
great determination to the forehead as indicated by a flushed 
face and preternatural heat, the application of cloths wrung 
out of cold vinegar and water to the head and temples will be 
attended with good effects. 

Those subject to this complaint, should bathe their head 
evoiy morning in cold water, avoid full meals, lift with their 
head high in bed; and always keep theft* feet warm, and the 
bowels in a regular state. 



EARACH, 

Eg frequently produced by living insects getting into the 
ear. Tin 1 most effectual way to destroy tbem is to blow in 
the smoke of tobacco, or pour in warm sweet oil. If occa- 
sioned by rold> inject warm milk and water in the ear, or 
drop in a little laudanum or volatile liniment If this pro- 
duce uot the desired effect, foment the ear with steam of warm 
water, and apply a bag of camomile flowers, infused in boil- 
ing water. a:id laid on often, as warm as can be borne. 

When the inflammation cannot be discussed, a poultice of 
broad and milk or roasted onions may be applied to the ear, 
and frequently renewed till the abscess breaks; after which, it 
must be syringed twice or thrice a day, with Castile soap and 
w^ter. In this complaint, a blister behind the ear is highly 
Qselul. 



DEAFNESS, 

Is occasioned by any thing injurious to the ear, as loud 
noise from the firing of cannon, violent colds, inflammation 
or ulceration of the membrane, hard wax, or by a debility or 
paralysis of the auditory nerves. It also frequently ensues 
in consequence of long protracted fever. 

Treatment. It is difficult to remove deafness, hut when 
it is owing to a debility of some part of the organ, or arises 
in consequence of any nervous affection, stimulants dropped 
into the ear , often prove salutary. 

jEtlier dropped into the ear, seems to possess a two-fold ef- 
fect, one of dissolving the indurated wax, and the other of 
stimulating the torpid organ; but it is liable to excite some de- 
gree of pain, unless it be freed from the sulphuric acid. No 
prescription for deafness from indurated wax ever acted more 
surprisingly — nrre, I am sure, more agrocably, to my feel- 
ings at least, than the following: 



TOOTHACH. 333 

In consequence of a violent attack of bilious fever, which 
degenerated into the nervous, my honorable friend, Colonel 
George M. Troup, of Georgia, was afflicted with a deafness 
for a year or two, so entire, that, in congress, when the mem- 
bers were on the floor, he was obliged to place himself close 
to the orator, and even then, frequently failed of the pleasure 
and profit ol hearing his reasonings. Suspecting indura'ed 
wax to be the cause of his deafness, I directed the cavities of 
both ears to be well syringed with warm and strong suds of 
Castile soap. This was done twice a day, the ears constantly 
filled in the interim with pellets of wool dipped in strong 
camphorated liniment, and sometimes plugs of camphor. In 
a few weeks, the nerves of hearing recovered their sensibili- 
ty, and, as the Colonel himself thought, more acutely, if pos- 
sible, than before. 

Salt water is a better menstruum for the wax, and may be 
employed, or some of the table salt finely powdered may be 
dropt in the car. There is reason, however, for apprehend- 
ing one bad effect from this remedy. v;z: giving «uch a sus- 
ceptibility to the organ, that it is more liable in future to be 
affected by cold, and therefore, this remedy must be employed 
with caution. 

Deafness in old people is sometimes attended with noise in 
the ears, and is then generally owing to debility. Every 
evacuation increases it, and warm tonics, with a generous 
diet, are the best remedies. 



TOOTHACH, 

Is best removed by extracting the tooth; but if this cannot 
be effected, fill the cavity with a little cotton dipped in the 
toothach drops, Turlington's balsam, or any of the essential 
oils, or with pills of camphor and opium. 

The, nerve may sometimes be destroyed by a hot iron or 
knitting needle. A carious tooth is sometimes pained by ac- 
cidental colds, and in such cases, it would not be prudent to 
14 



i34 looniAcn. 

have it extracted. If the, external aperture is smaller tlian the 
carious cavity, after clearing away the carious matter, the ac- 
cess of air may be impeded by stuffing of gold or silvt r leaf. 
When the nerve is accustomed to the external air, it will con- 
tinue carious for many years without pain, and be truly use- 
ful. 

When toothach is connected with rheumatism or gout, 
which sometimes happens, the remedies oi either should be 
employed. 

This unpitied, though often excruciating pain, is, in most 
cases, no more than the just punishment of our neglect 0' 
the teeth. Surely, then, we ought to take some care of them, 
though it were but for the pleasure of having them sound — 
But this care would he redoubled were we but daily to consi- 
der the advantage of good and clean teeth and sweet breath. 
Some women, indeed, are blessed with faces so nearly ang.-lic 
that not the blackest teeth can entirely defeat" their charms, 
nor the vilest breath drive away their lovers. But how dif- 
ferent would be the effect of both, if, through their ruby lips, 
opened with a smile, we were to see teeth of ivory, white as 
snow, pure as the fair owner's frame, and accompanied with 
breath as sweet as that of infancy. 

Prevention. To prevent the toothach, and to preserve 
the teeth and breath perfectly sound and sweet, the tooth brush 
dipped in warm water, and then in charcoal tooth-powder, 
[See Dispensatory] should be used constantly every morning. 
The charcoal powder, an invention of the celebrated Darwin, 
is good for whitening the teeth, and admirable in correcting 
bad breath. The tooth-pick and tumbler of pure water should 
never be forgotten after every meal. 

If the calcareous crust or tartar upon the teeth adheres 
firmly, a fine powder of pumice stone may be used occasion 
ally. When the gums are spongy, they should be frequently 
pricked with a lancet, and gently rubbed wth a powder com- 
posed of equal parts of Peruvian bark and charcoal. 

Young persons who wish to carry their teeth with them 



ItilEUMATISM. 



VoD 



through life, must take care never to sip their tea scalding hot, 
nor to drink water freezing cold. Such extremes not only 
injure tlie tender coals of the stomach, but often ruin the 
teeth, and have caused many imprudent persons to pass a 
sleepless night, distracted with pains of the teeth and jaws. 



RHEUMATISM. 

Symptoms. Wandering pains in the larger joints, and in 
the course of the. muscles connected with them, increased on 
motion, and generally worse towards night. When, with 
fever, it is called acute or inflammatory rheumatism, and 
chronic, without. 

Causes. Sudden changes of weather — application of cold 
to the body when overheated, wearing of wet clothes. 

Treatment. In the inflammatory rheumatism, large and 
repeated bleedings are necessary, as indicated by the fullness 
of the pulse, especially on the first days, and when there is 
much pain. With this should be combined a free use of dilu- 
ent drinks, as flaxseed or balm tea, bailey or rice water, with 
a little nitre dissolved in each draught, or the antimonial 
powders or mixture in small doses, to excite slight perspira- 
tion, which should be kept up with great care, as in this 
relaxed state of the skin, the disease is liable to recur upon 
the least application of cold. 

In this disease, a very essential discharge is the perspira- 
tion; and if this be not produced, every medicine appears in- 
jurious. Of the diaphoretics, Dover's powder seems best 
adapted to this complaint; and it should be observed, when 
sweating is once begun, should not be intermixed, and when 
it has relieved, should be suffered very gradually to decline. 

The foxglove, exhibited in doses from ten to twentv drops 
overy (bar horn's, will he found a remedy of considerable effi- 



336 RHEUMATISM. 

cacy, particularly when an objection is made to the free sse 
of the lancet. The hlood root \8u Materia .Mcdica,] is also 
a useful auxiliary in this disease. 

Bleeding and blistering over the part affected, when the 
pain and inflammation continue violent, have likewise their 
good effects. 

After the inflammatory symptoms have in a great measure 
subsided, the anodyne sudorific draught or bolus, \8et Dispen- 
sato r ij] or laudanum alone, may be administered at bed -time, 
with great advantage. 

During this general treatment, attention must be paid to 
the state of the bowels, which should be kept open by emollient 
i lysters or cooling medicines, as the cathartic mixture, or 
castor oil, exhibited in small and repeated doses. 

When the disease has fully attained its chronic state, it then 
forms a local affection, distinguished merely by stiffness, dis- 
tension, and considerable immobility in the joint. 

In this species of the disease, a different plan of cure must 
be followed. Large evacuations are to be avoided, and exter- 
nal stimulants of the warmest kind should be applied, as the 
oil of sassafras, spirits of turpentine, opodeldoc, or the tinc- 
ture of red pepper and mustard, and along with this, friction 
with a flesh brush or flannel over the afflicted joint is not to 
be omitted. If these means prove ineffectual to rouse the en- 
ergy of the part, add to an ounce or two of either of the above 
articles, one or two drachms of the tincture of Spanish flies* 
In addition to these remedies, the internal use of the rheu- 
matic tincture, [See Dispensatory] in doses of a table spoonful, 
twice or thrice a-day in a cup of tea, is much to be depended 
upon. 

When these remedies prove ineffectual, we may suspect 
that some peculiar fault exists in the habit, which must be 
corrected before a cure can b** expected. If the patient be 
much debilitated, «f a scorbutic habit, give him the nitric 
acid diluted, or bark freHy. \nd i the disease be in conse- 
quence of venereal taint, or taking cold from the use of mer- 



RHEUMATISM. 357 

cury, let him take calomel in small doses, or one of the mer- 
cui'ial pills night and morning until a ptyalism be produced. 
A strong decoction of sarsaparilla [.See Materia Medica] is 
also a useful auxiliary, and sometimes a remedy of itself. 

In some cases of obstinate rheumatism, I have witnessed 
the happiest effects from taking, for some time, a tea spoonful 
of flour of sulphur night and morning in milk or spirit and 
water. In others, again, I found nothing equal to the poke- 
berry bounce [See Materia Medica] in doses of a wine-glassful, 
morning, noon, and night. 

The cuckow pint, or wake robin [See Materia Medica] in 
the form of a conserve, with an equal part of sugar, is often 
highly useful. The seneka root and mczereron in the form of 
decoction, has also been exhibited with most happy effects. 
Another valuable medicine in chronic rheumatism is the spirits 
of turpentine, in doses from twenty to sixty drops three times 
a day, which may either be given on sugar, in a little water, 
or incorporated with double the quantify of honey, by melting 
them together over a gentle heat. But it should be observed 
these active stimu ants are never to be employed when there is 
the least febrile action prevailing in tin- system. 

The solution of arsenic has, in some instances, been exhi- 
bited with success in the chronic form of this complaint. 

Compressing the large arteries by means of a tourniquet or 
bandage, as mentioned under the head of intermittents, is 
another remedy which has been employed with advantage in 
severe rheumatic pains. 

In recent cases when the pain wanders from one part to the 
other, or whenever the joints are stiffened and rigid, and the 
pain upon motion severe, or where the muscles have become 
contracted, by the length and violence of the disorder, immers- 
ing the whole body in a warm bath, strongly impregnated 
witli salt, or applying it topically, by pouring warm water 
upon the limb from a kettle, or fomenting the part with a de- 
coction of mullein two or three times a day. will often, soothe 
Ihe pain, and prove a useful auxiliary to the other means we 
employ. 



338 KlIEl MATISM. 

Warm bathing, ami warm pumping, arc remedies of great 
utility in this disease*; but as it requires painful muscular ex- 
ertion to use the warm bath, it is not often resorted to. The 
vapor bath, from its superior temperature, is better adapted 
to its chronic form. 

Two other forms of rheumatism ought here to be men 
tinned, namely, the lumbago, and the sciatic. The first attacks 
the loins or lumbar region, with a must acute pain shouting to 
the joints of the thigh. This affection is ne irly related to the 
inflammatory rheumatism, and must he treated In the same 
mann r, <>niy instead of applying blisters over the affected 
pari, tiiey should be- applied on the inside of the thighs, and 
kept running for some time. 

The second, or sciatic, is a violent or fixed pain, attacking 
the hip joint, and partaking of the nature of the chronic 
rheumatism, is most successfully to be treated like that dis- 
ease. 

Regimen. In acute rheumatism, the patient must be kept 
on a cool spare diet; but no change whatever will be neces- 
sary in the patient's ordinary mode of living, in chronic rheu- 
matism. In this species, mustard and horse-radish [See Ma- 
teria Medico] used freely in their natural state, or united with 
food, will be found very beneficial. In all cases of both dis- 
eases, flannel, or fleecy hosiery, should be worn next to the 
skin, a flesh brush be used morning and night, and every pre 
caution be taken to guard against exposure to cold and wet, 
and also to a moist or damp atmosphere. If the appetite is 
impaired, stomachic bitters, elixir vitriol or some of the tonic 
medicines may be taken with advantage. Exercise, either of 
the whole body or of particular limbs, will be highly impor- 
tant. The want of exercise is apt to produce stiffness in the 
limbs. 

Prevention. Cold bathing, and the use of flannel next 
the skin, arc the most effectual means of preventing the recur- 
rence of both acute and chronic rheumatism. 



TIC DOULOUREUX, 

OR PAINFUL AFFECTION OF THE FACE. 

Symptoms. A painful affection of the nerves, which mostly 
attacks the face. The most frequent seat of the affection is 
in the nerves over the cheek bone, just below the orbit of the 
eye, the nostrils, upper lip, and gums. The pain is often ex- 
cited by opening and moving the mouth, attended with ptyalism 
and convulsive agitation of the adjacent muscles. The only 
diseases likely to be confounded with this are, rheumatism oc- 
cupying the face and jaws and the toothach. It may, however, 
readily be distinguished from the former of them, by an at- 
tack of pain being readily excited, by the slightest touch, by 
the shortness of its continuance, and by its extreme severity 
and violence; and from tin latter, by the rapidity of its succes- 
sion, and there being an entire freedom from pain at intervals. 

Treatment. A very great variety of medicines, given 
internally, as well as remedies applied externally, have been 
tried for the alleviation and removal of this excruciating com- 
plaint, and even a division of the nerve has been resorted to; 
but although this operation has answered the purpose in a few 
oases, still it has failed in many others. 

Electricity, blisters, topical bleeding, by means of leeches, 
stimulant and anodyne embrocations, and frictions with mer- 
curial ointment, have all been employed in rotation as exter- 
nal applications, whilst the solution of arsenic, large doses of 
the extract, as also powder of Peruvian bark, preparations of 
iron, opium, and the extracts of henbane, hemlock, and night- 
shade, have been administered internally in considerable 
doses. 

It appears that the nightshade (bella donna) has, in many 
cases, proved a powerful and very efficacious medicine, and may 
therefore be given with confidence. From two to three grains 
of the exlracts have been administered every five or six hours 
to adults during the great severity of the pain, or from twenty 



340 PAINFUL AFFECTION OI THE FACE. 

to forty drops of flic tincture, lessening the dose very consid- 
erably as soon as case was procured. It will always be most 
advisable to begin the use of this medicine in small doses, 
such as half a grain of the extract for an adult, repeated every 
four or six hours, increasing the quantity, by degrees, to 
about two grains, and we may, at the same time, make trial of 
it as an outward application to the cheek, by laying over it a 
piece of fine linen rag, moistened in a solution of the extract 
in water, in the proportion of six grains of the former, to two 
ounces of the latter, or it may be wetted in the tincture of night- 
shade. The use or this medicine internally, is, however, often at- 
tended with distressing symptoms, when given in such doses as 
to produce a certain effect, as impaired vision, giddiness in the 
head, numbness, tightness at the chest, and a sense of suffoca- 
tion with dryness in the tbroat; but these soon cease again on 
greatly diminishing the dose, or wholly discontinuing the 
remedy. 

As persons unaccustomed to the use of so active a medicine, 
might be intimidated even by the probability of such unplea- 
sant consequences, we would recommend them to make a pre- 
vious trial of the carbonate of iron, in doses of one scruple, 
repeated three times a day, gradually increasing each dose to 
the extent of one drachm, if no decided benefit is derived by 
taking it in smaller quantities. This remedy has been em- 
ployed in several cases of the tic douloureux after a failure of 
very large doses of the extract of bark, the solution of arse- 
nic, and most of the other means usually resorted to, with an 
exception of nightshade, in all of which the complaint soon 
ceased, and has not again returned in any of them. 

fn the treatment of this v ry painful complaint, it has been 
advised to paralyze the nerve by the application of an oint- 
ment, consisting of two scruples of the sup racetate of lead 
(sugar of had) mixed with a little lard, every morning on the 
cheek affected, about an hour before the paroxysm is expected. 
The experiment has been tried with success by Mr. \stly 
Cooper, in a case which had previously resisted every other 
remedy, and even a division of the nerve by the knife. 



341 

VACCINE DISEASE, 

OR COW-POX. 

The vaccine discovery may be justly considered as one of 
the most extraordinary blessings bestowed on man, since it is 
inconiestibly a certain security against the small-pox, a dis- 
ease distressing in its symptoms, formidable in its appearance, 
doubtful in event, and to which mankind are generally ex- 
posed. 

The comparative advantages which the kine-pox has over 
the small-pox arc very great and striking. First, it is neither 
contagious nor communicable by effluvia; secondly, it excites no 
disposition to other complaints; thirdly, it can he communica- 
ted with safety to children at the earliest ago, and almost in 
every situation; and fourthly, it is never fatal. What more 
can be required to produce a genera! conviction of its superior 
utility? The method of performing the inoculation is, to hold 
the lancet nearly at a right angle with the skin, in order that 
the infectious fluid may gravitate to the point of the instru- 
ment, which should be made to scratch the skin repeatedly, un- 
til it becomes slightly tinged with blood. The operator must 
be cautious not to make the wound deeper than necessary, as 
the inoculated part will be more liable to inflammation, which 
may destroy the specific action of the virus. 

The most certain method of securing the infection is, to 
inoculate with fresh fluid from the pustule; but as this is often 
impracticable, it is advisable to hold the infected lancet over the 
steam of boiling water to soften the hardened matter. Where 
the virus has been procured upon thread, make a small longitu- 
dinal incision in the arm, and insert in it the affected thread, 
and detain it there by court-plaster, until the disease be com- 
municated. Matter may also be procured from the scab The 
mode of inoculating from it is the same as from the fluid, taking 
carer, however, previously to moisten it with tepid water, and 
to use the matter of the inner side of the scab. The scab will 
frequently retain its virus for months, provided it be kepUn 
a close box. 

46 



342 vai .; cow-fox. 

Tiic first iir. i Lhe success of the operation is a small 

inHaiicd spot where the pun made, whichisverj diatin- 

-i.ablo about tin Ihjrd, fourth, or fifth day. This continues 
(o increase in - iraea hardi and a small circular tumor is 

formed, rising n little above tin level of the skin. About the 
i or seventh il y the centre of tbe tumor shows a disco- 
loured speck, owing to the formation of a small quantity of 
fluid, which continues to increase, and the pustule to fill, until 
about the tenth day. 

At this time it shows in perfection the characteristic features 
which distinguish it from the rariolus pustule. Its shape is 
circular, or somewhat a little oval, but the margin is alv 
well defined, and never rough and jagged. The edges rise 
above the level of the skin, but the centre is depressed, and 
has not that plumpness which marks the small- pox pustule. 
As soon as the pustule contains any fluid, it may be open d 
for future inoculation. About two days before, and two after 
the eighth day, making a period of four days, is the season 
when the matter is found in its greatest activity. 

At the eighth <\.iy, when the pustule is fully formed, the 
effects on the constitution begin to appear. The general in- 
disposition is commonly preceded by pain at the pustule and 
in the arm-pit, followed by beadach, some shivering, loss of 
appetite, pain in the limbs, arid a feverish increase of pulse. 
These continue with more or less violence, for one or two 
days, and always subside spontaneously without leaving any 
unpleasant consequences. During the general indisposition, 
the pustule in the arm, which had been advancing to matura- 
tion in a regular uniform manner, becomes surrounded with a 
circular inflamed margin, about an inch or an inch and a halt 
id, and this blush is an indication that the whole system 
ed; for the general indisposition, if it occur at all, al- 
s appears on or before the time when the efflorescence be- 
-s visible. After this period, the fluid in the pustule gradu- 
ally dries up. rounding blush becomes fainter, and in ;. 
or two dies away : that it is seldom ( 



VACCINE DISEASE, OK COW-POX. 



34: 



distinguished after the thirteenth day from inoculation. The 
pustule now no longer increases in extent, hut on its surface 
a liard thick scab, of a brown or mahogany colour is formed, 
which, if not removed, remains for nearly a fortnight until it 
spontaneously falls, leaving the skin beneath perfectly sound 
and uninjured. 

The above is the progress of the vaccine inoculation in the 
greater number of cases, from the time of insertion to that of 
drying up of the pustule, with only the variation of a day or 
two in the periods of the different changes. The successive 
alterations, that take place in the local affection, appear to be 
more constant and more necessary to the success of the inocu- 
lation than the general indisposition. With respect to the lat- 
ter the degree is very various — infants often pass through the 
disease without any perceptible illness — with children it is ex- 
treme ly moderate — and even with adults, its severity is but for 
a few hours, and then never dangerous. 

Very little medical care is necessary to conduct the patient 
through this disease with perfect Safety, especially when chil- 
dren are the patients. Adults may take a dose of salts on the 
eighth day, which will he particularly useful in plethoric hab- 
its. In genera!, no application to the inoculated part will be 
required, unless the, inflammation increase, and the pustule 
become painful; then the part should be kept moist witbcold 
vinegar and water, or lead water, till the pustule be dried up. 
To conclude, much attention and discrimination are necessary 
in the vaccine inoculation, to ascertain whether the infection 
have fully taken, and whether or not, the disorder be complete 
and genuine. The regularity, with which the local disease at 
the place of inoculation runs through its several stages, seems 
to be the principal point to be attended to; for the presence of 
fever is certainly not necessary to constitute the disease, since 
the greater number of infants have no apparent indisposition. 
Therefore, when the vaccine inoculation is followed by no 
local disorder, or only a slight redness at the punctured part, 
for a<lay or two, we can have no doubt that the operation has 
failed. When the pustule advances in very hasty and irrcgu- 



344 w.i.-rox. 

lar progress, wlicn the inoculated puncture on the second •■• 
third day after insertion, swells considcrabl y. and is surround- 
ed with an extensive redness, the premature inflammation 
j clearly indicates a failure in the operation) even when 
the inoculation has advanced for the first few days in a regu- 
lar manner, but, when about the sixth day, instead of exhibit- 
ing a will formed pustule and vesicle of fluid, the |>art runs into 
an irregular festering sore, the purpose of inoculation is equally 
defeated, and these varieties require it to be watched with an 
Attentive and experienced eye, since tiny might readily lead to 
a false, and perhaps fatal idea of security agai tilt any subsequent. 
exposure to small-pox. The circumstance, however, which 
most strikingly distinguishes the genuine from the spurious dis- 
ease, is the appearance of the pustule. In tin- genuine, the pus- 
tule has a well-defined elevated nun-gin, with an hulenUiiion in its 
centre, rcsemblin a button mould. The spurious is either 
pointed like a small common abscess, or is rugged and irregu- 
larly formed, like an ordinary sore. Every other symptom, 
almost occurs in each disease. 



SMALL-FOX. 

It would seem unnecessary to take any notice of the small- 
pox, after having treated so largely of its mild and merciful 
substitute, the cow-pox; but as that dreadful disease does 
sometimes find its way on board of ships and into country 
neighborhoods, sweeping whole families in its progress, it 
may be very proper to subjoin the following history of its 
symptoms and treatment. 

Symptoms. A few days prior to the attack, the patient 
complains of languor and weariness, succeeded by roldshiver- 
ings and transient glows of heat, immediately before the fever, 
which is accompanied by violent pain of the head and loins, 
and frequently, with a severe oppressive pain at the pit of the 
stomach. The patient is very drowsy, and sometimes deliri 



SMALL-POX. 345 

ous. About the third day, the eruption appears like flea bites, 
first on the face and limbs, and afterwards on the body. From 
this period, the pustules gradually increase, and on the fifth 
or sixth day. will begin to turn white on the tops. The throat, 
at this period, often becomes painful and inflamed; and some- 
times on the seventh day, the fare is considerably swelled. 

In the confluent, the spots assume a crimson colour, and in- 
stead of rising, like the distinct kind, they remain flat and 
run into clusters, and during the first days of the eruption, 
much resembling the measles, but of a purple colour. The 
flow o f saliva is constant in this form of the disease, and be- 
comes so viscid as to be discharged with the greatest diffi- 
culty. 

Treatment. The cure of small-pox depends on the gene- 
ral principle of the antiphlogistic plan, especially in a free 
admission of cold air, which may be carried much further in 
this than in any other disease. Bleeding in the first stage of 
the disease, or when the pulse is full, may be allowed, but the 
use of co ding purgatives, with acid and diluent drinks, arc in- 
dispensable. 

When the eruption makes its appearance in clusters of a 
dark red colour, the disease is more of a putrid nature, and 
consequently, instead of bleeding, requires a liberal use of 
bark and wine to invigorate the constitution, as directed in 
the nervous fever. [See Oak, Materia Medtea."] 

But besides this general treatment, there are some symp- 
toms which require particular attention. Thus, when con- 
vulsions or great restlessness prevail, exposure to cold air, and 
a dose of laudanum a e enjoined. Where perspiration is much 
impeded, or deglutition difficult, blisters may be applied to 
the breast and neck; and gargles, such as recommended for 
sore throats, frequently employed. If the perspiration be ob- 
structed, the antimonial mixture may be used. 

When this disease finds its way aboard of a vessel, or into 
a family, all those who have not had it, should immediately 
be inoculated with the variolus matter, if the vaccine fluid 
annot be procured. 



j-iti MEASLES 

The benefits which resull from inoculation arc great, as m 
have an opportunity to prepare (In- system by abstinence from 
animal food, and by taking one or two purges of calomel ami 
jalap before the eruption takes place. Rut. if the subject be of 
a wiak delicate habit, a restorative diet alone will he more 
proper. 

In every stage of the small-pox, the bowels should he kept 
open, cither by mild purgatives or clysters. 

II GiMBiT. The diet is to consist of vegetable substances, 
as arrow root, panado, milk, rice, &c, and when the eruption 
is completed, a more nourishing diet may be allowed. If the 
disease he of a putrid kind, wine, cider, perry, porter, or milk 
toddy, may be given freely. 

In this, as in all diseases connected with, putrescency, the 
advantages arising fro n cleanliness^, as well as from frequent 
ventilation of the chambers, are so obvious, that to insist on 
them is unnecessary. [See Nervous Fever. J 



MEASLES. 

Til is disease is the effect of a specific contagion, and at- 
tacks persons only once in life. 

Symptoms. Alternate heat and chills, with the usual 
symptoms of cold. On the fourth day from the attack, erup- 
tions like flea bites arise on the face and body, and in about 
four days more, those eruptions disappear with the fever. 

The.'.tnext. When the disease is very slight, little more- 
is necessary, than to keep the patient's body open with the 
cathartic mixture. But should the febrile symptoms run 
high, witli difiiculty of breathing, bleed, blister the breast, and 
give Dover's, or antimonial powders, the febrifuge mixture, 
or diaphoretic drops. [See Dispensatory.] The cough being 



trsASLi 347 

usually troublesome, it will be proper to take freely of flax- 
9e (1 sirup, or some of the pectoral mixture?. Breathing; (lie 
steams of warm water will also be useful, in relieving the 
Cough as well as the eyes. The water should he put in a ba- 
son, and f'C head covered with a flannel large enough to 
hang over its edges. After the eruption is completed, the 
anodyne sudorific draught, paregoric, or laudanum, will be 
serviceable at bed time, to allay the cough. If the spots sud- 
denly disappear, immerse in warm water, or bathe the legs 
and feet, and give freely of warm wine whey, until the erup- 
tions re! urn. 

The consequences attendant on the measles, are often more 
to be dreaded than the immediate disease, for although a per- 
son may get through it, and appear for a time recovered, still 
pulmonary consumption frequently arises and destroys him. 
Another had consequence of the measles is, that the bowels are 
often by them in a very weak state, a diarrhoea remaining, 
which has sometimes proved fatal. An obstinate ophthalmia, 
or affection of the eyes, will also ensue, if proper attention be 
not ])n'u\ in managing the disease. Most of these disagreeable 
Symptoms maybe prevented by blood letting,. and administer- 
ing emetics, cathartics, and diaphoretics, in the first stage of 
the disease. 

Should the symptoms manifest a malignant kind of the dis- 
ease, and a putrid tendency prevail, we must then adopt a ve- 
ry different node of t'-eatm°nt from what has boon advised for 
the inflan matory. The euro rr. u «t he conducted on the plan 
recommended for the nervous fever, and putrid sore throat. 

Rf.ctvtv.tt. The diet shouUl he low and proportioned to 
the degree of fever. Barley or rice water, flaxseed tea, or 
other cooling mucilaginous drinks, with jellies, as arrow root, 
gruel, sago. e^c. will, in general, he a" that is necessary, un- 
til the feverish symptoms are evidently on the decline. Much 
caution is necessary, that the tot'ent be not suddenly expos- 
ed to cold air. whir!; pel the eruption, and produce 
fatal effects. 



348 



CHICKEN. OR SWINE-FOX. 

I.n this disease, an eruption much resembling that of a very 
favorable small-pox, appears after a very slight fever. This 
eruption soon proceeds to suppuration, in which state it re- 
mains but a little time, before the disease terminates by the 
drying up of the pustules, which seldom leaves scars behind. 

As to the treatment, medicine is very seldom necessary, it. 
being generally sufficient that the patient be kept moderately 
cool, and supplied with the diluent drinks and light food. — 
Should there be fever, a cooling purge, and afterwards, the 
antimonial powders or mixtures, may be employed. 



MILIARY FEVER 

Is now considered to be symptomatic, only, because it never 
appears contagious or epidemic. It sometimes attends febrile 
affections, as well as those of an inflammatory as of a putrid 
nature, but it seldom occurs in any, unless a hot regimen and 
sweat precede. The symptoms which attend, arc restlessness, 
frequent sighing, fetid sweat, pricking of the skin, and an 
eruption of red small distinct spots, at first, confined to the 
neck, breast, and arms, but soon spreads over the whole skin, 
except the face. When these eruptions make their appear- 
ance, they must be treated according to the rules laid down 
under their proper heads. 



SCARLET FEVER. 

Symptoms. Chilliness, followed by a burning dry heat — 
the pulse frequent, respiration irregular, a dejection of spi- 
rits, great prostration of strength, and often a stiffness of the 
neck. The face and neck is at first covered with red spots. 



SCARLET FEVER. 34(i> 

which sooa extend over the whole body. A sore throat gene- 
rally comes on about the second or third day, but sometimes 
is wholly absent; however, a redness of the fauces in every 
case is conspicuous. This fever is distinguished from the 
measles by the eruption being less distinct and more like a red 
coloured effusion, and by not being accompanied by catarrhal 
symptoms. It is distinguished from Saint Anthony's Fire by 
the fever being more considerable at night than the former, 
and the swelling being scarcely observable,. It attacks more 
frequently young children; whereas, Saint Anthony's Fire is 
mostly confined to adults, and is not attended with scarlet hue 
on the throat. This fever is evidently infectious, generally 
epidemic, and appears most frequently at the end of summer. 

Treatment. Give an emetic on its attack, and on the 
following day administer some gentle cathartic medicin<\— - 
The bowels should be kept in a soluble state, and nitre given 
in the patient's drink. The heat must be repelled rather than 
encouraged. And this is to be effected by cold affusions, 
which should be steadily applied. It is not enough to sponge 
the body once or again, but the cold water must be dashed 
against the patient repeatedly tili the heat is subdued, and the 
process must be repeated as fast as it returns. In this dis- 
ease, cold water is peculiarly applicable; the heat being con- 
siderable, the determination to the head violent, and the de- 
bility alarming. We know no disorder which represses so 
powerfully the constitutional energy. Bark and cordials 
would appear peculiarly useful in this complaint from its ten- 
dency to putrefaction; but if these are early employed they 
will be found to increase both fever and delirium, to check the 
perspiration, and to impede sleep. 

Where this disease is attended with malignant symptoms, 
its tendency is to the putrid kind of fever, and must be treat- 
ed accordingly. [See Nervous Fever, and Putrid Sore Throat] 

Regimen. The diet should he light, the liquors cold ami 

acidulated with vegetable and mineral acids. The stools 

should he frequently removed, the linen frequently changed* 
46 



350 ST. ANTHONY'S FIRE. 

and the room kept airy. The nurses should carefully wasU 
themselves* and frequentl) change their lineu. >ViththesQ 
precautions, there is little danger of injection. 



ST. ANTHONY'S FIRE. 

Symptoms. An inflammation on some part of the sk iu, 
attended witli pain and heat; and when extensive, there is con- 
siderable fever, accompanied with drowsiness. 

Causes. Imprudent exposure to cold when the body \& 
heated — hard drinking — and sudden stoppage of any natural 
evacuations. 

Treatment. When slight, it requires only that the bow- 
els be kept gently open, hy an infusion of peach leaves, [Se6 
Materia Medico.'] small doses of cream of tartar and sulphur, 
or the cathartic mixture, with small portions of nitre in the 
patient's common drink; but when the attack is violent, and 
the head affected, then, in addition to the above, bleed, bathe 
the feet in warm water, apply a large blister between the 
shoulders, sinapisms to the extremities, and give the saline 
or antiraonial mixture [See Dispensatory'] with diluent drinks. 

The best external applications are flour or starch, gently 
sprinkled by a puff on the part, or in case of dryness and 
much heat, fresh leaves of the thorn apple, or cabbage leaves, 
stripped of their stems and softened in boiling water, and re- 
newed every two or three hows. Cold applications, as cloths 
wetted with vinegar and water, with the addition of a small 
quantity of camphorated spirits, has also been employed with 
great benefit and relief to the feelings of the patient. 

If, in spite of those means, ulcerations should take place, 
apply bark poultices, frequently renewed, or cloths dipped in 
the camphorated spirits, with the usual means «f preventing 
mortification. Should the inflammation assume a purple co- 



BLEEDING AT THE NOSE. 351 

/our, or the swelling suddenly subside, attended with internal 
oppression, anxiety and weak pulse, apply blisters or sina- 
pisms to the extremities, and give wine or warm toddy freely, 
to throw out the eruptions to the skin; and then it is to be 
treated as the nervous fever. 

Regimen. The diet should be low, and the drink chiefly 
of rice an<; barley water, acidulated with tamarinds or the 
juice of lemons. 

Prevention. Avoid the extremes of heat or cold, ab- 
stain from spirituous liquors, and keep the bowels regularly 
open. 



BLEEDING AT THE NOSE. 

In feb'ile diseases, accompanied with pain in the head, 
flushed countenance, and redness of the eyes, bleeding from 
the nose in general is salutary, and ought not to be checked, 
unless the patient is likely to be too much exhausted bv it. — 
However, when this discharge is too profuse, the patient 
should have his head raised and exposed to cool air. Beside 
which, cold acidulated drinks should be used, and the patient 
should rather immerse his head in very cold water, or have 
cloths dipped in cold vinegar and water frequently auplied to 
the nostrils, face, and back of the neck. A piece of metal, 
as a key for example, applied cold to the naked back, is a fa. 
miliar remedy, and often succeeds. If these should not prove 
sufficient, a pledget of lint dipt in strong alum water, or a 
powder composed of flour and alum of equal quantity, should 
be introduced into the nostrils, with sufficient force to com- 
press the orifice of the ruptured vessels. In addition to these 
means, give a dose of epsom or glauber salts, to evacuate 
the bowels, and from ten to twenty grains of nitre every hour 
or two, in a glass of cold water. Immersing the feet in 



Sj^L 5nni\<; OF Pi.n.)i». 

warm water while the coid applications arc continued to tint 
head, will also be found beneficial. 

One of the most powerful styptics which we can use, says 
Dr. Thomas, is powder of charcoal. It may be applied by 
means of tents, first moistened with water, and then dipped 
in this powder: but in slight cases, it will answer by being ta- 
ken like snuff. 

After the bleeding has ceased, the patient must be careful 
not to remove the tents of clotted blood, but should allow 
them to come away of themselves. 



SPITTING OF BLOOD. 

When there is a discharge from the mouth, of blood of a 
florid colour, brought up with more or less coughing, preced- 
ed by a sense of tightness, weight, and anxiety in the cheat, 
and attended with a saltish taste of the spittle, it is in conse- 
quence ot a ruptured vessel of the lungs. 

Causes. Plethora — violent exercise of the lungs — and 
frequently a faulty conformation of the chest. 

Treatment. The most important remedy in this alarm- 
ing complaint, is blood-letting, which should be actively em- 
ployed, paying, at the same time, attention to the state of the 
bowels. Spitting of blood, however, is sometimes owing to 
the contraction of the chest with debility ; and in this case, the 
lancet must not be so freely used. 

Sedatives, particularly those which repress the activity of 
the circulation, are highly useful. Of these, the chief are 
nitre and foxglove. JNitre, in doses often grains, given every 
hour, in the coldest water, and swallowed while dissolving, is 
ranch to be depended on in the early stage of this disorder. — 
The tincture of foxglove exhibited in small doses every hour 
or two, by retarding the action of the pulse, will also prove 






&FITTIN& OF BLOGJL*. 3$$ 

amsat useful auxiliary iu suppressing pulmonic hemorrhages, 
particularly in those cases where an inflammatory diathesis 
prevails. Whenever there is fixed pain in the chest, a blister 
applied to the breast or hack will do much service. 

According to Dr. Rush, two tea-spoonfuls of common salt, 
dissolved in a small quantity of water, and exhibited every 
two hours or oftener, will check this disease, as well as he- 
morrhages from the stomach and uterus. 

Astringents are frequently ^resorted to, as alum, kino, and 
sugar of lead, but they are of little utility, except in the pas- 
sive hamoptyses, and even in these, nitre is often found pre- 
ferable. 

If the cough be troublesome, it will be necessary to have 
recourse to demulcents and pectorals, as advised under the 
head of cold. Sometimes a spitting of blood is produced in 
consequence of suppressed evacuation; in this case, it is not 
dangerous, and only requires remedies to restore the cus- 
tomary discharge. 

A spitting of blood may readily be distinguished from a 
discharge of it from the stomach, as, in the latter, the quan- 
tity is usually more considerable, of a darker colour,' and is 
generally unattended by coughing. 

Regimen. Alow diet should be strictly observed, and the 
fcody kept as quiet as possible. Nothing should he taken 
warm: flaxseed tea, barley or rice water, acidulated with the 
juice of lemons or elixir vitriol, ought to he used as common 
drinks, and taken as cold as possible. 

Prevention. Carefully avoid all exertions whiah detain 
or which hurry the blood in its passage through the lungs, 
as singing, loud speaking, running, or lifting great weights. 
Obviate costiveness, by the occasional use of mild aperients, 
and use a spare diet. On experiencing any pain in the chest, 
blister, bleed, and constantly wear flannel next to the skin. 

Swinging, sailing, travelling in an easy carriage, and rid- 
ing on horseback, will be the most appropriate exercise. 



354 






CONSUMPTION. 

Symptoms. Those which mark its first stage, are a slight 
fever, increased by the least exercise — a burning and dry- 
ncss in the palms of the hands, more especially towards even- 
ing — rheum} eyes, upon waking from sleep — increase of 
urine — dryness of the skin, as also of the feet in the morning- 
occasional flushing in one, and sometimes both cheeks — 
hoarseness^— slight or acute pain in the breast — fixed pain in 
one side, or shooting pains in both sides — hcadach — occasion- 
al sick and fainty fits — a deficiency of appetite — and a gene, 
ral indisposition to exercise, or motion of every kind. 

The first appearance of this disease will vary in different 
casc6; but the most constant symptoms which characterise it, 
are a cough and phlegm resembling matter, of which, at 
length, it becomes entirely composed. 

This disease often attacks insidiously, and is chiefly con- 
fined to the young, the fair, with light skins and blue eyes, 
florid complexions, contracted chest, and high shoulders. In 
con-itilulions disposed to hectic, the fingers are often long, and 
the nails bent; they grow rapidly, but seldom expand in 
breadth and bulk. From the age of twelve or fourteen, to 
that of about thirty-five, is the hectic period; more generally 
from sixteen to tweenty-four; and the tendency seems to re- 
turn about forty- five or fifty, especially in women at the peri- 
od of the cessation of the catamerna. At the age of fourteen 
or sixteen in each sex, while the genital organs are evolving, 
there is often a considerable debility and irritability. The 
debility in females is often formidable, and a slight cough it 
no uncommon attendant. The cough is either quite dry, or 
accompanied with an expectoration of a small quantity of a 
thin frothy matter, which differs from that of true catarrh, in 
being easily diffusible in other fluids. Sooner or later, the 
general health becomes impaired, and at length, the fatal hec- 
tic makes its appearance with little suspicion; all the symp- 
toms being referred to the great change that then takes place. 



CONSUMPTION. 355 

No diagnosis ean arise from the existence of fever, since in 
the chlorolic state, coldness, with occasional flushing, are 
not unfrequent. In general, however, the fever of phthisis 
attacks more pointedly in the evening; that of chlorosis in the 
morning. The appetite of hectic patients is best in the fore- 
noon; of chlorotic at night; and the latter can eat meat sup- 
pers frequently with impunity. 

It sometimes occurs that persons who have been improper- 
ly treated in the venereal disease, have symptoms which as- 
sume the form of consumption; but, in general, the chest is 
free, while pains are more violent at night, and more fre- 
quently in the middle of the bones of either extremity, or deep 
seated in the head, than in the trunk. It has also seldom pro- 
ceeded so far as to mislead, without showing its nature by 
eruptions, or by an affection of the throat. From the state 
of mind, we may draw some distinction; for cheerful hope il- 
lumines every hour of the hectic; despair darkens each mo- 
ment of the syphilitic patient. 

Strange as it may appear, amidst all the horrors of this 
disease, the patient's hopes are seldom abandoned, and even 
increase, as the fatal termination advances. 

Causes. Obstructions and inflammation of the lungs, de- 
pending most frequently on the. existence of small tubercles 
in the substance, which, coming to suppuration, burst and 
discharge a purulent matter. Sometimes, it is induced by a 
general affection of the system, and sometimes it is a conse- 
quence of other diseases, a?: cold, measles, small-pox, pleuri- 
sy, &c. &c. 

Treatment. This must be varied and adapted to each 
atage and case of the disease. In the fi rst or inflammatory 
stage, moderate bleedings, twice or thrice a- week, according 
to the force of the pulse and habit of the patient, are essen- 
tial, aided by blisters to the breast and back, and employing, 
at the same time, a cooling regimen. 

In almost every species of the disease, blisters or issues are 
eften a means of relieving the cough; for even when they have 



.356 VONBUMPTI0N. 

no tendency to remove the stimulating cause producing cough, 
as when it arises from a tubercle, yet they diminish the eftd 
of the stimulus. They are particularly useful in tliat period 
of the disease, when a catarrhal has a disposition to degener- 
ate into a phthisical affection; for in that modification of tho 
disease, derivation from the lungs is of the utmost consequence. 
By this means, a change may often be affected in that state 
of suppuration which takes place from the internal mem- 
branes of the lungs, and the purulent discharge may thus bt 
converted into the natural mucus. 

Among other remedies in consumption, the use of emetics 
is strongly recommended. By the action of vomiting, the 
blood is propelled to the extreme vessels in every part of the 
body, particularly to the extreme vessels of the surface. Thus, 
there is produced a derivation from the lungs, and a conse- 
quent change in the state of separation at that part of the sys- 
tem; but they are chiefly useful in < onsumption, as obviating 
symptoms, particularly cough and difficulty of breathing, and 
by promoting expectoration. 

A considerable variety of medicines of the refrigerating 
kinds have been strongly recommended for combating con- 
sumption in its incipient state. They tend to diminish the 
impetus of circulation, and although they do not immediately 
remove a plethoric state, yet they perhaps tend to diminish 
the inflammatory diathesis even more effectually than the re- 
peated blood-lettings. The cooling neutrals through the 
whole course of the disease, are useful; particularly nitre, 
which may he advantageously taken in any period of the com- 
plaint. Demulcents are always indicated, and usually em- 
ployed in the manner we have recommended under the head 
of cold, to sheath the fauces and lessen the violence of cough. 
Gum-arabic held constantly in the mouth, will also be found 
extremely useful in relieving this distressing symptom. 

Of all the remedies which have of late been fashionable in 
consumption is the fox-glove, [See Materia Medico,] but it does 
not seem to merit all the praises which has been given it. 
Under proper management the fox-glove produces a slowness 
of the pulse, not. perhaps to be obtained frem any other medi- 



CONSUMPTION* 357" 

•Miie yet discovered. And it lias been the opinion of some, 
that, by reducing it to the natural standard, from the employ- 
ment of digitalis, consumption may be overcome. But it 
should ho observed, that the quicknessof pulso in this disease 

merely symptomatic, and that the reduction of it, even be- 
low tUc natural standard, can have no effect either in remov- 
ing a tubercle, or in healing an ulcer in the lungs. Hence, 
on this ground, it is in vain to expect a radical euro from its 
isc* However, as a diminution of the celerity of the puise 
will somewhat alleviate the hectic fever, it may, in certain 
rases* be employed with advantage. The most eligible mode of 
using the fox-glove is in a tincture, beginning with the dose 
of ten drops, ami gradually increasing it to sixty to an adult, 
morning, noon, and night. In exhibiting this medicine, it 
should not, however, be given in such doses as to induce much 
sickness. 

Among other active medicines, recourse is frequently had 
to mercury, but unless consumption was excited by a vene- 
real taint, we have never witnessed benefit from this medicine. 
On the contrary, when mercurial salivation is produced in the 
genuine consumption, it has uniformly hastened the death of 
the patient. 

Iceland, liverwort, or raoss, has been, of !atc, bigbly extol- 
led as a remedy in this complaint that readily allays cough, 
facilitates expectoration, abates hectic fever, and quiets the 
system without constipating the bowels. It is likewise said 
to strengthen tiic organs of digestion, without increasing the 
action of the heart and arteries. Indeed, tho physicians of 
Europe have spoken so loudly in its praise, that every patient 
ought certainly to give it a trial. The most approved method 
of using it, is in the form of decoction; one ounce of the herb to 
a quart of water, boiled for fifteen minutos orer a slow fire, to 
which two drachms of sliced liquorice root may be added 
about five minutes before it is takon off. A tea cupful of this 
decoction should be taken four times a-day. Another form is 
by boiling two drachms of the herb in a pint of milk for ten 
minutes, and taking it for breakfast aud s pp<>r. If choco- 
late be preferred, it may be blended with it, by makin"- t ! >e 
47 



3J8 UJUNSUMPTION. 

chocolate with a decoction of ihe moss, without the liquorice., 
us above directed. 

Of all our indigenous plants, the Indian turnip [See Jlutn-'ta 
Medica] has the highest reputation as a remed) in consump- 
tion. It is evidently an active expectorant, and may be use- 
ful in the latter stage of the disease. 

in the treatment of this disease, balsamic medicines are 
frequently resorted to. They are totally u Aim ted to the in- 
flamiuatnry state, of any one of the complaints of the lungs, 
whether acute or chronic. Action having b en sufficiently, 
subdued by depletory measures, they may be safely and ad- 
vantageously administered in catarrhal consumptions and pro- 
tracted coughs; and will be found particularly useful when 
expectoration is checked from debility, and a want of irrita- 
bility of the glands. So opposite are the states of the tangs 
in catarrhal affections, that it requires essentially different 
substances to produce expectoration. It may be repressed or 
imperfectly performed, by a constriction of the lungs, and by 
the removal of which, an infinite degree of relief is often af- 
forded. It is also apparent that the lungs occasionally, from 
extreme debility, pour out an excessive discharge, and that 
by direct stimulation of the cxhalcnts, the effusion is abated 
and oppression removed. 

The advantages of the vegetable balsams, as they have been 
called, were supposed to consist in their power of promoting 
the healing of wounds and ulcers. At one time, man* of 
them were highly extolled in pulmonary consumptions; but 
each have had their day of fashion, and have each fallen int<* 
deserved neglect. According to the testimony of Drs. Dun- 
can, Simmons, and other eminent physicians, gnm-myrrh, ex- 
hibited in doses of twenty or thirty grains thrice a day, united 
with an equal quantity of nitre, has, in many instances, been 
employed with the best effects in this intractable disease. 

While, for resolving tubercles or healing ulcerations in the 
lungs, many medicines have been taken internally, gums 
mode* of cure have been recommended with the view of act- 
ing topicaily on the diseased parts. In this wtty, different 



CONSUMPTION. 359 

articles have been directed to be inhaled into the lungs, under 
the form of vapor. In an inflammatory state of the bron- 
chial glands, warm watery vapor may be useful, and vinegar 
lias occasionally been added; but it seems often to irritafo the 
cough, and the more stimulant vapors are evidently injuri- 
ous, except where expectoration is difficult and deficient. In 
cases where the accumulations of the chest arc owing to de- 
bility of the lungs, or are retained by the viridity and tenaci- 
ty of the matter, sulphuric ether is strongly recommended; 
and we are told, upon the high authority of Dr. Pearson, that 
its powers are improved by several substances which are solu- 
ble in it. Hemlock is particularly praised, half a drachm of 
which is to be digested in an ounce of aether, tor several days, 
so as to form a saturated tincture. Of this, two or three te* 
spoonfuls are to be put in a wine glass, to bo held up to the 
mouth, and inspired till the whole is evaporated, and repeated 
several times in the day. 

Similar in its effect to these inhalations, is the practice of 
smoking tobacco, the stramonium and other substances. 

With the same views, tar fumigations, according to a dis- 
tinguished Russian physician, Dr. Crichton, of Petersburg, 
have been employed, and, is said, with triumphant success. 
The mode he recommends for doing this, is, to put the tar in 
an earthen vessel over a lamp, or heated iron, so as to cause 
a volatilization till the air of the room is sufficiently impreg- 
nated, and this process is to-be repeated three or four times 
a-day. 

Having stated the remedies which have been most highly, 
recommended in consumption, and from which, when proper- 
ly adapted to the circumstances of the case, there is the best 
chance of recovery, we will conclude with a few remarks on 
the means of obviating urgent symptoms. 

It is a fortunate circumstance, that even in those diseases 

where the prospect of recovery is the most faint, and where 

there is next to certainty of an approaching dissolution in no 

long time, we still have it in our power to protract the period 

»f life, and to alleviate the distress of the patient. In many 



560 CONSUMPTION. 

cases of this terrible disease, it is all that we can i < •asonably 
expert to accomplish. 

Although colloquatire sweats are not productive of pain* 
yet U\l\ tend very much to debilitate the patient, and by the 
loss of strength, the chance of recovery is very much dirain- 
d. Hence the necessity, in such cases, of giving some to- 
nic, as tl;e elixii vitriol or infusion of bark. 

In every instance ol consumption it is of importance to 
prevent costive nes", and it is always a desirable circumstance 
to keep the bowels >n a soluble state, which should be obtain.. 
cd rather by diet than medicines. But when diurrhmii occurs 
spontaneously, this should in like manner be restrained by 
shunning the uso of those articles which are 1 to in- 

crease it, and by employing what are found to moderate ii. 

Of all the symptoms which require to be mitigated, there 
is none which more frequently demands attention, than the 
cough. For this purpose an almost infinite variety of arti- 
cles, either of the demulcent or sedative kind, [See Cold] may 
be employed with advantage. But of these substantives, af- 
ter the inflammatory symptoms have been subdued, none is 
so rseful or so powerful as opium. This article, however, 
valuable as it is, cannot he considered free from inconveni- 
ence. There arc some individuals with whom, from peculi- 
arity of constitution f it always disagrees, producing confu- 
sion in the head, vertigo, sickness at tho stomach, and vari- 
ous other distressing symptoms. Hence recourse has been 
had to a variety of other sedatives, both with the view of al- 
laying inordinate action, and of procuring sleep. Of all the 
substitutes for opium, none, according to the testimony of one 
of the. most celebrated and distinguished physicians in Eng- 
land, Dr. Duncan, equals the preparations formed from the 
common garden lettuce. [See Materia Medica.] 

[< jas been supposed, that by the continued use of opiates, 
they might allay irritation, and contribute to the great object, 
the healing of the ulcer. They have, however, failed in this 
view, though we cannot refuse their employment to lessen 
pain, and keep up the calm serenity, the pleasing delirium, 
iu the midstof distress, and a state hopeless of relief. 



CONSUMPTION:. S6l 

From what has been said of the principal remedies recom- 
Blended in consumption, the reader will find hut little encour- 
agement to indulge a hope of relief. He will probably ex- 
claim, is consumption then never cured? Whence can arise 
the confident promisee which every newspaper offers, and 
which the most respectable authorities confirm? The decep- 
tion arises from two sources. Catarrhal complaints are, in 
main instances, confounded with consumptive, and the most 
experienced eye is occasionally deceived. In some cases also 
vomica* are completely evacuated by expectoration, and the 
wound heals. So insidious is the attack of consumption, that 
it has often been taken for catarrh, and on the contrary, so 
violent is often a catarrh, that it has been pronounced to be 
truly phthisical, by practitioners of judgment and experience; 

nor has the delusion been destroyed but by exjwetoration 

From such errors it is not to be wondered that so many medi- 
cines should have gained credit in the cure of consumption. 
To say, however, that this disease is never cured, would cer- 
tainly appear rash,* for instances have occurred in which a 
recovery has been perfected by nature; but they are so few, 
that they can scarcely inspire hope. 

Regimen. Perhaps a greater number of cures in con- 
sumption have been effected by regimen than by medicine, es- 
pecially if under this head be included, not merely diet, but 
air, exercise, and similar circumstances. 

It has been but too common to prescribe the same diet in 
every stage of the disease, which has been attended with the 
most pernicious effects, and has often hastened the death of 
the patient. While the Brunonian fed his patients to avoid 
debility, the other practitioners carried, apparency, their anti- 
phlogistic system too far. In judging of that diet which is 
best suited to phthisical patients, due attention must always 
be paid to its effects upon the system. While a considerable 
discharge by blood-letting is requisite, it is certainly proper 
to avoid those articles which can furnish a large supply of 
rich chyle, even, although they should he, like mi!k>ofthe 



362 eoNBUMprn 

very mildest nature. But after suppuration takes place, and 
there is a free discharge of purulent matter, the an ti phlogis- 
tic plan should be pursued no further; on the contrary, a 
more nutricious diet is essentially necessary. The healing of 
tuberculous ulcers in the lungs, as well as of scrofulous boi 
at other parts, is only to be expected from recruiting and 
giving vigor to the system. In this state of the disease, then- 
fore, a nutritious diet is naturally indicated; and indeed the 
evident marks of exhaustion point out the propriety of a due 
supply. Besides these particulars, a liberal and nutritious 
diet is often manifested in this stage of the disease by the feel 
ings of the patient, for it is, by no means, uncommon to ob- 
serve even a craving for animal food; and it may be remarked, 
that in very raro instances only are such calls of nature en- 
tirely to be neglected. 

The diet in the inflammatory state of consumption should 
be light, and composed of articles that tend to correct acri- 
mony, and diminish inflammation, as milk, butter-milk, rice- 
milk, arrow root, sago, fruits of every kind, and vegetables. 
In the advanced stage of the disease, and when the pulse is 
weak, a more cordial and stimulating diet, and strengthening 
remedies are necessary. To prevent weakness, and other ill 
effects of an empty stomach, patients should take frequently 
of meat, with wine, porter, or toddy: raw oysters are thought 
to be peculiarly proper. With this cordial diet, tar pills, 
bark, and elixir vitriol, or an infusion of the inner bark of 
the wild-cherry tree, or hoarhound, and bitters of all kinds, 
have been exceedingly useful in this state of consumption. 

Mr and situation are apparently objects of considerable im- 
portance, in a disease where medicine must confess the utility 
of her resources. Change of air is among the remedies con- 
stantly recommended; and to change is often professedly the 
only object. 

Exercise, when not carried to fatigue, in a dry country air, 
often does more good than medicine, and, consequently, should 
always be taken » 



■^CONTINENCE OF URINE:. 868 

lionf journies on horseback, are the most effectual modes 
of exercise, carefully avoiding night air, and the extreme 
heat of the day in summer. That exercise be not carried to 
fatigue, patients should travel only a few miles a-day at first, 
and gradually increase the distance as they increase their 
strength. When exercise on horseback cannot be supported, 
sailing and swinging should be substituted, and no efforts to 
cheer the spirits, or innocently to amuse the mind, should be 
neglected. 

Great care should be taken to regulate the dress accord- 
ing to the changes of the weather. -The chest, in particular, 
should be defended from the cold, and the feet from the damp* 
In the various stages of this disorder, the bowels ought to be 
kept moderately open by emollient clysters, or the mildest 
laxatives, if the diet should not have the desired effeets. 



INCONTINENCE OF URINE* 

-- 

Symptoms. An involuntary evacuation of urine. 

■ 
Causes. A relaxation of the sphincter of the bladders- 
injuries received about the neck of the bladder— pressure of 
the womb in a state of pregnancy, &c. 

Treatment. When the disease proceeds from a relaxa* 
tion of the sphincter of the bladder, a large blister to the os 
sacrum or lowermost part of the back-bone, will be found 
highly beneficial, and often effects a cure in one or two days.' 

The cold bath, or dashing cold water upon the genitals? 
and tonic medicines, as the nitric acid, lime water, bark, steel, 
and columbo, are peculiarly proper in obstinate cases of this 
kind. The tincture of canthar ides, in doses often or twelve 
drops, every three or four hours, is said, by Dr. Morton, to 
be a specific in this complaint. Others recommend alum 
whey, made as strong as the stomach will -bear if. and Aired 



3o4 MFFIC1 l KIM 

a half pint to be taken night and morning. M ith others, the 
blue vitriol, in doses of bait a grain, given twice a-day, in any 
agreeable liquor, is most to be depended on. The occasional 
use of rhubarb, in small doses, to keep the bowels easy, tends 
greatly to alleviate the affection. When it b> produced h) an 
impregnated womb, little more can bo done than observing 
horizontal position as much as possible. 



DIFFICULTY OF URINE. 

"When there are frequent uneasy urgings to void urine, 
and it is discharged with difficulty and pain, the disease is 
called a strangury; and when it is totally retained, is called a 
suppression of urine. 

Causes. It arises from a variety of causes, as calculous 
concretions— obstructions in the urethra — blisters — of the 
tincture of cantharides, taken internally too freely— wounds, 
bruises, &c. 

Treatment. The cure must greatly depend on the 
cause. If the pulse be full and feverish, bleed and procure 
stools by emollient clysters and cooling laxatives, such as 
castor oil, or the cathartic mixture. [See Dispensatory.'] — 
Much dependence is to be placed in the free uso of demulcent 
drinks, as barley water, flaxseed tea, mucilage of gam-arabic, 
♦ decoction of marsh-mallows, of parsley roots, or of water- 
melon seeds, especially if the affection be owing to the can- 
tharides, or any injury of the bladder. One of the camphor- 
ated powders, [See Dispensatory] given every three or four 
hours, in the patient's common drink, often effects a cure.— 
Gr.-at relief will be obtained from the warm bath, used often- 
er or seldomer as the case may require, or sitting in a tub ol 
warm water, or from the frequent applications to the belly, ©f 



DIFFICULTY OF URINE. 365 

«]nths wrung out of Itot vatcr, or bladders half filled with it. 
Opiates are very serviceable, but should never be used in the 
height of fever. 

A starch clyster, with laudanum, has very frequently given 
immediate relief. Cooling laxatives and diuretics, which 
operate without any stimulus, particularly the epsorn or 
glaubcr salts, as in the form of the cathartic mixture, often 
relieve. As a diuretic, the following mixture is considered 
most salutary. Take, of sweet spirits of nitre, one ounce, 
laudanum and antimonial wine, each, two drad ms, a table- 
spoonful of which may be given in some diluent drink, and 
half this quantity repeated every hour, if necessary. 

In the chronic- stranguary, after other means have failed, 
the use of calomel in small doses, or mercurial ointment rub- 
bed into the thighs every night till a slight pfyalism ensues, 
has frequently effected a permanent cure. In such cases an 
affection of the prostrate gland may be suspected to have 
been the cause. Walking on a cold wet floor, perhaps dash- 
ing water against the legs and thighs, vould, in obstinate 
cases, succeed in procuring a discharge of urine, as it has done 
the discharge of the faeces. When a suppression of urine 
arises fr<;m partial palsy, as frequently occurs in the old and 
debilitated constitutions, our best chance of success, in giving 
temporary relief, is to give the spirits of turpentine in pretty 
large doses, make use of general stimulants, and apply a 
large blister to the loins. 

When this complaint is in consequence of calculous concre 
tions or gravel obstructing the urinary passages, which may 
be known by pain in the loins, sickness at the stomach, and 
sometimes a discharge of bloody urine, an infusion of wild 
carrot-seed sweetened with hone) , as also the infusion of peach 
leaves, [Set Materia Medica] have been found exceedingly 
beneficial. The infusion of hops, .which is considered a sol- 
vent of the stone, administered in doses of a wine-glassful, 
am! taken to the quantity of a pint daily, is said to be an ex- 
cellent remedy in calculous affections. The uva ursi, is like* 
48 



Jfi6 DIFFICULTY OF URINE. 

Wise celebrated as a remedy in cases of gravel, iti doses of five 
grains w ith half a grain of opium, thrice a-day. A more pow- 
erful medicine, however, for gravel complaints, is the caustic 
alkali, or soap-lees. [See Dispensatory.] !)• t beHig of an acrid 
nature, it ought always to he given in mucilaginous drinks, 
and commenced with small doses, which should begradt ally 
increased as far as the stomach can hear, and continued for a 
longtime, particularly if there should be an abatement in the. 
s\ mptoms. 

When great pain attends a suppression of urine, and the 
bladder is full, which can he ascertained by feeling it above 
the os pubis, and on pressure creating pain in the neck of the. 
bladder* or at the end of the penis, it will be necessary to 
have recourse to the catheter, or a hollow bougie for drawing 
off the water. The larger sizes of each are more easily in- 
troduced than the smaller, as they are not so liable to stop in 
tiic corrugations and foldings of the urethra, which occurs in 
elderly men. It is easy to introduce the catheter into (he fe- 
male bladder, since the direction of the urethra is nearly 
straight; but in males there is greater difficulty. The cele- 
brated Heister directs the man to lie on his back, and the ope- 
rator to take the penis in his left hand as he stands on the pa- 
tient's leftside, reclining the penis towards the navel, then he 
is to introduce the catheter, thoroughly oiled, wjth its concave 
part to the belly, in the urethra, so far as the os pubis, and 
so thrusting it under the symphysis of those bones, and mov- 
ing the hands gently outwards, forces it into the bladder. 

In the following cases, ibis instrument cannot be used. — 
When the neck of the bladder is greatly inflamed — when a 
scirrhosity or preternatural tumor of the prostrate gland or 
stone obstructs the passage — when the uterus is remarkably 
prominent and pendulous over thepubes — or when the literal 
is rctroverted, in which state it drags the bladder upwards 
and backwards. 

When the application of blisters causes a difficulty of urine, 
wasli the blistered part frequently with warm milk and water, 
*r apply sweet oil. Jn children, a suppression of urine is of 



HEMORRHOIDS, OR PILES. 367 

len relieved by a poultice of raw onions or radishes applied 

to the bottom of the belly. 

Regimen, during the violence of this complaint, the 

lightest diet only should be used, and mucilaginous drinks 
taken freely. Those who are often afflicted with it, ought care- 
fully to avoid aliment hard of digestion, flatulent, or of a 
heating nature. 



HEMORRHOIDS. OH FILES. 

When there is a discharge of blood from the hemorrhoidal 
reins, it is called the open or bleeding piles; and when, instead 
of this hemorrhage, there are painful tumors at the lower 
part of the rectum, it is called the blind piles. 

Causes. Costiveness— strong aloelic purges— much ri- 
ding — or sedentary habits. 

Treatment. If the patient be of a full hab ; t, bleed, keep 
the bowels gently open with epsom salts, the cathartic mix- 
ture, cream of tartar and sulphur or molasses and water; and 
avoid violent exercise, high seasoned dishes, and every thing 
of a stimulating nature. Topical applications, as cloths 
wrung out of cold vinegar and water, or lead water, are also 
useful, and should not be omitted in either case. When the 
piles are of the bleeding sort, and will not readily yield to the 
above means, apply cloths dipped in charcoal powder, or in a 
strong solution of white vitriol or alum, frequently to the 
fundament, or anoint the part with the hemorrhoidal ointment 
[See Dispensatory] and endeavor to restore the tone of the ves- 
sels by the use of bark, elixir vitriol, nitric acid, or tincture 
or rust of steel. When the disorder assumes a chronic form 
in the more advanced periods of life, or when tin* piles do not 
bleed, thpy are generally attended with considerable pain, in 
which case, dossils of lint dipped in (dive oil may be applied, 
or olive oil with an equal portion of laudanum, may be spread 



368 HEMORRHOIDS, OR FILES. 

on soft rags and retained by the T bandage. In addition t» 
this mode of treatment, when (he tumors are ver) painful, it 
is necessary tiKsit over the steam of hot water, which seldom 
fails to produce immediate relief. The poke-weed [See MaU 
ria.Mcdica] has in some instances been employed with good 
effects. The balsam capivi, in doses of a tea spoonful night 
and morning is said to be useful in relieving the pain, and 
will sometimes effect a permanent cure. According to Dr. 
Thomas, the tincture of fox-glove, given in pretty large and 
frequent doses, is a remedy both for the external and internal 
piles. 

When the tumors will not yield to the external applications 
above recommended, anoint them night and morning wit the 
m« rcurial ointment, to which may be added one-fourth opium. 

If the blind piles encompass the anus so as to prevent the 
discharges by stool, and prove otherwise troublesome, the 
largest may be removed by a ligature. If the distend veinis 
high and inflamed, it may he opened with a lancet. When 
from long continued piles a fistula is apprehended, Ward's 
paste is sometimes useful. It consists of a pound of elecam- 
pane root, with half as much black pepper, and a pound and 
a half of fennel seeds, made into a paste with honey. Per- 
haps the remedy of the honorable John Taliaferro, for whit- 
low, might lie useful in this case. 

When the piles are apparently continued from relaxation, 
two drachms of the tincture of steel, with nearly the same 
quantity of laudanum and four ounces of bailey water or 
thin starch may be injected as a clyster, morning and night. 

Prevention. Those who are subject to this distressing 
complaint, may be assured of preventing its recurrence, by 
keeping the bowels in a soluble state, with the occasional use 
•f sulphur at bed-time, by washing the fundament night and 
morning with t!ie coldest water, and b\ making use of a sponge 
absorbed with cold water, after obeying the calls of nature. 



h 



369 

DYSENTERY, 

OR BLOODY FLUX. 

Symptoms. A discharge of mucus by stool often bloody — 
violent gripings — pain in the loins — a constant inclination to 
go to stool, without being able to void an) thing; and some- 
times fever. 

Causes. Putrid air and aliment — green fruit — strong ca- 
thartic s — obstructed perspiration, and whatever increases the 
natural irritability of the intestines. 

Treatment. To conduct the patient safely through this 
disease, the bowels should be evacuated by calomel, castor oil, 
or the cathartic mixture, and if the patient be of an inflamma- 
tory disposition, or there be febrile symptoms, blood-letting 
wdl also be required. After the acrid contents of the sto- 
mach and intestines have been evacuated, the anodyne sudor- 
ific bolus or- draught [See Dispensatory] may be given at bed- 
time; and on the following day, if there be no evacuation of a 
natural appearance, one or other of the above aperient medi- 
cines must be exhibited in small doses, until the desired effect 
is obtained. 

To produce a natural evacuation daily, is a circumstance 
of the greatest importance in this disease, and should, at all 
times, be kept in view. To neglect this, as my good old 
friend, Doctor Henry Stevenson, of Baltimore, used often to 
say, would be like "Locking the thief in the hornet to do all the 
mischief he could." It is sometimes proper, instead of bleed- 
ing, to give an emetic in the beginning of the disease, to per- 
sons of weak habits; but where there is a great degree ofir- 
rit hility of the stomach, or obstructions of the liver, vomiting 
will do more harm than good. 

It is my us a! practice, at the commencement of this com- 
plaint, to administer to adults about a scruple of calomel, con- 
joined with five or six grains of ipecacuanha, or a grain of 



370 DYSENTERY, OR TLoOnv Pr i 

tartar emetic, and in a few hours afterwards, or if the medi- 
cine be taken at bed-time, on the next morning, to give a small 
dose of epsom salts orcastoroil. With children, calomel, in 
large doses, united with a small portion of ipecacuanha, arc 
the principal medicines I eni| loy, as it is difficult to prevail on 
them to swallow either the salts or castor oil. This mode of 
practice, together with a plentiful exhibition of arrow ro<it, the 
occasional use of the warm bath, and after the inflammatory 
symptoms subside, an opiate at bed-time, has uniformly suc- 
ceeded. When the febrile symptoms justified the use of the 
lancet, it was, of course, resorted to in the early stage of the 
disease. By conjoining the ipecacuanha with calomel or opi- 
um, a determination to the skin is produced, which is very 
desirable in this complaint. It should be remarked, however, 
though diaphoretics are indispensable, yet the patient should 
not be suffered to sweat profusely. The object is rather to 
produce a general relaxation, than to weaken by the discharge. 
A soft pulse, and moist skin, are the chief signs of the good 
effects of the remedies employed, and of a certain amendment. 

When the disease is epidemic, after having premised the 
necessary evacuations, calomel is most to be depended on, in 
doses of four or five grains, combined with Dover's powder, 
the anodyne sudorific bolus, or with one or two grains of opi- 
um alone, exhibited every night. And when the calomel does 
not produce a natural evacuation, it is always proper to give 
a small doseofepsom salts, castor oil, or one or two wine 
glasses of the cathartic mixture, every morning, until the 
disease begins to yield. 

If acidity prevails in the stomach and intestines, as mark- 
ed by oppression, heat, sour belching, and vomiting, and ex- 
coriations about the fundament, besides a liberal use of mu- 
cilaginous and sheathing drinks, a wine-glassful of the absor. 
bent mixture, [See I)ispenatnry]ur a spoonful or two of new 
milk and lime water, should be givn every two or three 
hours. Frequent injections '>f cold wateralone, or flaxseed tea, 
or barley water, w;th atable-spomfnl -»f laudanum, are of in- 
finite service when the pain in the bowels and tenesmus are 
distressing. 



DYSENTERY, OR BLOODY FLUX. 37I 

In obstinate rases, or when tin re is the least apprehension 
of ho inflammation of the bowels, the warm bath or local fo- 
mentation to the belly, am! afterwards, a blister, are indis- 
pensable. At the close of the disease, or when it indicates 
symptoms of a putrid nature, the charcoal, columbo, bark, 
an- 1 wine, are the appropriate remedies; and as a purge, rhu- 
barb may be employed. Children that have been very much 
emaciated by this disease, have been most wonderfully restor- 
ed to health, by bathing them night and morning in a strong 
decoction of oak bark [See Materia Medica,] impregnated 
with whiskey or common spirits, and by putting oil them bark 
jackets as advised in the ague and fever. 

Doctor Mosely, a physician of great celebrity, states, that 
in chronic dysentery; unattended with fever, there is not a 
more efficacious medicine than the vitriolic solution, [See Dis- 
pensatory'] in doses of a table-spoonful every morning, with an 
opiate at bed-time. 

In preparing this solution, the proportion of either the vi- 
triol or alum may be increased or diminished according to cir- 
cumstances; that is, when evacuations are required, the quan- 
tity of alum may be diminished, or entirely omitted, and when 
great astringency is required, the quantity of alum is to be in- 
creased, and the vitriol diminished. 

A simple, though efficacious remedy in this disease, is a so- 
lution of common salt in vinegar or lemon juice, termed anti- 
dysenteric mixture. [See Dispensatory.] This medicine has 
also been strongly recommended in bilious fever, or putrid 
sore throat, when the bowels are in an irritable state. Dew- 
berry is likewise a valuable medicine in this distressing dis- 
ease. [See Materia Medico,.] 

Rkgimen. In the violence of this disease, the diet should 
consist only of arrow root, sago, panado, or gruel, and the 
drinks of a cooling and sheathing nature, as barley or rice 
water, flaxseed tea, or mucilage of gum-arabic, or sassafras. 
[See Materia Medica.] But when the disease has existed some 
time, the diet should he m«re nourishing, particularly if the 



372 DYSENTERY, OH BLOODY FLI 

patient lias been weakened by preceding <lis« ;i^o, or is cither 
of a tender or an advanced age. Oranges, and whatever ripe 
fruit the season affords, may be allowed. 

The room should be constantly fumigated with vinegar, and 
well ventilated. The clothing, as well as tin- b< riding, ought 
to be often renewed, ami all iff»*nsLve odors, particularly lbs 
faces, should be removed as speedily as possible. 

Prevention. The same means of prevention are heir to 
be us d, as under the head of bilious lever, and as this dis" ase 
becomes infectious, by neglect of clean'iness. its further pro. 
gress through the medium of bad air, may be cheeked b> at- 
tending to the mode of purifying that element prescribed under 
the bead of nervous fever.* 

* It was this disease, which carried from the honors of this, to the 
glories of a better world, the illustrious auihor of the Derlaration ot 
Independence, Thomas Jeffkrson. His disorder assumed a serious 
character on the 26th of June, 1826. The strength erf his constitution 
and his freedom from pain, for a short time, encouraged the hope that 
his illness was merely temporary. He himself, however, tell the con- 
viction, that his last hour was approaching. He had aJready lived be- 
yond the limit ordinarily assigned <o human existence, and, for some 
months past, he had looked forward to its termination, with a calm 
ness and equanimity worth\ of his past life, nunc dim.ta is, tlomma, 8ce. 
"Lord now lettest" thou thy servant depan in peace, the beautiful 
ejaculation of the just and devout Hebrew, was his favorite quotation. 
On the 2d of July, "the complaint left him; but his physician expressed 
tears that his strength might not prove sufficient to restore him from 
the debilitated Btate to which he was reduced. Conscious that he 
should not recover, and free from pain, he calmly gave directions re- 
lative to his coffin and interment, which he requested might be at 
Monticello, without pomp or parade. On Monday the following day, 
Te mquired. with much solicitude, of those around hm. what was the 
lavTthem.nth? On being told that it was the 3d day o July, he 
llerlv expressed his desire that he might be permitted to live yet a 
J3F while to breathe the air ot the fiftieth Mmiversary His desire 
vvas gratified. He was sustained up to the very moment when lis 
wfshe were complete, and was then borne to that world, when the 
pure in heart meet their God. Of Mr. Jefferson's public virtues and 
Services i were superfluous for the author tc , speak History has 
taken clree of them. His excellent and amiable life, his warm and 
u^ 7 t|TtachStto his friends, his liberal and «"-^"£- 
totality and his singular moderation and equanimity are also known 
5oa y andbvall and held in pleasing but mournful remembrance. 
None was e4r more illustrious "in life; none was ever more happy in 

de On the same dav died the venerable compatriot of Mr. Jefferson, 
the Ex-Presulent, John AoAMS, Mr. Adams felt the gradua jdecay 
of are affecting his body rather by insensible degrees, than bj 



374 



APOPLECTIC FITS. 

Symptoms. Sudden falling to the ground, with a deprV 
vation of sense and motion, attended by deep sleep and noisy 
breathing, the circulation remaining unimpaired. 

Causes. Plethora; hard drinking; too large doses of opi- 
um — blows — tight neck-cloths, or whatever interrupts the re- 
turn of the blood from the head. 

Treatment. In the cure of a disease threatening such 
sudden fatality, remedies must be speedily employed. The 
patient's head should instantly be raised and supported, and 
he be placed in a situation where he can respire a cool air. He 
is to be bled most copiously, to the amount of a quart or more, 
and this must be repeated after a short time, if he is not re- 
lieved, especially if the disease occur in a person of robust and 
plethoric habit Cup also on the temples. Brisk purges are 
next to be administered, and when these cannot be swallowed, 
the most stimulating injections should be thrown up. 

Where the disease depends rather on a depletion of tire 
blood vessels, than on too great fulness, which may be known 
by its attacking old people of debilitated habits, bleeding is 
sparingly to be resorted to, particularly if the countenance 

settled infirmity. He did not, till a few days before his death, show- 
any indication of a more rapid decay of health than usual. The fourth 
ot July found him unable to rise from his bed, on account of an unusual 
degree of debility. Roused bv the sound of distant artillery, he said, 
"it is a glorious day." Being afterwards asked for a toast, to be drank 
by his neighbors, he said, I will give them "independence for ever.' 1 
These were his last intelligible words: about four o'clock, in the af- 
ternoon, this ancient patriot joined the throng of "just men made per- 
fect." Great and glorious was the consummation of these renowned 
founders of American Liberty. They finished their course, when 
they reached the Jubilee of that Independence which they had, in s6 
threat a measure, contributed to establish. They departed,' (to use the 
language of our present honored Chief Magistrate, the distinguished 
son of John Adams,) cheered by the benedictions of their countrymen, 
to whom they left the inheritance of their f-.ime, and the memory ff 
their bright example*. 
VJ 



.74 ran 



1 L J_ 1 J 1' 



appears to bo sunk and palid. In these cases, the patient ought 
to be laid on a bed, with Ilia head elevated, and turned every 
hour. Clysters are then to be given, and as soon as liquids 
i^an be swallowed, the"coritents of the stomach and sowela 
should be evacuated by a brisk purge. 

Sinapisms and blisters to the extremities, should not be ne- 
glected. But scalding or searing the soles of the feet with a 
hot iron, will more certainly and suddenly rouse the torpid 
system. 

Regimen. The diet should he of the lowest kind, consist 
ing principally, for several 'ays after the attack) of diluent 
drinks, such as rice or barley water, tamarind water, flaxseed 
tea, &c. 

Prevention. In full babit9, let the diet be light and spar- 
ing, and the bowels kept open. In debilitated habits, the diet 
should be more nourishing, and the strengthening medicines, 
as bark, steel, ecc, employed to give tone to the vessels. 



EPILEPTIC FITS. 

Symptoms. The patient falls suddenly with a deprivation 
of sense, while the muscles of the face and every part of the 
body are violently convulsed. 

Causes. Excessive drinking— sudden stoppage of the 
courses— severe fright— injuries of the head— teething in chil- 
dren — and irritation from worms in the stomach and intcs* 
tines. 

Treatment. To prevent the patient from injuring him- 
self by the violence of Ids struggles, he ought immediately to 
he placed on a bed. The clothing should be every where 
loosened, and the head moderately elevated. A slip of wood 
should he placed between the jaws to prevent their closing on 



EPILEPTIC FITS. 375 

(he tongue, and nothing administered in a glass vessel. Should 
it appear that the patient has been drinking too freely of 
spirituous liquors, or has loaded his stomach with indigestible 
matter, a str >ng emetic should be immediately given, which, 
by cleansing the stomach, will often terminate the paroxysm. 

If suppressed evacuations are the cause, they must be re- 
excited by such means as are calculated to restore the course 
of nature. If the patient complain of pain in the head, a 
seton in the nape of the neck should not be omitted. If worms 
be the fault, which may be known by an offensive breath and 
irregular appetite, they must be removed before a radical cure 
can be effected. 

The suppression of cutaneous affections has occasioned the 
disease; the repulsion of the gout; and sometimes the deficien- 
cy of the constitutional strength, which prevents its formation, 
has had the same effect. In all these instances the knowledge 
of the cause will suggest the means of relief. 

When causes of debility and irritability, produce epilepsy; 
in other words, when the irritability is so great, that the 
slightest irritation will induce the fits, the remedy is equally 
obvious. Warm generous diet, which may appear at first 
indicated, must be used with caution, since a fulness of the 
vessels is, alone, .in tender habits, a cause of irritability. 
Tonic medicines, with some of the narcotic bitters, as hops, 
iceland liverwort, and lettuce, are the best remedies in such 
cases, anxiously guarding as usual against any accumulations 
in the head; but not by stlch medicines as will weaken. 

Sometimes an epileptic fit is preceded by an uneasy sensa- 
tion in some of the limbs or trunk of the body, creeping up- 
wards to the head. In this case, the fit will be prevented by 
applying a ligature above the part so affected. 

Many cases have occurred, in which this disease has been 
cured with the sugar of lead, particularly under the age of 
maturity. It should be commenced in small doses, beginning 
with one-fourth of a grain, for a half grown person, and 
gradually increased to two grains or more, thrice a-day, made 
into pills with the crumbs of bread. If from using this me- 
dicine the bowels are disordered, it should be laid aside until 



376 PAINTING PI 

relief is obtained by the use of Hie bath, mild laxative*, and 
opium in more than usual doses. A small portion of opium, 
combined with the lead, [See Dispensatory] will generally ob 
Tiate or correct its unpleasant operation. 

The good effects of nitrate of silver, commonly called lu- 
nar rr\u- also been attested by eminent physicians, in 
doses from one-fourth, viry gradually im teased to a grain, 
twice a-day, made into pills with bread. The flowers of zinc 
have likewise been highly spoken of, and are said to have 
performed permanent cures, in doses of six or eight grains, 
morning and night. 

As there is incontrovertible evidence, that these medicines 
have succeeded in certain cases, they are, all deserving of a 
fair trial, particularly in the treatment of a disease in which 
no plausible remedy should be left untried. 



FAINTING FITS. 

Symptoms. The pulse and respiration suddenly becomes, 
exceedingly feeble, insomuch, at times, as to create- a fear of 
the total extinction of life. 

Causes. Fright— long fasting— large evacuations— debil- 
ity, &c. 

Treatment. The patient should be placed in a reclining 
posture, and every part of the clothing, which by its tight- 
ness is likely to interrupt the free circulation of blood, must 
be immediately loosened. The doors and windows of the room, 
especially if the weather be warm, should be kept open, and 
no more persons admitted than are necessary to give assis- 
tance; and these should not prevent the free access of the air 
to the patient. 

Sprinkle the face with cold water or vinegar, and apply vo- 
latile, burnt linen, or feathers, to the nostrils; and that the 
stimulus may with more certainty be inhaled, the patient should 
be kept from breathing through 'he mouth, by holding ahand- 
kerchief forcibly against it, taking care, however, to leave 
the nostrils perfectly free. 



377 



HYSTERIC FITS. 

Tins disease more frequently occurs in the unmarried or 
barren women, and those who lead a sedentary life. It very 
seldom appears before the age of puberty, or after the age of 
thirty-five years. The time at which it most readily occurs,, 
is that of the menstrual period. 

Symptoms. Generally commences with universal languor 
and coldness of the extremities. The colour of the face is va- 
riable, being sometimes flushed and sometimes paic. The 
pulse becomes unequal and obscure. The stomach is some- 
times affected with vomiting, tholungswith difficulty of breath- 
ing, and the heart with palpitations. A painful sensation is 
often felt, like that of a globe or a ball in the left side of .'he 
belly, advancing upwards, and producing the same uneasiness 
in the stomach, from which it rises in the throat, occasion ig 
by its pressure, a sense of suffocation; when a degree of faint- 
ing comes on, certain convulsive motions take place, agita- 
ting the trunk of the body and limbs in various ways; .<fter 
which, alternate fits of laughter and crying occur, and a re- 
mission then ensues. In some patients, a \iolcnt beating pain 
takes place in some part of the head, as if a nail was driving 
into it. Sharp pains, likewise, attack the loins, back, and 
bladder, and the patient makes an unusual quantity of urine 
as limpid as water; which is one of the most characteristic 
signs of the disease. 

The appearances which take place in this affection, are con- 
siderably varied in different persons, and even in the same 
persons at different times. It differs by having more or fewer 
of those circumstances above mentioned; by those circum- 
stances being more or less violent, and by the different dura- 
tion of the wliole fit. 

Causes. Excessive evacuations, particularly of the men 
ses, depressing passions, continued anxiety, violent excite 
ment, sudden surprise, grief, indigestion, &c. 



378 HYSTERIC ill-- 

Treatment. If the patient be young ami of a plethoric 

habit, blood-letting will be required during the fit; but in deli- 
cate constitutions tuis operation is not advisable. Volatiles, 
singed feathers, and the like, should be applied to the nostrils: 
and if the patient can swallow, a tea-spoonful of ether, or 
tincture of assafoetida, or thirty or forty drops of laudanum, 
may be given, in a glass of cold water, and repeated in a cou- 
ple of hours, or sooner, if necessary. Clyster!) of gruel, to 
which may be added a tea-spoonful or two of laudanum, will 
also have a good effect. The feet and legs should, as soon as 
possible, be put in warm water, and well rubbed with the hand. 
Cold water sprinkled on the face, and the admission of the 
cool air in the room, are likewise proper auxiliaries. 

During the intermission of the fit, the nervous system 
should be strengthened to prevent a recurrence, by the tonic 
powders, pills, or drops, [See I)ispensutorij~] in their usual 
doses, after having adm n stered some purgative medicine. — 
Upon the approach of any languor, t^ie patient should instantly 
take a glass of wine, or a tea-spoonful of 'avender, or ten or 
twelve drops of laudanum io a glass of cold water. 

When hystet-ic affections originate from a suppression or 
obstruction of the menses, these must be promoted by adopt- 
ing the means advised under those heads. 

REruviEY. \ti attention to diet is highly proper for the 
rcnoval of this disease. V milk an 1 vegetable diet duly per- 
sisted in, will have the most salutary effect, especially in san- 
guine constitutions; but should vegetables create flatulency 
and acidity in the stomach and bowels, in such cases animal 
food will be the most appropriate diet. The best drink after 
dinner is water with a little good wine, or a smaller quantity 
of old spirits. 

Tea should be prohibited altogether, or used sparingly. — 
Moderate exercise, particularly riding on horseback, is of the 
greatest service, as are likewise amusements and cheerful 
cbmpany. 



379 



PALSY. 

Is a disease consisting in a loss of the power of voluntary 
motion, but affecting certain parts of the body only, and by 
this it is distinguished from apoplexy. In the most violent 
degrees of palsy, the patient loses both the power ol motion, 
and sense of feeling, either of one side, or the lower half of 
the body. The hist is termed hemiplegia, the latter paraple- 
gia. When it affects any particular parts only, as the tongue> 
the lip, eye-lid, &c, it is termed a local palsy. 

Symptoms. If this disease be not the effect of apoplexy, 
it is often preceded by universal torpor, giddiness, a sense of 
weight or uneasiness in the head, dulness of comprehension, 
loss of memory, and a sense of coldness in the part about to 
be affected; there is also, sometimes tremor, creeping, and 
pain in the part. 

Causes. Compression of the brain from any of the causes 
inducing apoplexy — certain poisons received into the body, 

as lead, arsenic, &c. — injuries done the spinal marrow 

It is also produced in consequence of extreme debility, and 
old age. 

Treatment. If palsy arises from the causes producing 
apoplexy, it must necessarily be treated in the manner recom- 
mended for the cure of that disease, by bleeding copiously in 
full habits, and keeping the bowels in a laxative state for ma- 
ny days. 

It will also be requisite to apply a large blister to the back 
of the neck, and when the discharge is lessened, others should 
be applied behind each ear. After congestion is removed by 
this mode of treatment, it will then be necessary to commence 
with the stimulating plan, in order to rouse the torpid vessels 
into action. When stimulants arc resorted to, they should be 
changed every eight or ten days, -and sometimes alternated 
with gentle laxatives, to prevent returns of accumulation on 
the brain. 



380 i'ai.m . 

In s me instances this disease arises from diminished < 
gy of the brain, and in such cases we must have recourse to 
stimulants* both internally and externally, without delay. In 
this state th(^ essential oils and balsams are frequently em 
ployed vvith good effects. One of the most active and useful 
medicines of this class is the spirit of turpentine in doses from 
twenty to sixty drops thrice a-day. A table-spoonful of horse 
radish scraped, or the same quantity of mustard -seed, swal- 
lowed three or four times a-day, will have a good effect. The 
volatile alkali is also of infinite service in large doses. At 
the same time, external stimulants must be duly attended to, 
such as dry frictions over the part affected, with a flesh brush 
or rough cloths, and the flour of, mustard, or flannels impreg- 
nated with the. tincture of cayenne pepper, oil of turpentine, 
oil of sassafras, or volatile liniment, or some of the tincture 
of cantharides. Stimulating the part with nettles has produ- 
ced good effects, as well as electricity, particularly in local 
palsies. 

A seton in the neck, particularly if the patient is affected 
with giddiness, will afford considerable relief, and should not 
be neglected. Cases of palsy have been cured by salivation. 

If the disease is in consequence of a curvature of the back 
bone, compressing the spinal marrow, a perpetual blister or 
issue over the part affected, or on each side of the diseased 
portion of the bone, is the only remedy. A local palsy, par- 
ticularly when it is confined to one muscle, will generally 
yield to the application of a blister as near to the part affec- 
ted as possible. 

Regimen. In plethoric habits the diet should he of the 
lightest kind, but quite the contrary in debilitated habits. In 
such cases th" diet should be warm and strengthening, sea 
soned with spices and aromatic ingredients, and the drink 
must be generous wine, mustard whey, ginger tea, or brandy 
and nater. Flannel wore n?xt the skin is peculiarly proper, 
i regular exercise, when not carried to fatigue, or used in 
a cold dump air. 



381 



HYPOCHONDRIAC DISEASE, 

("Commonly called Vapors, or Low Spirits. J 

This complaint chiefly occurs in tlie male, and that at ad- 
vanced life; and it is confined, for the most part, to persons of 
a sedentary or studious disposition, especially such as have 
indulged grief or anxiety. 

Symptoms. Languor, listlessness, or want of resolution 
and activity, with respect to all undertakings — a disposition 
to seriousness, sadness, and timidity as to all future events — 
an apprehension of the worst or most unhappy state of them, 
and therefore often, on slight ground, a dread of great evil. 
Such persons are particularly attentive to the state of their 
own health, and to the smallest change of feeling in their bo- 
dies, from any unusual sensation, perhaps of the slightest 
kind, they apprehend great danger, and even death itself; and 
in respect to all their feelings and apprehensions, there is, for 
the most part, unfortunately, the most obstinate belief and 
persuasion. 

This diseased state of mind is sometimes attended with 
symptoms of indigestion, hysterical affections, and sometimes 
with melancholy; but these arc merely effects. 

Causes. Indolence— violent passions of the mind — sup- 
pression of customary evacuations — obstructions of some of 
the viscera, &c; but its immediate cause appears to be a loss 
of energy in the brain, or torpid state of the nervous system. 
It would appear, however, that these complaints proceed 
from an original affection of the stomach. 

Treatment. The cure of this disease seems to depend 
on exciting the nervous energy which is depressed, and that 
particularly by attending to the state of mind. 



Sfl»U HYFGCHONBMAC I)] 

A constant state of motion should therefore be advised, >* 
penally by riding on hoiscbsck. and making lone; jouinics 
which presents new objects to the view. 

Nothing is more pernicious in this disease, than idleness.; 
but in avoiding it, all application to former studies are to be 
prevented. The present emotions must be favored and indul- 
ged: and though an attempt should be made to withdraw the 
attention of such patients fro n themselves, yet their confi- 
dence ought first to be gained; and since the persuasion of 
their own opinion is strong, and the infallibility of their own 
fears and sensations rooted, however absurd these may be. 
they require a very nice management.* Raillery must never 



* Some hypochondriacs have fancied themselves miserably afflicted 
in one way, and some in another — some have insisted that they were 
tka pots; and some, that they wen- town clocks, — this, that he 
had a big belly, and that his iegs were glass — one that he was ex- 
tremely ill, and another that he was actually dying. But I have never 
heard of any ot this blue-devil class, whose extravagance ever yet 
came up to the following, which was related to me by my noble heart 
ed old friend, the late Dr. Stevenson, of Baltimore, whose very name 
always sounds in my ears as the summary of every manly virtue. 

This Hypochondriac, who, by the bye, was a patient of Dr. Steven- 
son, after ringing the change on every mad conceit that ever torment- 
ed a crazy brain, would have it at last that he was dead, actually 
dead Dr. Stevenson having been sent for one morning in great haste, 
by the wife of his patient, hastened to his bed side, where he found 
him stretched out at full length, his hands across his breast, his great 
toes in contact, his eyes and mouth closely shut, and his looks cadaver- 
ous. 

"Well, sir, how do you do ? how do you do this morning ?" asked 
Dr. Stevenson, in his blustering jocular way, approaching his bed. 
4 How do I do," replied the Hypochondriac, faintly — "a pretty ques- 
tion to ask a dead man." Dead !" replied the Doctor. "Yes, sir, 
dead, quite dead- I died last night about twelve o'clock." 

Quick as lightning, Dr. Stevenson caught his cue, which was to 
strike him on the string of his character; on which, the Doctor happily 
recollected he was very tender. Having gently put his hand on the 
forehead of the Hypochondriac, as if to ascertain whether it was cold, 
and also felt his pulse, he exclaimed, in doleful note, "Yes, the poor 
man is dead enough — it is all over with him, and now the sooner he 
ctn be buried the better." Then stepping up to his wife, and whis- 
pering her not be frightened at the measures he was about to take, 
he called to the servant, "My boy, your poor master is dead, and the 

sooner he can be put in the ground the better. Run to Mr. C m, 

for 1 know he always keeps New-England coffins by him, ready made 
and, do you hear, bring a coffin of the largest size, for your master 
makes a stout corpse, and having died last night, and the. weathei 
warm, he will seon begin to so 



HYPOCHONDRIAC DISEASE. 88a 

be attempted. From this supposed bodily affection, the mind 
should be diverted by employments suitable to the circumstan- 
ces and situation in life, and unattended with much emotion, 
anxiety, and fatigue. Company which engages attention, and 

Away went the servant, and soon returned with a proper coffin.— 
The wife and family having got their les&on from the Doctor, gather- 
ed around him, and howled no little, while they were putting the bo- 
dy in the coffin. Presently, the pall- bearers, who were quickly pro- 
vided and let into the secret, started with the Hypochondriac tor the 
ohurch-yard. They had not gone far before they were met by one of 
the towns-people who, having been properly drilled by the facetious 
Stevenson, cried out, "Ah Doctor! what poor soul have you got there?" 

"Poor Mr. B " sighed the Doctor, "left us last night." 

•'Great pity he had not left us twenty years ago," replied the other, 
"•for he was a bad man " 

Presently another of the towns-men met them with the same ques- 
tion. ".\nd what poor soul have you got there. Doctor?"' 

"Poor Mr. B ," answered the Doctor again, "is dead." 

"Ah! indeed!" said the other. "And so the devil has got his own at 
last." 

"Oh villain!" exclaimed the man in the coffin, "if I was not dead, 
how 1 would pay you for that." 

Soon at>er this, while the pall-bearers were resting themselves near 
the church-yard, another one stepped up with the old question again, 

"what poor soul have you got there, Doctor?" Poor Mr. B ," he 

replied, "is gone." 

"Yes, and to h 11," said the other, "for if he is not gone there, I 

see not what use there is for such a place." Here the dead man burst- 
ing off the lid of the coffin, which had been purposely left loose, leapt 
cut, exclaiming, "Oh, you villain! I am gone to h— -11, am I! Well, I 
have come back again to pay such ungrateful rascals as you are." A 
race was immediately commenced between the dead man and the liv- 
ing, to the petrifying consternation of many of the spectators, at sight 
of a corpse, bursting from the coffin, and in all the horrors of the 
winding sheet, racing through the streets. After having exercised 
himself into a copious perspiration by this fantastic chase, the Hypo- 
chondriac was brought home by Dr. Stevenson, freed of all his com- 
plaints. And by strengthening food, generous wine, cheertul compa- 
ny, and moderate exercise, was soon restored to perfect health. 

To demonstrate further, the happy effects of possessing quick wit, 
''to shoot folly as it flies," I will cite another case of Hypochoiuh iasm, 
which came under the care of that philanthropic and learned physi- 
cian, the late Doctor Crawford, of Baltimore, who, in everything 
amiable and good, was not unlike his intimate friend, Doctor Steven- 
son. 

A certain Hypochondriac, who, for a long time, fancied himself dy- 
ing of a liver complaint, was advised by Dr. Crawford, to make a 
journey to the state of Ohio. After an excursion of three months, he 
returned home, apparently in good health: but upon receiving infor- 
mation of the death of a twin brother, who had actually died of a 
schirrus liver, lie immediately took the staggers, and falling down, 
roared out that he was dead, and had, as he always expected, died of 
a liver complaint. Dr. Crawford being sent for, immediately attend- 
ed, and asked the Hypochondriac how he could be dead, seeing he 



384 HYPOCHONDRIAC DISEASE. 

is at the same time of a cheerful kind, will always be found 
of great service. The occasional reading of entertaining 
ho >ks, or playing at any game, in which some skill is requi- 
red, and where the stake is not an object of much anxiety, if 
not too long protracted, will further assist in diverting the 
mind from its If. 

The symptoms of indigestion, and hysteric complaints, that 
so frequency attend this state of mind, although the effect* 
rat'iei than the cause, arc objects of practice; inasmuch as 
they tend to aggravate and realize the false apprehensions of 
the patient. These secondary affections require the same 
mod- of treatment recommended for indigestion and the hys- 
teric disease. The warm bath is peculiarly beneficial in this 
complaint, and when the s> stem becomes somewhat invigo- 
rated, the rold bath may be employed with advantage, provi- 
ded there exists no obstructions in the bowels. From an acid 
acrimony generally prevailing in the stomach, the rust of 
steel, or filings of iron, in doses of ten grains thrice a -day, 
is the most salutary medicine of all the tonics. Magnesia 
an;! lime water are useful on the same account. 

Regime*. A proper diet constitutes an essential part in 
the treatment of this malady. In general, light animal food 
is what alone agrees with such patients; for there are few, if 
any, vegetables which do not prove flatulent in their bowels.— - 
Acids are particularly injurious. AH malt liquors, except 

could talk. But still he would have it that he was actually dead. 
Whereupon, the sagacious Doctor exclaimed, "O yes, the gentleman 
is certainly dead, and it is more than probable, his liver was the 
death of him However, to ascertain the fact, I will hasten to cut him 
open before putrefaction takes place." And thereupon, getting a 
carving knife, and whetting it as a butcher would to open a dead calt, 
he stepped up to him and began to open his waistcoat, when the Hy- 
pochondriac, horribly frightened, leaped up with the agility of a rab- 
bit and crying out, "Murder! Murder! Murder!" ran off with a 
speed that would have defied a score of Doctors to catch him. After 
running a considerable distance, until he was almost exhausted, lir 
halted; and not finding the Doctor at his heels, soon became compos- 
ed. From that period, this gentleman was never known to complain 
of his liver; nor had he, for better than twenty years afterwards, air 
•vmntom of this disease. 



cramp. 385 

porter, are apt to excite too high a fermentation in the sto- 
mach; and wines, for the most part, are lialde to the same ob- 
jections. If an exception can be made in favor of any, it is 
good old Madeira, when it can be obtained, which not onJy 
promotes digestion, and invigorates the concoctivc powers, 
but ads, immediately, as a generous and wholesome cordial. 
Tbe use of spirituous liquors is not to be recomo end' d as a 
habitual resource, though they may be taken occasionally, in 
a moderate quantity, diluted u it h water. Tea and coffee, 
though hurtful to people w ith bad digestion, are often useful, 
however, to the hypochondriac. Moderate exercise, we have 
already observed, is indispensable in the cure of this com- 
plaint; and it cannot be taken any way with so much advan- 
tage as long journies, when convenient, accompanied with 
such circumstances, as may convert them into an agreeable 
amusement. 



CRAMP. 

A painffl spasm of the calf of the leg or muscles of the 
toes, and sometimes of the stomach. 

Causes. Sudden stretching of the limbs— advanced preg- 
nancy — acidity — indigestion, irritation, and debility. 

Treatment. A cramp of the calf of the leg is best re- 
lieved by standing up, which simple act, by throwing the 
weight of the body on the toes, forcibly extends the muscles, 
and thus takes off the spasm. If the cramp arises from ac id- 
ity or indigestion, give every night a pill composed of half a 
grain of opium, with six grains each, of rhubarb and prepared 
chalk, and administer ten grains of the rust of steel, morn- 
ing and noon. 

A cramp of the stomach is best treated by an infusion of 
red pepper. [See Materia Medica,] or a large dose of aether er 
laudanum, accompanied with friction on the part, either by a 



o&b ILAAS1, OK LOCKEK JAU- 

llesh brush or flannel. When these fail, ■ very copious '»l«*cil- 
ing will sometimes remove the spas.n, alter whicli the patient 
must be purged. 

The chief remedies of spasm are those which remove the 
irritating cause. It* this cannot be ascertained, we must en- 
deavor to lesson irritability by anodynes. A sudden terror, 
the apprehension of a severe operation, on the return of the 
fit and unexpected surprise, have succeeded* Dashing water 
in the face, touching a person with something cold, or throw- 
ing up a cold clyster, have from the same principles) been ef- 
fectual. 

Persons subject to the cramp in the leg may prevent it by 
wearing stockings in bed, and occasionally rubbing the part 
with camphorated oil. According to vulgar authority, sul- 
phur grasped in the hand, is good to cure, and carried in ths 
pocket, to prevent cramp. 



TETANY. OR LOCKED JAW. 

Symptoms. A rigid and painful contraction of all or se- 
veral of the muscles. Its first symptoms is a stillness in the 
back of the neck, increasing to pain, extending next to the 
root of the tongue, then shooting into the breast, and lastly 
seizing the back. 

Causes. Wounds of the head or extremities — and punc- 
tures of the slightest kind, as running a splinter under the 
nail, or into the toe or finger. 

It is equally induced from cold or moisture, particularly 
when sudden vicissitudes prevail, or sleeping on damp ground 

Treatment. On the first appearance of this disease, give 
one or two table-spoonfuls of laudanum, or six or eight grains 
of opium every two hours until the symptoms abate, and then 
the dose should bo gradually lessened. Between the doses, 



TETANY, OR LOGKL*> JAW. 387 

wine wp spirits should be given very freely. The use of the 
warm bath will also assist the cflicacy of the opium. These 
remedies should be increased and carried to the utmost extent 
as the symptoms may indicate. If the opium cannot be swal- 
lowed, six times the quantity may be injected in clysters un- 
til the patient can swallow. 

This disease has oftentimes yielded to a salivation. And 
when there is time for the operation of mercury, it shtuhl he 
used both internally and externally. At the same time it is 
advisable to give opium, in more moderate doses. 

Dr. Brown, who is now one of the principal professors in 
the Transylvania University, communicated sometime since, 
through the medium of the New York Medical Repository, 
his success in the cure of tetanus with the tincture of cantha- 
ridi s. When recourse is had to this remedy, give from twen- 
ty to thirty drops of the tincture every hour until it produces 
stranguary or a difficulty of urine. As soon as this occurs, 
it must be discontinued, and flaxseed or marshmallow tea or 
barley water, or some mucilaginous liquid drank freely, and 
some of it injected by way of clysters, to which may be oc- 
casionally added two tea-spoonfuls of laudanum. 

According to Dr. Nathaniel Miller, the solution of arsenic, 
in doses of ten drops, with an equal quantity of laudanum, 
and a large spoonful of spirits every half hour, has in several 

cases of tetanus succeeded admirably in performing a cure. 

When the symptoms abate, the dose must be diminished and 
tha medicine gradually discontinued. 

Among the various remedies which have been recommended 
for the cure of tetanus, none has been employed with greater 
success than the cold hath. This is to be done by plunging 
the patient in the coldest water, or by pouring suddenly over 
his bead and shoulders several tubs of cold water. The cold 
bath must be repeated every three or four hoars until a per- 
fect cure is effected. 

On the decline of the spasm, bark with wine and opiates 
at bed-time should he given until the patient's health is re- 
instated. 



388 PALPITATION OF THE HEART. 

Spirits of turpentine and infusion of tobacco [Bee .Materia 
a] have each been administered by way of injection with 
very happy effects in this alarming disease. 

In every stage of the disease, it is of importance to keep the 
bovs Is open, by the usual stimulating purgatives or clysters. 

When local injuries have been the cause of this disease, the 
wound should be dilated an 1 filled with common salt, Span- 
ish fl-v-s, or turpentine, and afterwards dressed With warm 
poultices until the wound be brought to a state of good di- 
ces ion. If a wounded finger or toe be the cause of this hor- 
rible malady, it ought instantly to be cut off. 



PALPITATION OF THIS HEART. 

Symptoms. In this disease, the motion of the heart is 
performed with more rapidity, and generally with greater 
fore, than usual, which may not only be felt by the hand, but 
often be perceived by the eye, and even heard; there is fre- 
quently a difficulty of breathing, a purplish hue of the cheeks 
and lips, and a variety of anxious and painful sensations. It 
sometimes terminates in sudden death. 

Causes. A morbid enlargement of the heart itself, and of 
the large vessels— organic affections— an hereditary disposi- 
tion— plethora— debility, or a morbid condition of the sys- 
tem— mal-confirmation of the chest, and many of the cau&es 
inducing fainting. 

Treatment. This complaint is best relieved by keeping 
the mind and body at rest, avoiding every cause of irritation, 
and keeping up a proper equilibrium of the circulation. 

When the disease arises from plethora, and the action of 
the heart is violent, bleeding is indispensible, which should be 
followed by a cooling cathartic, and afterwards the exhibition 
of nitre every two or three hours, or the tincture of digitalis, 
in doses from ten to twenty drops thrice a-day, by lessening 
fhe action of the arterial system will effect a cure. 



HICCUP. 339 

When there is reason to believe tills affection is in conse- 
quence of debility, the solution of arsenic in its usual doses, 
taken for some time, is a certain remedy. \Y hen the nervous 
system is affected, small doses of {ether, laudanum, or some 
cordial will he found ver$ serviceable. 

The feet should he kept dry and warm, frequently rubbed, 
and if not other wise warm, with powdered mustard seed, or 
tincture of cayenne pepper. 

Those wdio are subject to a palpitation of the heart should 
carefully avoid violent exercise, irregular passions, costive* 
ness, and all circumstances that may tend to increase the ac- 
tion of the sanguiferous system. 



HICCUP. 

A spasmodic affection of the diaphragm, and sometimes of 
the stomach, is a troublesome, but not often a dangerous com- 
plaint. 

Causes. Debility, acidity, flatulence, cold drinks when 
the person is warm, repletion, worms, repelled gout, &c. 

Treatment When it arises, as is most frequently the 
case, from spasm induced by debilitating causes, the warm 
antispasmodics, as sethcr, laudanum, the camphorated mix- 
ture, hartshorn, tincture of assafoetida, or some of the essen- 
tial oils, will be useful. A tea spoonful of vinegar, slowly 
swallowed, has frequently afforded relief. Preserved damsons 
have likewise been found of excellent use in this complaint. 

When acidity is discovered to be the cause, give the ab- 
sorbent mixture, or twenty drops of hartshorn, with a tea- 
spoonful of magnesia in a cup of mint tea, or a spoonful or 
two of milk and lime-water; and to prevent its recurrence 
take ten grains of the, rust of steel thrice a-day. When occa- 
sioned by poisons or improper food, an emetic will be proper. 

In weak stomachs, oppressed with indigestible food, a glass 

of good wine or spirit and water often relieves. ^Either ap- 
51 



.31)0 Mi. Ill' M.W.I.. AmIIMA. 

plied externally to the stomach on a soft linen rag with a 
warm band to confine it, is a good remedy; so is. (lie applh a- 
tion of an acrid cataplasm or blister in obstinate cases. 

Like other spasms, it is often stopped by strongly arresting 
the attention, whether by hope, fear, or terror. A sudden 
alarm has often succeeded in curing this affection after ever) 
other means had failed. On the same principle a deep con 
tinned inspiration will often remove slighter degrees of this 
troublesome complaint. 



NIGHT HARE, 

Symptoms. An alarming oppression of weight ahontthe 
breast, with dread of suffocation. 

Causes. Late and excessive suppers— great fatigue — drun- 
kenness, or sleeping on the back. 

Treatment. If the patient be of a plethoric habit, 
bleed, purge, and use a spare diet. And when the disease is 
the consequence of debility and weak nerves, the tonic medi- 
cines, as steel, bark, or columbo in their usual doses, arc pro- 
per. 

A glass of brandy, at bed-time, will generally prevent the 
attack. 

Prevention. The patient should sleep on a hard bed, 
which invites to frequent changes of sides, eat light suppers, 
which, with due exercise, and cheerfulness during the day. 
form the best preventive remedies. 



ASTHMA, 

Is often hereditary. When attended with an expectoration 
of phlegm, it is termed moid >r humeral; and when >\ith little 
or none, dry or nervous asthma. 



ASTHMA. 891 

Symptoms* It generally attacks at night with a sense of 
tightness across the breast, and impeded respiration. The 
p rson thus taken, if in a horizontal situation, is obliged im- 
mediately to got into an erect posture, and solicits a free and 
cold air. In violent paroxysms, speaking is difficult and un- 
easy. 

Treatment. On the frst attack of asthma, bleeding is 
serviceable, if the pain in the chest and difficulty of breathing 
he considerable; but less so afterwards, since the disease has 
a natural tendency to take off the plethoric state of the sys- 
tem. 

Vomits frequently repeated have been found of considerable 
utility in this disease. When there is reason to apprehend a 
paroxysm in the course of the night, an emetic exhibited in 
the evening will generally prevent it; and when the fit comes 
on in consequence of a loaded stomach* it will often afford 
immediate relief. 

As in other spasmodic affections, the most powerful anti- 
spasmodics, as laudanum and aether, should be resorted to. 
These may be given conjointly or separately* hut in large 
doses, to allay the violence of the lit, or to prevent its acces- 
sion. Thus, half a tea spoonful of laudanum, or one of rether, 
to be repeated in an hour, if necessary, in a glass of cold 
water, has frequently relieved the symptoms, or when taken 
at the approach of the fit, have suppressed it altogether. A 
cup of strong coffee has sometimes afforded great relief; and 
when the disease proceeds from the irritation of mucus, a 
table-spoonful or two of vinegar in a glass of cold water is a 
good remedy. 

The skunk cabbage and stramonium, or tlrorn apple, are 
considered most valuable antispasmodics, and exceedingly 
beneficial in this complaint. According to Dr. Cutler, the 
emetic weed, or Indian tobacco, [See Materia JHedica] is a cer- 
tain remedy. And Dv. Thomas speaks highly of the efheacy 
of the tincture of fox-glove, in doses of fifteen drops twice a- 
day, conjoined with a few drops of laudanum. 



i 



s<;>2 



I1EART-BI 



In every Bjtoge of this disease the bowel:, must be attended 
to. The connexion of asthmatic paroxysm , with flatulence 
and enstiveness, plainly points out the importance of aperient 

niedii inrs and those of the warm class, as aloes and rhu- 
barb, 

Expect'Tints are frequently required in this disease. The 
powder, or s run of squills, or gum-ammoniac exhibited in 
rather larger doses titan usual, will often bring on expectora- 
tion, in ruses apparently desperate. 

Blisters near the hark are singularly useful, and should he 
often repeated. Cataplasms of garlic or onions to the feet 
are also valuable assistants. 

Rkgimex. A light diet, easily digestible and not flatulent, 
is always proper for asthmatic persons, and during the fit, 
Cool drinks and fresh air are proper. It will always he found 
serviceable to wear a flannel shirt and to keep the feet warm. 

Prevention. During the absence of the paroxysm, tonic 
medicines unci the cold hath, together with moderate exercise, 
will be most efficai ious in obviating its recurrence. 



HEART-BURN. 

Symptoms. A burning sensation about the pit of the 
stomach, with acid eructations, flatulence, and sometimes 
retching to vomit. 

Causes. A relaxed state of the stomach, cenerating acidi- 
ties and acrimonies from food loo long detained. As i is 
often a symptom of indigestion, the cause may be found under 
the head of the following chapter. 

Treatment. The first indication is to remove the un- 
pleasant sensations existing, which may be done by taking 
cither a small tea-spoonful of salt of tartar, or a table-spoon- 
ful of magnesia in a glass of mint-water or tea; or a 
tumbler of mucilage of gum-arabic or flaxseed tea taken 






DISPEPSIA, OR INMGESTION. 393 

I old, with a small piece of liquorice ball dissolved in it. 
Hut to cure the disease effectual!}, alter an emetic, give 
the lime water, or ten grains of* the rust of steel, thrice 
a-day for some time, and keep the bowels moderately open 
with magnesia or the root of rhubarb chewed occasional- 
ly, or the tincture of it, taken in small doses; or the aloettc 
pill. 

if it should arise from bile, lemonade, or some of the vege- 
table acids, or a tea-spoonful of the spirits of nitre in a glass 
of the infusion of columbo, will often afford immediate relief. 

When not arising from the contents of the stomach, gene- 
ral warmth, particularly of the feet, is essentially useful; and 
even rubbing them with Hour of mustard, or tincture ot 
cayenne pepper, has produced good effects. Great benefit has 
also been experienced, and sometimes a complete cure affected, 
by the application of a blister to (he pit of the stomach. To 
render it the more efficacious, the blister should be kept run- 
ning lor at least a week. 

IliiGiMEX. The diet of those who are subject to this com- 
plaint, should consist chiefly of animal food; and all fermented 
or acid liquors and greasy aliment must be strictly avoided. 
A glass of brandy, or gin and water after dinner, is (he best 
beverage. Moderate exercise is particularly beneficial. 






DISPEPSIA, OR INDIGESTION. 

Symptoms. Want of appetite — nausea— sometimes vomit- 
ing— heart-burn — costiveness — distensions of the stomach, 
particularly upon taking a small quantity of food— frequent 
risings into the throat of a sharp acid liquor, and eructations of 
imperfectly digested matter. 

Causes. — Errors and irregularities in the mode of living 

cold and moisture — intense study—depressing passions— and 
abuse of tobacco, opium, or spirits. 



394 DYBPEPSfA, ()K IWDIQLSTION. 

Treatment. To succeed in the cure of this disease, >\u 
must avoid the occasional causes, remove such symptoms ;is 
tend to aggravate or continue the disease, and invigorate the 
tone of the stomach. Crudities, acidity and costiveness, must 
be obviated, at least in their excess, as they tend both to 
aggravate and continue indigestion. The management of diet 
is also of considerable importance. The stomach should never 
be suffered to remain any time empty in dyspepsia* as all the 
symptoms are aggravated by it. Persons afflicted with this 
complaint, should frequently cat a cracker or a piece of ship 
biscuit, as bread not subject to fermentation, is one of the 
best substances to be frequently taken. In some weak stom- 
achs a singular aggravation of the symptoms comes on in 
about an hour or two alter a full meal, attended with a sense 
of sinking or weakness. This seems to be owing to a diges- 
tion unusually rapid, and consequently imperfect. In such 
cases aliment of more difficult digestion, as eggs boiled hard, 
or the addition of condiments which retard digestion may be 
allowed; but in general, a bit of biscuit and a glass of wino 
will remove the sense of weakness which is owing to the sud- 
den emptying of the stomach before too much distended. 

In order to the cure, recourse must be had to emetics, when, 
ever the stomach is offended with mucus, bilious, or other 
humors. It is not unusual that a large quantity or very vis- 
cid mucus is thrown up on the exhibition of an emetic. And 
this must occasionally be discharged, and its accumulation pre-: 
vented by aromatics and tonics. 

The coiumbo root is a medicine of great utility, when the 
stomach is languid, and the appetite defective. It may be 
<nven thrice a-day, in substance or infusion, with mint water, or 
ginger tea, or infused in Madeira wine, or French brandy, 
now and then interposing small doses of the tincture of rhu- 
barb. Taking a tea-spoonful of mustard seed with half the 
quantity of coiumbo tin-ice a-day, will be found particularly 
useful, where acidity and flatulence prevail. A great variety 
of stomachics and tonics of the vegetable class, as came- 



DISFEPSIA, OR INDIGESTION. 39o' 

mile, gentian, quassia, Peruvian, and black oak bark, have 
been employed in the cure of this disease, but scarcely any 
merits a preference to the columbo, unless the sampson snake- 
root. [See Materia Medica.] However, it is not proper to 
continue the use of any tonic longer than two weeks at a 
time. When acidity predominates, a wine-glass of lime wa- 
ter, with an equal quantity of new milk, or ten grains of rust: 
of steel or filings of iron, will be found exceedingly beneficial. 
In some cases the digestion is injured by putrid matter, 
from decayed teeth, constantly mixed with the saliva, affect- 
ing the organs of taste, and destroying the appetite. In such 
cases, the charcoal tooth powder, [See Dispensatory] or wash- 
ing the mouth night and morning with the solution of alum, 
will correct this tendency. Even when the teeth could not 
be the cause of indigestion, I have seen the most happy effects 
result from the exhibition of charcoal powder, in doses of a 
table-spoonful, twice or thrice a-day, particularly when con- 
joined with a few grains of rhubarb, and double the quantity of 
powdered ginger, or by taking, after dinner, as much of the 
tincture of rhubarb as would keep the bowels in a regular 
state. Another medicine, apparently simple, though of con- 
siderable efficacy in this complaint, is the cob-web of the 
black spider, which generally inhabits the cellars, barns, and 
stables. Of this, from five to ten grains is to be given morn- 
ing, noon, and night, in the form of pills. 

If the disease, as is too often the case, has been brought on by 
hard drinking, its only radical cure is to be found in temper- 
ance, cordial nourishment, exercise, and the use of elixir 
vitriol with bark, the nitric acid or the tonic powders or pills. 
[See Dispensatory.'] 

When the patient complains of a pain in the stomach, resort 
to the remedies for heart-burn, and use friction with a flesh 
brush or flannel over the part. Should this fail, give a dose 
of iBther or laudanum; and, in case of costiveness, administer 
an infection. This treatment will generally palliate the pain, 



596 DlSPEPSIA, OR INDICES! [ON. 

after which, endeavor to restore the tone of the stomach by 
tonic medicines, as the nitric arid, bark, col umbo, steel, &c. 

The costiveness peculiar to persons in lliis complaint, must 
be removed by medicines which gently solicit the intestines to 
a more regular discharge of their contents; and this effect is 
best obtained by Hour of sulphur, magnesia, or rhubarb chew- 
ed every day, and only the saliva swallowed. Strong purga- 
tives are unfit to correct habits of costiveness, as they weaken 
the action of the intestines, and thereby increase the complaint, 
When the evacuation is over. 

But nothing can so effectually obviate this affection, as 
constant custom most sacredly observed, of going every 
morning to the privy, although you have not a natural incli- 
nation. 

REGIME*. The diet should consist chiefly of animal food 
well chewed, and taken in small quantities, followed with a 
glass of brandy and water, or good wine. Frequent friction 
with a flesh brush or flannel over the region of the stomach 
and bell) will he found exceedingly beneficial. 

After taking a puke, we have known a milk diet, persever- 
ed in for several weeks, effectually cure indigestion. This ar- 
ticle, almost always olTends the stomach at first; but by con- 
tinuance, becomes agreeable to it, and effects a cure. The. 
milk should he new, and free from aci lity. 

Early rising and moderate exercise in the morning air can 
hardly "be enough recommended, inasmuch as they contribute 
so happily to restore the tone of the stomach, as also the 
v, hole sysfem. 

It is" impossible to furnish apian of regimen adapted to 
every constitution and habit, but if the patient will hut pay 
due attention to what benefits, and what injures him, wisely 
regulating his mode of living by the. information! thus obtain- 
ed" his present maladies will soon disappear, and their future 
recurrence forever inhibited. 



397 



Svmptoms. A violent pain in the bowels originating from 
constriction, attended with costiveness, and sometimes vomit- 
ing. The Da in is commonly seated about the navel, and re- 
sembles various sensations, as of burning, twisting, boring, or 
a ligature drawn very tight across the intestines. 

It comes on without fever, which soon follows, especially if 
inflammation take place in the intestine affected, and then all 
the symptoms become greatly aggravated. 

Causes. Flatulence — indigestible aliment taken into the 
stomach — acrid bile — hardened fseces — costiVeness — worms — 
drinking too freely of acids — int< rmittents improperly cured — 
sudden check of perspiration — and the application of poisons, 
such as lead, &c. &.c. 

Tkeatmknt. When the disease evidently arises from 
wind, which may be known by a rumbling in the bowels, by 
pressure on the belly, or by the ease experienced from a dis- 
charge of it, or by the patient's lying on the belly, a glass of 
brandy, gin, strong mint-water, or tea made of ginger or cala- 
mus, will generally give relief: but it is only in colic from 
wind that these hot spirituous and carminative substances are 
to be used, for in all other cases they do great harm, and of- 
ten destroy life. The flatulent colic is frequently caused by 
wetting the feet, or otherwise checking the perspiration.— 
When this is the case, rubbing the legs and arms with warm 
cloths, and afterwards keeping the feet for some time in warm 
water, will be the most effectual remedy. 

As a spasm is the immediate cause, its resolution is the 
chief indication of cure; for this purpose, relaxing and anti- 
spasmodic medicines, with purges, which, while they solicit 
the internal discharge, will not greatly increase the morbid ir- 
ritation, are the most proper means. 
M 



3$) tfoLic. 

Where the pain is fixed and acute, bleeding is advisable, 
particularly in full habits. io prevent inflammation. Next, 
the action of the intestines must he excited by brisk purga- 
tives, such as castor oil, calomel and jalap, or salts, senna 
and manna, aided by stimulating clysters. If these means 
prove inefficacious, immediate recourse must be had to the 
warm bath, in which, the patient should remain as long as he 
can bear it. Where a bathing vessel cannot be procured, 
flannels, wrung out of hot water, should be frequently applied 
over the belly as warm as can be endured, Besides which, 
tobaeco clysters, [See Materia Medico] ougfit to be administer- 
ed; and when the pain continues obstinate, apply a large blis- 
ter over the belly. 

If the above remedies prove ineffectual, opium and calomel, 
in large doses, should be employed. To their exceeding utili- 
ty in obstinate colic, I can subscribe* from numberless suc- 
cessful experiments, made by myself.* 

Eminent modern physicians advise, that when all other 

•How I crime in possession of this admirable secret, both justice and 
gratitude require that I should explain. 

In the year 1801. I spent several weeks in Georgetown, Columbia 
District. While there, I was requested to visit a Mr. James Turner, 
who had long been indisposed with the ague and fever; but then suffer- 
ing under a severe attack of the colic, accompanied with most obsti- 
n t»- costiveness Fortw or three days the best aperien's, as calomel, 
castor oil, salts, senna and manna, and injections, with the warm bath, 
and blisters, were used, but without effect. Being much alarmed about 
his situation, I state,; the case to my very excellent friend, the ingeni- 
ous and learned Doctor John IVcemn, who advised the immediate use 
of six g'-ain- of opium, with twenty of calomel, in a bolus, and one- 
i. rd of that dose every two hours afterwards, if the first failed to op- 
erate I expressed my fears that so large a dose of opium might do 
hirrn "No sir," replied he, " 'tis small doses that do harm; give large 
doses, large enough to take off the spasms, and you save the pa- 
tient " 

I still retained my repugnance; however, recollecting his great medi- 
cal attainments, and the desper Xe case of my patient, I acceded to 
his advice, and scarcely was the second dose swallowed, before it be- 
gan to operate like a charm, the spasm was taken off the intestines; 
copious foetid evacuations succeeded, and our patient was presently 
restored. 

This is but one of many extraordinary cures performed by Doctor 
John Weems. The citizens of Georgetown and Washington, will 
V. jg lament the early fate of this gentleman, of whom for ardent 
fr idship. and medical sagacity, I can truly say— hi* equal I have 
seldom seen, his superior never. 



colic. 399 

means are despaired of, the patient should be placed erect on 
the floor, and a pail of cold water thrown on isis IVet and legs; 
this, though apparently a droll remedy, yet certainly deserves 
to be. tried in desperate cases, especially as we are assured 
from the best authority, that it has often succeeded: it acts, 
as is said, by occasioning an immediate evacuation of the 
bowels. 

For the vomiting which often occurs in this disease, com- 
mon garden mint, t&pperniint, [See Materia Jledica] or any 
other spices boiled in spirits, and flannels wrung out of it, and 
laid hot on the pit of the stomach, arc excellent, especially if 
a little laudanum be added. If acrid bile be thrown up, the 
saline mixture, or infusion of coluinbo should be given; and 
when vomiting is attended with cold extremities, warm appli- 
cations to the feet, and a blister to the back, often relieves this 
symptom. It is also frequently removed by a blister on the 
pit of the stomach. 

In violent colics, attended with vomiting, it is always ad- 
visable to administer an anodyne injection, and if it be speedi- 
ly discharged, the clyster should be repeated till the vomiting 
ceases. A dose of calomel and jalap, castor oil, or infusion 
Off salts, senna and manna is then to be administered every two 
or three hours, until evacuations are procured. 

Regiment. Evacuations being once produced, mucilagi- 
nous drinks and light diet should be strictly adhered to, and 
the bowels kept moderately open by mild purgatives, giving 
opiates at bed-time if necessary, until the soreness and disten- 
sion of the belly go off, and no hardened faeces appear in the 
stool. 

Prevention. Those who are at times afflicted with pain6 
in the belly, should keep the feet dry and warm; abstain from 
flatulent food, and attend carefully to the bowels, to prevent 
•constipation. Those whose occupation subject them to the 
fumes of lead, should breakfast on fat broth before they begii 
their work, anil frequently interpose oily purgatives. 



400 

CHOLERA MORBUS, 

OK VOMITING AND PURGING. 

Causes. It is generally occasional by a redundancy and 
ftcrimouy of the bile — indigestible food, <>»■ such as becomes 
rancid or acid on the stomach — poisons — strong acrid pur 

or vomits — passions of the mind, or a sudden cluck of pers- 
piration. 

Treatment. Endeavor, as early as possible, to expel the. 
acrimonious matter which affects the alimentary canal, by 
large and repeated draughts of chicken water, beef tea, bar- 
le\ or rice water, or thin gruel, &c. which should a, so he 
given fv ciy in clysters. It is said, upon high authority, that 
frequent small doses of cold water, not exceeding a gill at a 
time, will check the purgin , cool the ardent In at of the sto- 
mach, and altate the thirst. Cold water is the more efficacious 
as the, climate, season} and Constitution of the patient are 
warm, for it cools, blunts acrimony, and restores the tone of 
thp parts It should he repeated as oft n as the patient throws 
up what lie drinks, and if fainting, with other symptoms of 
weakness come on, a little wine should be added to each 
draught of wafer. After having cleansed the stomach and 
intestines, give a tea-spoonful of ether, or thirty or forty 
drops of laudanum, in mint water or tea, and repeat the dose 
every hour, or often er as the frequency of the evacuations or 
the urgency of the pain may require. 

If the laudanum he rejected from the stomach, give a tea- 
spoonful of paregoric, or opium in pills of half a grain, re- 
peated every half hour at furthest, until the disease he check- 
ed; and at the same time, apply mint leaves stewed in spirits, 
to the pit of the stomach. 

In general, this mode of treatment is sufficient; but if the 
patient he of a plethoric habit, he ought to lose blood immedi- 
ately: and in case the pain continues viol >nt, he placed in the 
warm bath; should the bathing vessel not he at hand, pepper- 



DIARRHCEA, OK LOOSENESS. 401 

mint stewed in spirits, or cloths wrung out of hot spirits or 
decoction of camomile, hops, or lavender; ought to be applied 
to the stomach and belly, and often renewed. 

If acrid bile be the cause of this complaint, the columbo 
must be given every hour or oftcner, in large doses; and, in 
case of great heat, a small quantity of nitre in the patient's 
drink will be proper. In warm climates -tikis remedy is con* 
sidercd almost a specific; it soon abates the violent evacua- 
tions; and by continuing it a few days a cure is effected. A 
tea-spoonful of the columbo, finely powdered, in a glass of 
mint water, or a gill of the infusion may be repeated every 
hour or two, according to the urgency of the symptoms. In 
preparing the infusion it is better to add one fourth ginger or 
some grateful aromatic, in cases unattended with fever. 

When the disease originates from food, either very acid or 
putrid, besides plentiful dilution with the above drinks, give 
castor oil, salts, or rhubarb; and if from poisons swallowed, 
the patient should drink largely of pure sweet oil, melted but- 
ter, or mucilaginous drinks, with small portions of salt of 
tai'tar. 

Regimen. As no disease more suddenly weakens the pa- 
tient, he should take freely of a light but cordial and nourish- 
ing diet, occasionally assisting his appetite, if deficient, with 
elixir vitriol, tincture of bark, or infusion of columbo. If 
he cannot sleep well, an opiate at bed-time may be taken, un- 
til his strength and spirits return. 



DIARRHOEA, 

OR LOOSENESS. 

Symptoms. A purging without sickness or pain, succeed- 
ed by loss of appetite. 

Causes. Acid or putrid aliments; obstructed perspiration; 
acrid bile; drinking bad water; worms; violent passions; or a 
<rauslation of morbid matter of other diseases to the bowels. 



402 DIARRIICLA, OR LOOSKNESb. 

Treatment. If offending matter be lodged in the sto- 
mach, give an emetic, and an opiate at bed-time; ami on the 
succeeding day, if the disease is not removed, a dose of rhu- 
barb or castor oil, followed by forty or fifty drops of lauda- 
num at night. 

In every case where the diarrhoea continues obstinate, an 
emetic should be premised. It relieves the stomach from ac- 
rimony, checks the increased peristaltic motion downward, 
and determines to the skin. After the emetic, it is necessary 
to procure some respite, and with this view opiates may be em- 
ployed with perfect safety. By lessening or stopping the 
peristaltic motion, we relax any spasmodic stricture which 
may prevent the discharge of offending matter, and the gen- 
tle laxatives afterwards required, will have a more salutary 
effect. By thus alternating the opiates and laxatives, we at 
last succeed in relieving the bowels from the irritation of of- 
fending matter, and moderately warm astringents will com- 
plete the cure. Opiates may sometimes be given in clysters, 
and in this way they affect the head in a less degree than when 
swallowed. 

If the disease be in consequence of cold, or the skin be dry, 
the antimonial mixture, or Dover's powder, exhibited in small 
doses during the day, and the anodyne sudorific bolus or 
draught [See Dispensatory] repeated at bed-time, with a flan- 
nel shirt, will generally effect a cure. 

When bile is indicated to be the cause, the columbo in de- 
coction or powder, will be found admirable; and if accompa- 
nied with sour and debilitated stomach, the tonic powders or 
pills, [See Dispensatory] with exercise, are the best remedies. 
Where bad water is in fault, it should instantly be changed 
or corrected by wine, brandy, or porter; remembering, that in 
all cases of continued evacuation, laudanum may be given at 
night after the stomach and bowels have been cleared. 

When worms induce this disease, which may be known 
from the sliminess of the stools, and bad breath, such medi- 
cines as are calculated to destroy them must be employed, af- 
terwards a wine-glass full of lime-water, with an equal quan- 
tity of new milk, will be proper three times a-day. 



DIARRHOEA, OR LOOSENESS. 403 

in obstinate cases, no medicine is superior to the continued 
use of tlie vitriolic solution [See Dispensatory] with an opiate 
at bed-time. The nausea Which this medicine produces is 
very disgusting, but from tins circumstance much of its effica- 
cy is derived. Should a common dose fail to nauseate, it 
should be increased until that symptom is effected. 

The jelly of slippery elm, and the blackberry, [See Materia 
Medical conjoined with a small portion of cinnamon, ginger, 
calamus, or some aromatic, are also valuable remedies. 

According to domestic practice, the efficacy of burnt cork 
is highly extolled in this troublesome complaint. A friend of 
mine, of Baltimore, informed me that he administered this 
medicine to three gentleman who had their bowels very much 
disordered by a change of water, and that it afforded them 
immediate relief. He also stated of having given it to a child 
afflicted with the dysentery, in its chronic form, with the most 
happy effects. He directs a bottle cork to be burnt to a coalj 
and after reducing it to a fine powder, it is to be moistened 
with spirits and then mixed with a little milk and a lump of 
sugar. Half of this mixture is to be given to an adult, and 
about one-third, to a child of two or three years of age, repeat- 
ing the dose, if necessary, in an hour. From the astringent 
properties of this medicine, it is proper to remark, it should 
never be employed in affection of the bowels, attended with 
fever. 

Regimen*. The diet should consist of arrow root, sago, 
rice, milk, and the white meats. The drinks may be of the 
diluting kind, as already enumerated — genuine wine may aj- 
sobe allowed, if it docs not turn sour on the stomach. ]Vlod« 
erate exercise is peculiarly useful, and nothing facilitates the 
cure more than flannel next the skin.* 

"This was the "Angel in disguise," that opened the prison doors of 
this uneasy life, and gave happy freedom to my ever-revered father, 
Colonel Jesse Ewell, of Virginia My sister Charlotte celebrated his 
virtues in an Elegy, the following extracts from which I beg permis- 
sion of the reader to insert, as a small tribute of gratitude to the bes , 
of parents, and but a faint portraiture of his worth. 

"Early he woo'd fair virtuk for his guide. 

And rarely wandered frgm her guardian side; 






DROPSY. 

A collection of water in some part of the body* 

Symptoms. In common dropsies the lc,i;s usually 9\vcll. 
and a pit remains for some lime after pr ssing the flesh — the 
appetite abates— -tin' face is bloated— urine little— thirst great, 
with slow fever, shortness of breath, and lassitude. 

Causes. Excessive drinking— poor diet— protracted iu- 
tcrmittents— scirrhus tumors of the abdominal viscera, but 
particularly of ths liver, and in line, whatever may occasion 
too free a secretion of the serous fluids in the cellular mem- 
brans, or any cavity of the body, and at the same time dimin- 
ish the action of the absorbent vessels. 



By him the needy never were denied, 

He sooth'd their sorrows, and their wants supplied. 

He mourn'd the contests of the neighboring poor, 

Aid opened wide his peace-restoring door; 

Where soon his wisdom taught tneir strifes to cease v 

Revived their loves, and sent them home in peace, 

Tne slaves whom Heaven to his care consigned. 

Ne'er felt the terrors of a slavish mind; 

Well fed, warm clad, to moderate labors prest, 

They loved their fetters, and their bondage hlest. 

As fkiend — as FATHER— Who his praise can tcl!.' 

Where first begm, or with due raptures swell? 

To check out wrong, his frowns were ever light. 

And sweet his smiles whene'er we chose the right, 

And when at length the awful hour drew nigh, 

To waft his spirit to its native sky, 

Such in that moment, as in all the past, 

"O bless mv children, Heaven!" was still his last. 

Now 'scaped from earth, with God he dwells above, 

And shares with angels i r : their feasts of love. 

Then come, blest faith, come hasten to my aid, 

Lest grief profane disturb his happy shad'-. 

Teach me to bow submissive — and adore. 

The unerring counsels of eternal power, 

Which gives in love or still in love denies, 

And makes e'en "crosses blessings in disguise." 

And thou, fond MEMORY, still my sire recall, 

Record his virtues, imitate them all — 

That joys H'^e his mv mortal life may prove, 

And peace eternal crown my state ab< 



DROPSY. 405 

Treatment. Like other diseases, the treatment must 
vary according to circumstances. In every f<;rm of dropsy, 
if there he a hard, full, and quick pulse, blood-letting consti- 
tutes one of the principal remedies, and must be repeated 
once or twice a week, until the action of the arterial system 
is considerably diminished. 

Brisk purges, as calomel and jalap in full doses, are indis- 
pensable, and ought always to succeed bleeding, and be 
given as often as the patient's strength will admit, followed 
by Dover's powder, or the anodyne sudorific bolus or draught, 
at bed-time, [See Dispensatory.] 

The discharge from the intestines is unquestionably of the 
greatest importance in dropsy; ami when obstructed perspira- 
tion is a cause, sutlorifics are much to be depended upon. 
However this distinction must be made. If purgatives be ac- 
companied by violent colics, and weakness is the consequence, 
without producing a considerable discharge, the remedy must 
be discontinued; but if they operate without pain and incon- 
venience, the stools watery; and weakness does not follow, 
whatever the number of evacuations may be, the remedy is 
good. And if, on the employment of sudorifies, they tend to 
weaken the system, in general, too much, they should not be 
persisted in. Another remark to be attended to is, that in 
every species of dropsy attempted to be cured by internal 
means, however, they may be relieved by different evacua- 
tions, unless the urinary organs continue their evacuating 
power, the cure will never be lasting. 

While feverish symptoms continue, nitre is extremely use- 
ful in this disease, in doses of ten grains four or five times a- 
day, or in such quantities as the stomach may bear, but should 
not be continued longer than two weeks, if no good effects 
result from its use. Another valuable medicine for lessening 
the action of the pulse, and thereby increasing absorption, is 
the fox-glove, [See Materia Medica~\ which may be given in 
powder, decoction, or tincture. The latter is the most conve- 
nient form, and in doses of twenty or -thirty drops in a wine- 
glass of mint water, may be taken twice or thrice a-day, until 
the water is removed, or the inflammatory disposition taken 
09 



406 Diiorsv. 

off*. If this quantity do not induce sickness, or produce any 
evident good fleet, the, dose must be gradual!) increased ta 
forty or sixty drops, or farther. 

(J ream of tartar, from half an (Mince to an ounre, dissolved 
in a pirn or more of water, is a pleasant and useful drink, 
and this taken early m the morning has frequently succeeded 
in evacuating the water. 

As soon as the acti »n of the pulse becomes lessened, it is 
necessary to strengthen the system and increase the digestive 
powers, by the nitric acid or the exhibition of steel alone, or 
th ionic powders, pills or drops [See Dispensatory] tluicc a- 
da} during ihe intervals of purging. 

One of the most frequent causes of dropsy is obstructed 
liver, and when this is suspected, mercurial friction must he 
resorted to, or a grain or two of calomel, conjoined with a few 
grains of powdered squills, given night and morning, until 
ptyal:sm is produced, and afterwards the nitric acid, and other 
tonics, constitute the proper remedy. The squill in 
evovy form, is a valuable medicine, and succeeds in the 
greater number of dropsical cases. United with cream of tar- 
tar and a small portion of jalap, it is highly useful as combin- 
ing a diuretic and purgative effect; and with the resin of jalap 
and gamboge, in pills, its utility is almost unrivalled. The ef- 
ficacy of tlas medicine is also highlv extolled in dropsies, in 
doses from five to ten grains, with double the quantity of nitre. 
It should he observed, however, the squill seldom increases 
the discharge of urine to any degree, till raised to a nausea- 
ting dose. 

The juice of leeks, in doses of a table-spoonful twice a-day, 
is s.*id to have performed surprising cures; at any rate, in 
this state of the disease the patient can hardly make too free 
a use of the acrid stimulating vegetables, as garlic, onions, 
horse radish, &c. 

Tight bandages applied in the morning round the belly and 
limbs, hav their good effects in preventing the increase or re- 
turn ol dropsical swelling. Friction, with a flesh brush or 
flannel every morning from the extremities upwards, is of the 



DROPSY. 4()7 

greatest service, particularly if the skin be previously moist- 
ened with a liniment, composed of equal parts of soap, spirit 
and vinegar; or with the volatile or camphorated liniment. 

Persons recovering from lingering diseases are very subject 
to anasarcous swellings, particularly if they replenish their 
weak vessels too fast by full diet. 

Scarifications with a knife are much commended when the 
legs and thighs are tirbid with extravasated serum; and, in- 
deed, the water is speedily discharged this way; but the lips 
of the wound will close in two days, so as to admit of no dis- 
charge; and from a defect of heat in the constitution, the part 
is apt to mortify. Dr. Fothergill, to obviate these difficulties, 
advises this operation to be performed with the common scari- 
ficator used in the cupping, and the instrument to be placed 
so as to make the wounds transversely. If the skin is thick, 
the lancet may be so set as to make deeper, and consequently 
wider incisions; thus a large quantity of water will often 
drain from the legs or thighs, without risque of inflammation, 
or deterring the patient from a repetition, if necessary. The 
punctures must be made in the most depending part of the 
leg; and their number and repetition depend on the circum- 
stances of each individual rase. The application of glasses, 
either before or after scarifying, is unnecessary; but the in- 
strument must be gently pressed upon the skin, until a sur- 
face is formed sufficiently flat lo admit the lancets in the scari- 
ficator to act equally. In all cases where the skin is so 
stretched as to threaten inflammation, rupture, or a gangrene, 
and when the breath is greatly impeded, these openings should 
be made without delay. Blisters are often employed in the 
same circumstances instead of scarifications, and are equally 
useful. An oblong blister may be applied just above the in- 
ner ancle, and continued until a thick, white, or purulent dis- 
charge is produced. After this period but little water ap- 
pears, and the sore should be healed. If necessary to be 
longer continued, blisters may be employed on the outside^ 
and when these have acted sufficiently, we may return to the 
former surface, which will be now healed. JShoHld a dark or 



-108 PROl'&Y. 

black spot appear, bailie the leg in a strong decoction of oak, 
and sprinkle the spol with s< me of the bark, or myrrh pow- 
d nd, or apply poultices of charcuul ami bark, which will 
soon separate ft. ami arrest the mortification*. 

When the difficulty of breathing is considerable, relief will 
very generally be obtained b> expectoration; and for this j -ur- 
posf, pretty large doses of gum ammoniac witli the squill, or 
seneka infusion amy be repeated as the occasion it quires. 
The infusion ol garlic is often useful, end assatcetida, in the 
form of pills or tincture, relieves the difficulty of breathing 
whin it is connected, as is often the case, with wind in the 
stomach occasioning hysteric affections. 

Spasms often arise in particular parts, especially about the 
chest, frequently awaking the patient out of a sound refresh- 
ing sleep. In such cages, a grain of opium, with five of cam- 
phor, is '• he most effectual remedy. 

When t!*e duplication of the peritoncem is the seat of drop- 
sy, tapping is alone the remedy. 

Regimen. During the inflammatory disposition, or when 
there is a pretern lural heat on the skin, or much action in 
the pulse, the diet should be light and easy of digestion. In 
the other state, when the patient is weak and feeble, it should 
be of the most nourishing kind, with a liberal use of wine. 
The patient may, in general, drink in proportion to his incli- 
nation. Acid liquors, as lemonade, cider, the imperial drink, 
or wine, or gin and water may be allowed; and thirst is often 
prevented by holding nitre in the mouth. 

Exercise is of the greatest importance when not carried to 
fatigue. In the lowest stage of the disease, swinging or riding 
in a carriage are m »st proper; but as soon as the patient's 
strength will admit of it, riding on horseback, will be found 
most beneficial. 



WJ 



GOUT. 

Is often hereditary, but generally indolence and luxury, the 
hated parents of tins disease, which righteous heaven has 
marked with such severity, that, like the leprosy of JNaaman, 
it is hardly ever curable.* 

But though art has not often succeeded to cure the gout, 
yet it has discovered a variety of means to shorten the fits, 
and render them much more tolerable. 

Symptoms. The gout mostly affects the joints, but the 
viscera are not exempt from its ravages. It sometimes comes 
on suddenly, passing from one part oi the body to the other, 
in the twinkling of an eye; hut generally is preceded by indi- 
gestion, flatulency, loss of appetite, unusual coldness of ihc 
feet and legs, with frequent numbness, sense of pricking, and 
cramp. These symptoms take place several days before the 
paroxysm comes on, but commonly the day preceding it, the 
appetite becomes greater than usual. The next morning, the 
patient is roused from his sleep, by an excruciating pain ia 
great toe, or ball of the foot, resembling the gnawing of & 
little dog. 

Treatment. No matter what part of the body this dis- 
ease first seizes, the lancet will be required in every case 
where there is an increased action of the pulse, to take off 
the inflammatory disposition. The extent to which the blood- 
letting must be rarrh d, can only be ascertained by the vio- 
lence of the disease, and the sex and" constitution of the patient 

*An English noblem-m, after twenty years riotous living, awoke one 
morning in the torments of the gout. As he lay writhing with 'pain, 
his servant ran up stairs to him with great joy in his countenance: 
"O! sir, good news 1 good news! there is a famous gout doctor below, 
who says he will venture his ears, he can cure your honor in less than 
a week" "Ah! that is good news indeed, Tom; well ruiunv good hoy, 
and put up his carriage and horses, and treat the doctor like a prince." 
"O sir, the gentleman has no carrige and horses; 1 believe he walked 
a foot!" "W ilk a foot! what! cure the gout and %valk a foot! go down 
Tom, go down, and instantly drive the rascal out of the house; set the 
dogs upon him, do you hea>? the lying varied why if he could cure 
the gout he might nde in a richer carriage than his majesty." 



410 UOUT. 

in this* as in all inflammatory fevers, the bowets ought to be 

kept open freely by laxative medicines, as castor oil, sulphur, 
cream of tartar, rhubarb, senna, jalap, or calomel. Indeed 

a fit of the gout may be oftentimes entirely, and almost in- 
stantaneously, removed by active purging. Even drastic 
purges need not be dreaded in this disease. 

Nitre, with diluting liquors, given in such quantities as to 
excite a gentle perspiration, are of great .utility in the inflam- 
matory stage of the disease. Alter the action of the pulse is 
somewhat reduced by evacuations, blisters over the pained 
parts are greatly to be relied on. 

As soon as the inflammatory stato of the gout has subsided, 
stimulants and tonic medicines, as bark and steel, are the best 
remedies. Laudanum, ether, good French brandy ami aio- 
matics, as calamus, ginger. Virginia snake root, and red pep- 
per, [See Materia Medico] in the form of teas, are ail exceed- 
ingly useful in this feeble state of the disease, especially when 
it alfects the stomach or bowels. Uesides these internal reme- 
dies, friction on the stomach and bowels, or the application 
of cloths wrung out ol hot spirits or water, over the pained 
carts, and sinapisms to the feet, should be employed whenever 
the gout attacks the head, lungs, bowels, or stomach. 

Gentlemen long in the habits of intimacy with this disease, 
should remember that it is of immense rudeness, and ready on 
the slightest provocation to quit the toes and knuckles, and 
seize on the very stomach and bowels of its best friends. 
They should therefore be constantly on their guard, and keep 
alw iys by them a vial of aether or laudanum, or a case of 
good old French brandy;* the latter of which is admirable 
for chasing the gout from the stomach. 

The white hellebore [See Materia Medicu] is highly extolled 
as a remedy in this distressing disease. 

*For lack of this ammunition, the gallant Wayne was cut off long 
before "his eye was dim, or his natural heat abated." Late in De- 
cember, 1796, he embarked at Detroit for Presque Isle, but nt>t with- 
out his usual supply of brandy, which, however, was all lost, through 
his servant's Carelessness in upsetting his case. On the passage he 
caughtcold, which brought on a violent attack, of the gout in the stomach; 
and, for want of his usual remedy, he suffered the most excruciating 



«OUT. 411 

Regimen The diet should be regulated according to the 
•tate of the patient. If feverish, and of a plethoric habit, 
the lightest diet ought to be used. If debilitated and of a re- 
laxed habit, generous diet should be allowed. Exercise, 
although painful at first, must be freely taken. 

Prevention. If the person he plethoric, and has been ac- 
customed to drink freely of wine, and eat heartily, he should 
gradually diminish the quantity of the aliment; particularly 
every spring and fall, as the disease is more liable to recur at 
those seasons than at any other time. But iu debilitating 
habits predisposed to the gout, a stimulating diet is most pro- 
per, assisted with the use of the rust of steel, bitters or bark. 
In every case, costiveness should be avoided; and flannel worn 
next to the skin is peculiarly proper. Nothing, however, 
prevents the disease, more than temperance and exorcise.* 

torture until he reached Presque Isle, where he died early in January, 
1797. His body was deposited in the centre of the fort, to show the 
children ot future days the grave of him who so bravely defended 
their liberties Filial piety has since removed it to his native state, 
■where it now sleeps with the dust of his fathers. 

I am happy to acknowledge, that for this anecdote, I am indebted 
to the politeness of my worthy friend, Captain Hugh M'Call, of Savan- 
nah. 

•The story of the wealthy Mr. Palmer, in the reign of George I. 
though well known to many, is yet so apropos to our subject, that 1 
cannot deny myself a wish to relate it. Young Mr. Palmer received 
from his father, what the London merchants call a plum, (i. e.) a 
round 100 000/. of which he contrived to make such "good use," that 
by the time he was forty years of age, he was torn to pieces by the 
gout. His physicians advised him to try the virtues of a sea voyage 
■with the soft balmy air of Montpelier. He set out, but on his passage 
tip the Mediterranean, was captured by an Algerine corsair, who took 
him to Morrocco, and sold him for a slave. He was bought by a far- 
mer, who carried him into the country, and set him to hard labor, al- 
lowing him nothing better than brown bread and dates, and even of 
that hardly enough to support him. His only drink was water, and 
his only bed a plank. In a few weeks every gouty symptom disap- 
peared, and he recovered his health, with an uncommon portion of 
activity. 

These first of blessings continued with him all the time he was in 
oaptivity, (two years,) at the expiration of which, he was ransomed by 
his friends. On his return to England, he was hardly known by his 
acquaintances, so great was the change which temperance and exer- 
cise has wrought upon him. But alas! for the lack of fortitude, he 
soon relapsed into his old passion for the rich dishes, flowing glasses, 
and soft couches of epicurism. His system soon became bloated and 
relaxed: and his ancient foe, the gout, returned, and killed him in a. 
Short time: 



41:2 



VENEREAL DISSA33. 

The venereal disease is of two species: the one, a local 
aff. < fion of the genital organs, termed Gonorrhea, or Clttp: 
an i the o'her, a general or constitutional complaint, termed 
Syphilis, or Pox. 

The Gonorrheal, 

Of winch we shall first treat, is an inflammation of the 
mucus mi mhrane, lining the urethra, in men, and the vagina, 
in women; seated in the male ah »ut the fraenum of the penis, 
and in the female a small distance up the vagina; but in its 
progress communicating to all the surrounding parts, and 
producing a variety of painful sensations. 

Symptoms. A discharge of mucus, at first white, but 
soon iin ning of a yellow or greenish appearance — an acute 
or sr aiding pain in caking water, with most indecent erec- 
tions of the penis termed cordee, very painful, and sometimes 
followed by a discharge of blood. At times the inflammation 
spreads to the contiguous parts, occasioning stranguary, 
swelled, testicle, swelling in the groins similar to buboes, or a 
contraction and thickening of the fore-skin, which, when 
drawn over the head or nut of the yard, is termed phymosis. 
and paraphymosis a hen retracted behind it. 

When these symptoms dance their attendance to the catas- 
trophe, the dap may b<> said to flourish in its full bloom, and 
the patient finds himself fairly seated on the stool of repent- 
ance. 

The appearance of a clap in the female is pretty much the 

■w as in the male, allowing for the difference of the parts. 
The disease in them is always milder, insomuch, that at times 
there is n > other symptom but the discharge, which is often 
mistaken for the flour albus. They are, however, more sub- 
ject to excoriations of the parts than the. mpn, and, indeed, 
when the inflammation is considerable, it often extends to the 
nrethra, and occasions great pain. 



VENEREAL DISEASE. 413 

Treatment. In the general treatment of gonorrhoea, ret, 
together with abstinence from strong food, and every thing of 
a heating nature, is of the greatest consequence; and this atone, 
with little assistance trom medicine, will complete the cure in 
a short period. 

As the disease is local, topical applications in the form of 
injections become necessary. The patient should, th; rei\>re, 
without d«lav, employ one of the injections, [See Dispensatory'] 
which in irritable habits, must be a little weakened, and the 
strength gradually increased as the inflammation abates. In- 
deed, when the inflammation is very considerable, it is better, at 
first, to inject with sweet oil or mucilage of sassafras, [See 
Materia Jlcdica] and in such cases the testicles ought to be 
suspended by a bandage, ami the antiphlogistic regimen strictly 
adhered to, particularly in taking freely of mucilaginous 
drinks, as flaxseed tea, barley water, or the mucilage of gum- 
arabic, and obviating costivoness, by s.sali ami repeated doses 
of cream of tartar. Whichsoever of the injections is used, it 
must be thrown up the urethra six or eight times a-day, im- 
mediately after making water, and with a syringe that works 
easily, that it may not hurt or inflame the parts. It should be 
observed, if astringent injections of full strength be used in 
the early period, they often prolong the disease, and occasion 
swelled testicles, strictures, and enlargement of tlv prostate 
glands; but after the inflammatory state is removed, they may 
be employed with safety, and will be found to facilitate th© 
cure. Frequent bathing the part, and the greatest cleanliness 
are too important to be neglected; particularly washing un- 
der the glands, to prevent the accumulation of the fluids from 
the odoriferous glands, which produces irritation, inflamma- 
tion, and often ulcers. 

For the chordee, which is more severe during the continu- 
ance of inflammation, and occurs mostly in the night, while 
the patient is warm in bed; take, on going to rest, a dose of 
laudanum, or souse the guilty member frequently in a vessel of 
cold water. Should a hemorrhage supervene, it maj he re- 
moved by rest, and immersing the part often with cold vinegar 
54 



4] 4 i RQAi 1»1SEA 

and water, or lead water, of the ordinary strength, of whick 
-the path-nt may throw a little up. 

According to Professor Chapman, no remedy succeeds bet- 
ter in the cure of gonorrhoea than balsam capivi. lie cora- 
meni t s with this medicine on the very accession of the dis- 
ease, regardless of all the appearances of nnlaiumation, such 
as scalding, chordee, &c. The proper dos is about forty 
drops, more or .ess according te circumstances, to be repeated 
rooming, noon, and night, lie directs it to he taken in a little 
Willi , or milk, or if it should act on the bowels or be offensive 
to thebtomach in this way, he advises it to be exhibited, agree- 
ably to the following prescription. Take of balsam capivi 
and sweet spirits of nitre, of each half an ounce, the white of 
one f^^ or powdered arahic and white s gar, each two 
dra< Inns, mix, arm then add laudanum, one drachm, and water 
three ounces* of this mixture, the dose is a table-spoonful three 
tim»s a-day. One camion he suggests, should always be en- 
joined on patients who arc desirous of a speedy cure — An en- 
tire abstinence from every heating article of food or drink, 
and a state of complete repose. 

Ij< says, contrasted with the ordinary mode of treating it 
by injection, his plan has several advantages. It is morecon- 
v« nient to the patient — it produces no swelled testicles — it 
occasions no strictures — it leaves no gleet — it is more prompt 
ami certain in the cure. Of the efficacy of this remedy, com- 
ing from such unquestionable authority, there can he no doubt; 
but candor compels me to acknowledge 1 have never resorted 
to it, having uniformly succeeded in the cure of gonorrhoea 
h) irjecthns, as above advised. 

When the inflammatory symptoms of gonorrho&a increase 
to a violent degree, a swelling or inflammation of one or both 
tc^irles sometimes supervenes. The same consequence is 
ol.en produced by astringent injections imprudently exhibited. 
!n suci cases the general remedies for allaying inflammation, 
as hb>od lo'fi^g, cooling ralharties, diluent drinks with small 
portii ns i f nitre dissolved in them, become necessary. Be- 
sides which, the testicles must be suspended by a bandage 



VENEREAL DISEASE. 415 

and kept constantly moistened with cloths wrung out of lead 
water, or cold vinegar and water, often renewed. The swel- 
ling of the glands in the groins, and of the spermatic chord 
itself, require a similar treatment. In these affections, a hori- 
zontal posture, and spare diet, are particularly enjoined. In 
case of much pain with little or no fever, an opiate may he 
given at hed-time. And if hardness remain after the pain, 
the patient should have mercurial ointment rubbed on the part, 
night and morning, and take freely of a strong decoction of 
sarsaparilla. But if a swelling without hardness follow, one 
or two vomits, succeeded by tonic medicines, with the use of 
the cold bath, will generally cure. 

In case of pkymosis, cold applications to the penis, as lead 
water or cold vinegar and water, and topical bleeding with 
leeches, constitute the proper remedies. Besides wliii h, ■ p 
suds should be often injected with a syringe between the skin 
and the gland, to prevent the stagflation of matter, whose ex- 
treme acrimony might otherwise produce a mortification of the 
parts. When these means assisted by opiates fail, an operation 
becomes necessary; it is simple, and by no means dangerous. 
A sharp pointed knife, concealed, and defended by a grooved 
directory, which must be previously introduced between the 
prepuce and glands, are the only instruments required. The 
point of the knife should pass through the prepuce at the bot- 
tom, and the section be made by drawing it towards the 
operator. Common dressings are sufficient; but line ri or lint 
should be interposed between the glands and the prepuce, to 
prevent adhesions. 

Paraphimosis is the opposite disease, where the prepuce 
•annot be drawn over the head of the penis; and in this case, 
bathing the part frequently in milk and water or soap-suds, 
and taking some cooling laxative medicine, will generally ef- 
fect a cure. When the inflammation is considerable and long 
continued, a mixture of syphilitic infection may he suspected, 
requiring a mercurial course. Indeed, these affections fre- 
fjuently originate from chancres. 

Such arc the principal symptoms which attend gonorrhoea, 



416 VENEREAL V19EA 

Its consequences, which induce a new state of disease, alW 
tlic original affection is i\ moved, are no less important. 

Gleet. 

This is known by a constant discharge of mucus matter, 
aft>r Hie inflammatory sv ptoins have subsided, occasioned 
by the relaxation of the mucus glands, or stricture in the 
urethra. A discharge of tliis kind may also be occasioned by 
hard dp nking. violent exercise, or straining. 

A discharge of mucus, if not connected with a venereal 
taint, even when accompanied with inflammation, which have 
been excited by high living, or violent exercise, is not infec- 
tious. 

Treatment. Although this disease often yields with 
great facility to the common remedies, yet it is sometimes pe- 
culiarly distressing and obstinate. 

Toe remedies generally employed are astringent injections; 
the use of balsam capivi, in doses of thirty or forty drops 
thrice a-day, and tonics of every kind, particularly cold bath- 
ing, both partial and general. In obstinate cases, the uva ursi, 
[See Materia Medica,'] as well as the tincture of canthandes, 
have often succeeded. IN one of the remedies should be con- 
tinued longer than eight or ten days, if they produce no salu- 
tary effects. They often in this time remove the complaint 
which recurs on their being discontinued, so that they should 
be employed long after the discharge has ceased. The tinc- 
ture of cantharid' s may be given conjointly with balsam capivi, 
or alone in common drink. This remedy must be cautiously 
employed, beginning with very small doses, about fifteen drops 
of the tincture, which may be gradually increased daily, as 
in the irritable state of these organs even a common dose may 
excite dangerous inflammation. The application of a blister to 
the sacrum, or blistering the urethra, in its course, has some- 
times succeeded. Upon high authority an obstinate gleet was 
cured by the injection of punch, a remedy suggested in a con- 
vivial moment^ at another time by green tea; and again by a 



VENEREAL DISEASE. 417 

decoction of red oak bark. An astringent injection of con- 
siderable efficacy in obstinate gleets, is prepared by dissolving 
twenty or thirty grains of alym in a half pint of water, which 
should be injected up the urethra, twice or thrice a-day. 

When an ulcer in the urethra is the cause, which may be 
suspected, if on pressing the penis slightly erected, between 
the finger and thumb, one part is found more sensible to the 
toucli than another, the best remedy which has come under 
my notice in practice, is an injection composed of one or two 
grains of corrosive sublimate in a half pint of water, or made 
of sufficient strength to excite some degree of iuflam atiun 
in the partaffected. If a stricture be the cause, the introduction 
of a bougie is the only remedy. While the use of a bougie is 
continued, the discharge usually proceeds, but after three 
weeks or a month it should be omitted. If the running stops, 
the cure is usually effectual ; if it continues, the remedy should 
not be repeated. 

In women, gleets arc equally obstinate, but thy generally 
pass under the appellation of jluor albus, or whites. 

Seminal Weakness, 

Is another consequence of clap, when there has been fre- 
quent returns of it, and is known by an involuntary discharge 
of the semen. At the beginning of the disease there is a great 
inclination to erections, and the emission of the semen is at- 
tended with pleasure; but gradually the penis becomes lame, 
the testicles hang lower than usual, and unless they are other- 
wise suspended, become almost a burden to the possessor. 

Although veterans in the wars of Venus, are most liable f* 
be complimented with this kind of gleet, yet it may originate 
from other causes, as self-pollution, a sudden lift or strain, 
hot clysters, straining to stool, or the imprudent use of strong 
diuretics. Let the cause, however, be what it, will, there is 
no drain which steals away the quintessence of life and 
strength more rapidly. 

Treatment. If the emission takes place on the slightest 
irritation, as heat, wine, &c. and is attended with some degree 



418 V'a.VEREAL DlSLASfc. 

of spasm, it is a si^ii the patient is in a very rampant state, 
and can hardly get him a wife too boob. But if it oozes away 
insensibly, cold bathing, and tonic niedi ines, ;.s hark, steel, 
or balsam capivi in the usual duses. with a generous diet, aro- 
the best remedies. Cosiiveness should be carefully avoided- 

Obstruction of Urine, 

Is another formidable symptom, which sometimes succeed* 
gononhoea. It is produced by certain changes of the pas- 
sage, from tumors seated high up in the urethra, or contrac- 
tion of the urinary canal. 

Treatment. When this affection arises from tumors, a 
cine may be attempted, by the use of the mercurial pills, [Set 
ensatory] night and morning, and a decoction of sai sapa> 
rilla, or luczereon; but it is often incurable. 

When spasmodic constriction of the passage is the cause, 
it will be removed by the warm bath or fomentations. The 
penis may also be rubbed with camphorated oil, [See Dispen- 
satory,] or equal parts of a;ther and laudanum. If this fail 
to take off the spanis, bleed, and give laudanum in large doses. 

FOX. 

Is the venereal disease in its confirmed state, manifested by 
chancres, buboes, or warts about the genitals. To th^se suc- 
ceed ulcer in the throat, nose, and tongue, blotches on various 
parts of the body, with nocturnal pains, especially in the shin- 
bones and shoulders. 

The system is now filled with the horrid poison, which, 
unless mercifully arrested, will soon ulcerate the eyes, con- 
sume the nose, contract the body, and convert the loveliest 
form into such a mass of corruption, such a dunghill of 
stench, such a picture of ghastliness, as is sufficient to strike 
the guilty person with terror. 

A pallid youth, beneath a shade, 

A melancholy scene displayed; 

His mangled face, and loathsome stains.. 

Proclaimed the poison in his veins; 



VMNEHKAL »ISKASE. 4,IQ 

He raised his eyes; lie smote his breast, 
He wept aloud, and thus addressed: 

"Forbear tlie harlot's false embrace, 

Though lewdness wear an angel's face; 

Be wise by my experience taught , 

/ die, alas.' for want of thought." €ott6n. 

ELEGY. 

*<\f eep oVr the miseries of a wretched maid, 
Who sacrifie'd to man her health and fame; 

Whose love, atid truth, and trust, were all repaid, 
By want and wo, disease and endless shame. 

Curse not the poor lost wretch, who cv'ry ill 
That proud unfeeling man can h< ap, sustains; 

Sure she enough is cursed, o'er whom his will, 
Iuflam'd by brutal passion, boundless reigns. 

Spurn not my fainting body from your door, 
Here let me rest my weary weeping head; 

No greater mercy would my wants implore; 
My sorrows soon shall lay me with the dead. 

Who now beholds, but loathes my faded face, 
So wan and sallow, rhang'd with sin and care? 

Or who can any former beauty trace, 
In eyes so sunk with famine and despair? 

That I was virtuous once and beauteous too, 
And free from envious tongues my spotless fame: 

These but torment, these but my tears renew, 
These aggravate my present guilt and shame. 

Where are my virgin honors, virgin charms? 

Oh! whither fled the pride I once maintain^? 
Or where the youths that woo'd me to their arms: 

Or where the triumphs, which my beanty gain'cl? 



420 W NEREAL DISEASE. 

Ali! say, insidious Demon! Minister! where? 

What glory hast thou gam'd bj my defeat! 
Behold the miseries I am doom'd to bear, 

Such as liave brought me to my winding slicet.'^ 

Treatment. Happily for mankind, the Governor of the 
woild, is "a father who pitielh his children,** and afflicts 
them not to kill, but to cure. In mercy he lias appointed a 
nn dicine for II. is dreadful malady. A medicine, which, when 
taken in sufficient quantity, quick!) Hies to alJ parts of the 
system, atiac ks the disease at every post, drives it from gland 
to gland, and wilh a fidelity and courage truly admirable, 
never gives it rest until it has completely expelled it from the 
body, and restored the patient to former health and vigor. 
This wonderful medicine is Mercury, which requires only to 
be so managed as to obtain full possession of the system; not 
exceeding it by salivation, nor falling short of it by untimely 
purging. To hit this desirable point) let a table-spoonful of 
mercurial solution or one of the mercurial pills [See. Dispensa- 
tory] be given night and morning, until the system is fully 
charged with the medicine, which may be known by a slight 
soreness of the mouth and gums, and foetid breath. This 
fortunate state of things, carefully supported a few weeks, 
will remove the disease. 

If the mercury affects the bowels, lessen the dose, or give 
it at longer intervals, or use the mercurial ointment; and if 
there is an increased secretion of the salivary glands, we 
8hotild omit the mercury for a few days, and take a tea-spoon- 
ful of flour of sulphur, in a glass of milk or flaxseed tea, night 
and morning. 

In this way the disease may generally be cured in a short 
time. It will always be prudent to continue the mercury in 
small doses for ten or twelve days after the total disappear- 
ance of all the symptoms. 

There are cases, however, where mercury will not answer, 
as in scrophulnus habits, and when the blood is vitiated. In 
these, the nitric acid should be preferred, and from one to tws 



% VENEREAL DISEASE. j£\ 

drachma of it, diluted, [See Dispensatory] may be taken in the 
day. This medicine seems especially adapted to cases where 
the habit of body is much debilitated, from the long- continu- 
ance of the disease, or where it has acquired great irritability 
from an incautious use of mercury. Jt is also a sovereign 
oure of spongy gums, eruptions, ulcers, nocturnal pains, and 
all the train of consequences, usually attendant on this dis- 
ease, when of long standing and imperfectly cured. 

In the treatment, therefore, of venereal patients, too much 
attention cannot be paid to mark the peculiarities of habit; 
and we should always remember, that, when unfavorable ap- 
pearances supervene from the use of mercury, other medi- 
cines, as the nitric acid, or tar water. [See Dispensatory] or 
decoctions of p ickly ash, nv-zereon, lobelia, sarsapai dla, 
sumach, or p >ke bounce. [See Materia Medica.] 

In this disease, there are certain symptoms which require 
local treatment. Thus, a chancre, which is a small red pim- 
ple, terminating in ulcer, with hard edges, and generally situ- 
ated on some part of the prepuce, or the fore-skin of the penis, 
is best removed by the application of caustic ; or, if recent, 
washing with spirits or brandy, a solution of alkali, [See Dis- 
pensatory] and applying dry lint to the sore, with cleanliness, 
will generally prove sufficient. 

When a bubo supervenes, which is known by pain and 
swelling in the groin, every attempt should be made to dis- 
perse it by rubbing in mercurial ointment on the inside of the 
thigh or calf of the leg; and the application of cloths, wrung 
out of lead water, or ice, if it can be procured, to the swell- 
ing, renewed as often as they become warm. 

Besides which, the patient should be kept sti!!, the bowels 
open, and the pain alleviated by the use of opiates at lr d-time. 

When a tendency to suppuration is discovered, instead of 

the former plan, wafm poultices of fl ixseed, milk and bread, 

or mush and fat, must be Applied and renewed three or four 

times a-day, until the tumor breaks. After which, one or two 

poultices may be continued, to accelerate the discharge of 

matter, for a day or two, when the sore must he kept clean 
55 



VENEREAL PI 

With soap-suds, nnd dress* d night and morning with basilicoo, 
Spread mi lint, until the Matter is mostly discharged. The 
Sore should then be dressed with lint dipt in u solution or al- 
kali, [Set JHspeusulory] once or twice in twenty-fbur hours, 
as may bo indicated by the discharge of matter; and lastly, 
when there is no appearance of proud flesh, it may he healed 
with Turner's cerate, or any healing ointment. 

Warts area frequent affection of the penis, and sometimes 
remain after the venereal virus is expelled. In which case 
they may be removed by ligatures, or the application of caus- 
tic. 

Regimen. There is hardly any thing of more importance 
in the cure of this disease, than a proper regimen. Inatten- 
tion to this* not only procrastinates the cure, but often endan- 
gers the patient's life. In full habits, the diet should always 
be light and cooling. Exercise should never be carried to ex- 
cess, and the patient Should wear flannel on using any prepa- 
ration of mercury. Cleanliness is of too much importance 
ever to he neglected. As soon as the disease makes its ap- 
pearance, die infected part should be frequently washed in 
milk and water, or soap-suds; and if from a neglect of clean- 
liness, venereal ulcers appear* the sores must he well cleansed, 
and dressed with dry lint night and morning. In obstinate 
cases the lint should be dipt in the solution of alkali. 

When the patient is in delicate health, or much reduced, a 
nourishing diet, with wine, bark, and other tone medicines, 
are proper, with pure country air. 

Prevention. After a suspicious connexion, it becomes a 
prutlent man to discharge his urine, as soon as possible, and 
wash well his polluted member, by drawing forward the fore- 
ski i. and closing the end with his finger, that it may bo dis- 
tended, and retain for a few seconds the urine. The glands 
and p^nis should then be well washed with strong soap-suds 
or grog. 

In women, besides cleansing the external parts, some por- 
tion of the wash should be injected up the vagina, by means 
of a female syringe. 



423 



SCUB.V7. 

Symptoms. An unusually weakened state of the btdy-^ 
pale and bloated countenance — the breathing affected on the 
slightest exertion — the gums soft, swollen, and inclined to 
bleed on being rubbed, and sometimes putrid ulcers lire 
formed — the teeth become loose — the breath fa? tic'— fain, the 
urine high coloured. The heart is subject to palpitation — 
the lower extremities to dropsical swellings — the body to pains 
of a pleuritic or rheumatic kind — besides which, blotches and 
ulcers break, out in different parts of the skin, and often ter- 
minate in mortilicarion. 

' Causes. Cold moist air — vitiated or scanty diet — an in- 
dolent life, with luxurious indigencies — corrupted water or 
provisons — and whatever may weaken the body, or vitiate the 
humors. 

Treatment. Raw and fresh vegetables of every descrip- 
tion, particularly those of an acid kind; and fruits, su< ii as 
lemons, limes, oranges, son-el, &c. [See Materia Jiedica] fur- 
nish the most effectual remedies. But hn these are not at all 
times to be obtained, common vinegar, or nitrous vinegar, us. c; 
freely, will completely answer the end. The nitrons vinegar is 
prepared by dissolving three or four ounces of nitre or salt pe- 
tre, in one quart of good vinegar; and of this solution, from one 
to two spoonfuls may be taken three or four times a -day. ac- 
cording to the advanced stage of the disease, anda^ frequent- 
ly*, some of it may be used in bathing the limbs, where they 
are cither stiffened, swelled, blotched, or ulcerated. Soda- 
v*ater or nitric acid, [See Dispensatorij] will be found a us. 
auxiliary, when the disease is inveterate. 

The belly most frequently will be kept open by this medi- 
cine, and \vhen it is not, the exhibition of cream of tartar, 
tamarinds, will be highly beneficial. When the gums are e 
larged, ulcerated and foetid, the mouth should be frequently 
washed with a decoction of red oak bark, in which, a little 



424 eruptions' op ml bki». 

alu:;i is dissolved, and the gums rubbed with a powder Pom- 
posed of equal parts of finely pulverised rliarroal and barkj 
and with which, the scorbutic ulcers may be dressed morning 
and night. These ulcers* maybe known by their soft ..ud 
spongy edges. 

Rkgimejt. So uncommonly salutary are vegetables in 
this disease, that whenever they i an lie hail fresh, they should, 
with ripe fruits and milk, constitute the riii»i' pari of diet for 
scorbutic patienta. When these articles cannot be procured, 
a mild nourishing diet, with wine, rider, and porter, is most 
■roper. As n (thing is of more importance to the scorbutic, 
th n breathing pui'e Iresh air, it should at all times he well 
.supplied. Seamen, therefore, affected with it, ought constant 
ly to keep on deck in fair weather. 



ERUPTIONS OF THE SKIN. 

Tn sup, subsists so intimate a relation between the internal 
and external parts of our body, that no disorder scarcely takes 
place within, that does not show itself ultimately on the sur- 
face. 

Diseases of the skin are therefore very numerous, and as 
they most commonly arise from a constitutional cause, should 
be treated by general remedies. 

Local applications, particularly quack remedies, which are 
composed of mineral poisons, by repelling the vitiated humors 
to t!ie brain, lungs, or bowels, have often produced fatal con- 
sequences. 

Persons of relaxed habits, especially females, are subject to 
an eruption, attended with redness and soreness of the skin> 
forming large spots on the face and neck. This is certainly 
the mark ol aconstituti inal debili y, and can only be removed 
by tonics, as the bark,bitt<'rs, solution of arsenic, nitric acid* 
&c, and exercise. Attenti uld also be paid to a fre- 

quent change ol linen, aud the ok in occasionally dusted, with 
starch. 



»RUPTI0Sf9 ©P <PHB SfctoT. 4g# 

Cutaneous erupt ons oftentimes arise from a foulness of the 
Stomach, in which case, occasional vomiting and purging arc 
found to be highly useful. 

There are eruptions in the face of persons of apparent 
health, called grog blossoms, whieh are tye consequence of an 
inflamed liver, from a too frequent use of wine and spirits - , 
and high living. 

An attempt to remove these pimples by external means* 
would not only be fruitless, but highly dangerous. Tie. ir 
cure can only be effected by gradually correcting the habit of 
intemperance, both in eating and drinking. 

The primary affection must be first relieved. This is to be 
done by taking, every night, from half a grain to one grain 
of opium, combined with two grains of calomel. Alter using 
this medicine for some time, or until the mouth is affected by 
salivation, the nitric acid diluted, [See Disjjensatory] in its 
ttsual doses, will complete the cure. 

Scaly affections of the skin, or clusters of small pimples 
over the body, usually occur in some habits, spring and fall, 
which will generally yield to sassafras tea, or cream of tartar 
and sulphur, in doses of a tea spoonful, night and morning.—* 
Should this fail, the decoction of saraaparilla, and one of the 
mercurial pills, night and morning, for a week or two, and af» 
forwards, the solution of arsenic will always succeed. 

The prickly heat, is an eruption which is sometimes very 
troublesome, but commonly disappears on keeping moderately 
«ool, and avoiding warm drinks. When this is not sufficient, 
and the itching is severe, the carthartic mixture taken two or 
three times a-week, and the external applications of elixir 
vitriol diluted in water, or the itch lotion, [See Dispensatory] 
with the addition of a little more water, will prove a good 
remedy. 

The nettle rash, so called, from its resemblance to erup- 
tions, made by the stinging of nettles, i3 sometimes attended 
with intolerable itching. When many of the eruptions run 
together, the part seems swelled, forming tumors, such as ap- 
pear after bring struck with the las!: of a whip, and betwixt 
them, the skm is ii-Uamed and very red. The elevations an> 



426 ii i 

pear suddenly, bat seMom continue long, and are apt to dis- 
appear from one pan of the body, and appear again in an. 
ether. 
Tlie itching is the greatest inconvenience, as it sometimes 

prwiiis tbe patim^froin sleeping, but the disease is not dan- 
g. ous, 

«;h respect to the cure, observing a cooling regimen and 
a laxative state of the bowels, is generally sufficient^ but it 
fever supervenes, it will be proper to bleed and give the anti- 
mom »1 solution in small doses, determine the fluids to the 
surface. When the disease is of a chronic nature, and ofteu 
returns, twentj drops of elixir vitriol, taken thrice a-day, in 
a cup of ramomile or ccntuary tea, or infusion of columbo, 
shnuld he directed. 

To alia* fte itching, a solution of borax, in v-n-gar, an 
on re of the former, to half a pint of the latter, affords a good 
wash. 



ITCH. 



Tiir itch consists of small watery pimples of a contagious 
nature, which fust appear between the fingers, and on the 
wrists, but in process of time, spreading over the \vh>.le body, 
except the face, attended with a great degree of itchiness, es- 
pecially after being heated by exercise, or when warm in bed. 

In the cure, of this disease, sulphur used internally and ex- 
ternally, is considered as a certain specific. A tea-spoonful 
of the ftonr of sulphur, taken in milk, or spirit and water, 
thrice a-day, and some ,f it rubbed on the inside of the arms 
an I l*gs at bed-time, either dry, or in the form of unction, 
w 11 soon effect a ere. Where' the sulphur is disliked, the 
mercurial ointment may be rubbed in ev ry night, about tbe 
size of a nutmeg, untd the eruption entirely disappears. Tbe 
itc lotion [8ft Uispen ntory] will also be found an effectual 
r: tif lv in this complaint, by washing the parts affected with 
it tW < or mree tir.es a-'Uy. The intern il exhibition of sul- 
phur atone, or combined with cream of tartar, should always 



TETTER, OR RING-WOfefifc 42 J 1 

precede or accompany the external applications. Dock root, 
tobacco, and Virginia snake root, [See Materia Medica,] have 
sometimes cured when the above remedies tailed. 



TETTER, OR RI37G>-WORXft, 

Is an eruption that attacks various parts ot the skin, in a 
•ircle with an inflamed basis, which gradually spreads, form- 
ing an extensive excoriation, sometimes moist, at otl ( i times 
dry; and is attended with smarting and itching, succeeded by 
scurfy scales. 

Treatment. If the habit of body be not faulty, external 
applications alone, ar< often sufficn ni to remove tins af; ction.. 

The saturated solution of borax, with vinegar or lemou 
iuitc, one drachm to an ounce of the acid, is an excellent rem- 
cdy, without producing the least pain on its application. The 
itch lotion, when prepared with double its strength, is also 
equally good. Covering the eruption daily with ink, or the 
juice of black walnut, [See Materia Medica,] has often effect- 
ed a cure. 

Where the disease is inveterate, internal medicines must be 
exhibited and continued for some time, such as lime-water., 
fl-mr of sulphur, the mercurial pills, or which is preferable to 
all of them in obstinate cases, the solution of arsenic. [See 
Dispensatory.] 



TINEA, OR SCALD HEAD. 

Symptoms. This disease consists of little ulcers at the 
roots nf the hair, w! ich discharge a humor that dries into a 
white scab, r thick -rales, and has an offensive smell. It is 
not only a very troublesome complaint, but contagious, and 
when united with a scrofulous constitution, found extremely 
difficult to be cured. 



428 SCROFULA, OK KING'S U\ 1L. 

Treatment. When it is merely a complaint of the skia, 
it inay be successfully treated witli topical applications. In 
the beginning oi' the affection., washing the sores well, night 
ami morning, with strong soap-su is, or a decoction of mbac- 
eo, or by applying an ointment, madeot'jiinson-weed, or pride 
oi' China, [tiee Materia .Uv/v/.J will friquouUy effect a cure. 
But it toe disorder prove obstinate, the head ought to ho 
shaved, and after being well washed with soap-suds, covered 
with tar and suet, spread on a bladder. My very ingenious 
friend, Dr. Chapman, has assured me, when every other ap- 
plication failed in removing this disease, he always succeeded, 
by having the affected parts washed with the following lotion, 
twice a-day: — Take liver of sulphur, three drachms — Spanish 
sua]), one drachm — lime water, eight ounces — rectified spirits 
of wine, two drachms — mix. 

But in cases where topical applications are resisted, medi- 
cine should be given internally, as lime water, flour of sul- 
phur, or calomel, according to circumstances; and to hasten 

the cure, the course of the fluids may. in the mean time, he in 
part diverted from the head, by blisters or sinapisms. 



SCROFULA, OR SING'S EVIL. 

This disease is most frequent among the children of the 
poor, and negroes, who are ill-fed, ill-lodged and ill-clothed; 
it is also hereditary, but never contagious. It most commonly 
occurs in children from the third to the seventh year; fre- 
quently, however, it discovers itself at a later period in hab- 
its peculiarly disposed to it. 

Symptoms. It is known by indolent hard tumors of the 
lymphatic gland, particularly those of the neck, behind the 
ears, or under the chin. The upper lip, and division of the 
nostrils are swelled, with a smooth skin, and hard belly. In 
the progress of the disease, these tumors degenerate into 
ulcers >f ha I digestion; the discharge of which consists of a 
white curdled matter, resembling somewhat the coagulant of 



JAUNDICE. 429 

milk; and previous to their breaking, they acquire a sort of 
purple redness, and a softness to the touch. 

Tkeatment. As soon as the tumors are first discovered, 
endeavor to disperse them by sea bathing, or bathing in salt 
ami water, one pound to three gallons of water, or cold water 
alone, or by frequent application of lead water. Warm fomen- 
tations and poultices of every kind do harm, as they seem 
only to hurry on a suppuration, which, if possible, should 
be prevented. A draught of sea water every morning is 
a useful drink. Peruvian bark and steel, used alternately 
every two weeks, or the nitric acid, will be of infinite service 
by giving tone to the system. The remedy, however, most to 
be depended upon in this disease, is the muriate of lime, given 
in doses of ten to eighty drops, gradually increased, three or 
four times a-day, diluted with water or tea. When a suppu- 
ration takes place, the solution of arsenic should be given 
IWice or thrice a-day. The best application to scrofulous ul- 
cers, is a powder composed of one pound of finely powdered 
bark, and one ounce of white lead in fine powder, mixed well 
together, or a fine powder of calamine-stone alone, and the 
ulcers covered with it daily, keeping it on by brown paper and 
a bandage. Where these are not to be obtained, the constant 
application of linen rags, moistened with a solution of one 
ounce of sugar of lead, in a pint of water, may answer every 
purpose. 

With respect to the diet, it should be nourishing and easily 
digestible, avoiding all viscid food. Moderate exercise, in a 
dry warm air, is exceedingly beneficial. 



JAUNDICE. 

Symptoms. Yellowness of the skin, but chiefly of the 
eyes, the urine also yellow— inactivity— anxiety and uneasi- 
ness at the pit of the stomach— itchiness of the skin. 

Causes. Whatever obstructs the passage of the bile, 
through its natural channel. 
H 



43ft JAUNDICE. 

Treatment. The indications of cure are, to remov* tho 
obstiu ti ns. which, as it originates from different causes, 
will require different modi sol tr atnn-nt. 

As viscid bile is tin- most common cause of this complaint, 
in i tall habits, a ml where there arc an> IVv nsh S) mptoms, 
beg n the curt- With bleeding, afterwards give an emetic, and 
tl » n a da) after, a d«»se of calomel and jalap, which should be 
often repeated it' necessary. Common soap in large quantU 
ti s lias bun exl lbited with mu' h su u ss in tins case, bul as 
tins is - greeable to take, the salt ol tartar, which has the 
san e advantage, or soda, may b«- taken in doses of twenty or 
thirty grains, three or four times a-day, dissolved in the in.u- 
si< i ol < olumbo. 

II theri be an} acute pain in the region of the liver, with a 
quickness of th< pulse, bleed more freely, give one of the 
lie rcurial ]>ills, [See Dispensatory] night and morning, until a 
ptyali^m is produced, use the warm bath, and apply a blister 
over tli pained part. In eases of much pain, three or four 
tahle-spm i fills of olive oil should be swall »wed, and if it do 
not succeed in quitting the pain, one or two tea spoonfuls of 
arl'.- » . or thir'j drops of laudanum must be given. The warm 
hath, or bags of hot salt applied to the right side, an* like- 
vise ben< firial. After the obstruction is removed, the rolum- 
ho or nitric add, tonic powders <r pills, or dogwood, or cher- 
ry-tree baik. [See .Materia Medica,]with porter and wine, are 
necessary to restore the tone of the system. 

Regimen. The diet ought to be regulated according to the 
fonstitution of the patient. In plethoric or feverish habits, 
the diet should be low, and in cases of excessive debility it 
should be of the most nourishing kind. Vegetables, by crea- 
ting flatulency and acidity, arc to be avoided. Mucilaginous 
drinks are peculiarly proper; and in many instances, sinking 
a new laid cs;g every morning, on an empty stomach, has suc- 
ceeded in curing this disease, when all other means failed. 



431 



WHITE SWELLING, 

Is distinguished by an acute pain, without an> external in- 
flammation, of a joint, attended with a gradual increase of 
its size. Though all the joints are occasionally subject to it, 
yet its most usual seat is in the knee. 

While swellings are generally* of a scrofulous nature, but 
sometimes they are produced l»y rheumatic affections, and 
sometimes follow strains that have been neglected, or badly 
treated. 

Treatment. As soon as an affection of this kind is dis- 
covered, the patient should remain in bed, and the limb kept 
perfectly at rest, without which, remedies cannot produce any 
good effect. 

The great object is to prevent the formation of matter by 
the immediate application of leeches, or scarifications to the 
part affected, and by which, eight or ten ounces of bio d may 
be taken away, every other day, or oftener, according to cir- 
cumstances. The whole joint should then be kept continually 
wet and cold with the solution of crude sal-ammoniac. [See 
Dispensatory] by means of four or five folds of linen. Af- 
ter the local affection is somewhat abated, frictions with the 
volatile liniment, or a mixture of soft soap and spirits of cam- 
phor, to which may be added some tincture of canthandes, will 
have a good effect. With one or other of these liniments, the 
joint is to be rubbed well twice a-day, and afterwards covered 
wit'i a piece of flannel that has been soaked in the same. If 
this should not produce, good effects, the part must be rub- 
bed night and morning with mercurial ointment, in the quan- 
tity of two drachms at a time, and continued until the mouth, 
is gently affected. The cure may then be completed by small 
blisters on each side of the joint, which should be kept rune 
ning for a length of time. 

If the disease in spite of these, remedies continue to advance, 
«mollient poultices must be applied often, until various ab- 



432 3HA-SIOKNE8S. — INTOXICATION. 

sccsses appear, and these should be opened as soon as they 
seem to point, afterwards to be treated as ulcers. 

In cases where the white swelling is evidently scrofulous, 
tonic medicines, as bark, steel, &c. and a nourishing diet, to 
correct the constitutional affection, with stimulating- applica- 
tions to the joint, form the best remedies. 



SEA-SICKNESS. 

Symptoms. A most unpleasant giddiness, with great 
nausea and vomiting, occasioned by the motion of the vessel. 
The duration of this complaint is very uncertain. Generally, 
it lasts but a day or two, but in some cases it will continue a 
whole voyage. 

Treatment. Though time, perhaps, is the only cure, yet 
it will be greatly alleviated by keeping the bowels open. A 
tea-spoonful of sether, in a glass of water, relieves the con- 
vulsive affection of the stomach. High-seasoned food, and 
acidulated drinks, are peculiarly proper. But nothing will be 
found more serviceable than exercise, cheerfulness, and fresh 
air. Persons should, therefore, never go below, but romp on 
the decks, cut capers in the shrouds, and divert their mind* 
and move their bodies as much as possible. 



INTOXICATION. 

Symptoms. Like every other kind of frenzy, it comes oh 
with a burning redness of the cheeks — a swelling of the jugu- 
lar veins, and fiery wildness of the eyes. The tongue is con- 
siderably affected, but very differently in different stages of 
the disease. At first, only glib and voluble — then loud f and 
louder still — at length noisy and excessively disagreeable. The 
patient now is quite on his top-ropes, and nothing goes down 
with him, but the most ranting songs, roaring laughs, ripping 
oaths, and bluntest contradictions, accompanied with loud 



INTOXICATION. 433 

thumping of the fist on the table, especially if politics be the 
topic of conversation. There is no complaint that affects pa- 
tients so differently — some it makes so ridiculously loving, at 
to hug and kiss one another — others it kindles into such rage 
and fury, that they will frequently throw the bottles and 
glasses at the heads of their best friends. And, indeed, so 
wonderful is its influence, that it is no uncommon thing, with 
it, to inspire cowards with courage — to teach truth to liars, 
and to make persons naturally reserved, loquacious, and even 
boisterous. 

The memory now partakes of the general infirmity, being 
hardly able to connect the parts of a story begun. The tongue 
at length, as if about to lose its powers, begins to trip — then to 
stammer — and at last the utterance dies away generally in 
some idle half- finished threat or oath. Hiccups now ensue, 
with a silly grin of the mouth, which continues half open, 
from the falling of the lower jaw. The face puts on an air of 
great stupidity — the eyes turn heavy and sleepy, and the pa- 
tient begins to nod, with his head bending forward, until, be- 
coming too heavy, he sinks under the table, and not unlre- 
quently, after a filthy vomiting, falls asleep among the dogs 
and cats. 

Treatment. In a fit of drunkenness, the patient should 
instantly be placed in an airy situation, the head and shoulders 
kept erect, and the neck-cloth and collar of the shirt unbound, 
and copiously bled, if his situation seems alarming. The 
next step is to provoke vomiting, by the most expeditious 
means, such as tickling the throat with a feather or the finger. 
Cold applications to the head, as cloths wrung out of cold 
water, or vinegar and water, often renewed, will have the 
happiest effect; so will plunging the body into cold water, for 
many instances have occurred of persons having fallen over- 
board in a drunken fit, and have been picked up sober. 

Therefore, it will be found an admirable mode of sobering 
those vagabonds, who, as a nuisance, infest the streets of 
«very city, to take them to the nearest pump, and there 



434 TO RECOVER PERSONS APPARENTLY DROWNHD. 

deluge them with cofd water. This will not onlj bring them 
to their senses, but send them off, under fiiat sense <>l si.amc, 
Which ever follows the commission of a crime so trmv ijjuo 
minious. 



TO RECOVER PERSONS 

APPARENTLY DROWNED. 

As soon as the body is taken out of the water, it should in- 
stantly be rubbed dry, and wrapped in warm blankets, unless 
the cooling process should b" first necessary, in consequence 
of the patient being in a hall frozen state. For, in thrtt case, 
the body ought to be rubbed with snow, or flannels wrung out 
of cold water or vinegar, before any degree of artificial 
warmtu is applied. Alter which, the patient is to be placed on 
a bed or mattress, with the head elevated, and air is then in- 
Stanth to be blown into the longs, by inserting the pipe of a 
pair of bellows into one nostril, or t'>v wan' of that article, a 
tobacco pipe, a quill, or even a card folded in the form of a 
tube, while the mouth and opposite nostril are closed by an 
assistant, or covered with some wet paper. By thus forcing 
air into the lungs. and alternately expelling it by pressing the 
chest, respiration may happily be restored. Volatile salts, mt 
vin gar, should also frequently be applied to the nostr Is. 

Next the intestines are to be stimulated by injections of 
warm spirits and water, or mulled wine. It will be more 
effectual sti'l, if some warm spirits and water be introduced 
immediately into the stomach, by means of a syringe and a 
long flexible tube. While using the internal stimulants, a 
bladder of warm wal t shoul I be applied to the region of the 
stomach, and the legs and arms briskly rubbed with a warm 
hand, or with flannel, extending the friction gradually to the 
thighs, belly, and 'best. 

At that critical period, when sneezing, slight twitcbings,or 
gasping, in irk the first da vn of returning lift*, it will be pru- 
dent to moderate tiie stimulating Mowers. >VUeu respiration 



TO RECOVER PERSONS APPARENTLY DEAD. 435 

and the power of swallowing are restored, the patient should 
b< kept moderately warm, and gentle perspiration encouraged 
by wai in drinks. 

SmiuJd feverish symptoms ensue, moderate bleeding, to- 
gether with mild laxatives and cooling regimen, will complete 
the cure. 



TO RECOVER PERSONS 

Apparently Killed by Lightning, or Noxious Vapours. 

Treatment. Instantly throw cold water with some force, 
in large quantities, on the face and head, which should be 
often repeated for some time, and if convenient, the whole body 
may be plunged into cold water, and afterwards wiped dry, 
and warmth gradually applied. If the body and the .'extremi- 
ties feel cold, instead of rhe application of cold water, the 
warm bath, about the temperature of the blood, should be pre- 
pared as .soon as possible, and the patient immersed in it for 
twenty or thirty minutes, using frictions at the same time 
with the hand. As soon as the patient is taken out of the bath, 
his s' in must be wiped dry, and wrapped up in warm flannel, 
and gentle stimulants employed to produce a reaction. 

The vital principle is not unfrequeritly suspended by the 
deletereous fumes arising from fermenting liquors, from char- 
coal, enk' . &r.,frnm combustion, from metals in a state of fu- 
sion, particularly arsenic and mercurj; as also, very often, 
from respiring the foul air of wells, privies, caverns, and 
mines. In such cases, the person should be freely exposed to 
pure and cool air, and supported, at the San e time, in a lean- 
ing posture. Volatile salts, or other stimulating substances, 
are then to be applied to the nose, and cold water made use 
of, as above directed. In places where a lighted candle will 
not burn, animal life cannot be supported; and, therefore, in 
all cases, where wells, cist-pools, or deep vaults, are to be 
opened, a large candle, lighted, ought to b" let down very 
•lowly to the bottom, before any person attempts to descend. 



436 poisow. 

If the candle is extinguished, means must be adopted to re- 
move the noxious air, before any one descends. To effect 
this, the following modes will answer. 1st. Let the leather- 
pipe of an engine be introduced to the bottom of the well, if 
empty, or the surface of the water, and aflix a blacksmith's 
bellows to the other end, when, by well working this, the foul 
air may be expelled. 2dly. Carbonic acid gas may be bailed 
out with a bucket made of coarse cloth like a bag, with a 
round piece of board, nearly the diameter of the well at the 
bottom; let the bucket, thus made, down upon the water, so 
that the bottom may rest upon it, and let the bag fall upon 
the bottom; then draw it up, when it will be filled with foul 
air, which may be brought up to the surface, and emptied by 
turning out and shaking the bag. 3dly. Let down about a 
bushel of quick lime, dipping it into the water occasionally, 
to slack it; or, if there be no water in the well, throw down 
some for the purpose. 4thly. Pour down a large quantity of 
boiling water repeatedly into the well. 

When by these means the circulation of the blood is in- 
creased, and the extremities become warm, bleeding will be 
proper, and must be often repeated, if the patient have fever, 
or complain of pain. Besides which, evacuations must be 
procured by purgative medicines and clysters, and the anti- 
phlogistic plan in every respect strictly pursued, until the fe- 
brile symptoms abate. After which, tonic medicines, with 
wine, in case of debility, are of infinite service. 



POISON. 



Treatment. The cure of poisons swallowed, whether 
vegetable or mineral, requires either an immediate evacuation, 
•r a counteraction of their effects. Therefore, as soon as 
possible, throw iu an emetic, quick in its operation, as blue or 
white vitriol in a dose, from five to twenty grains, repeated 
in fifteen minutes, if necessary, and assisted by copious 
draughts of warm water. 



JJITE3 OF MUSQUITOE.S. 437 

io remove tlic stupefaction which generally ensues after 
an imprudent dose of opium, acids of the vegetable class, as 
lime juice, or vinegar diluted with water, ought to be exhibited 
freely* Hut if the patient lay in a deadly stupor, with cold 
extremities, the warm stimulating plan must be first adopted* 
Sinapisms or Misters ought instantly to be applied to the ex- 
tremities; or, as a more effectual remedy to produce reaction 
in the system, the legs and arms should be whipped well with 
rods, and the soles of the feet seared with a red hot iron. 

It appears, from incontestable experiments, that the white 
of an egg beat op with cold water is the best antidote against 
corrosive sublimate and the other mercurial preparations. 
The whites of twelve or fifteen eggs, are directed to be beat 
up and mixed with two pints of cold water, and a glass full 
taken every two or three minutes, so as to favor vomiting. In 
defect of eggs, milk and mucilaginous drinks may be used 
with great success. The same method may be pursued in 
case of arsenic or any mctalic salt has been taken. A drink 
composed of equal parts of lime water, and sugar and water, 
should also be given when arsenic has been swallowed. Un- 
less these remedies are quickly resorted to, death will inevita- 
bly take place. Should fever supervene, the antiphlogistic 
treatment must be pursued. The application of tobacco will 
assist the operation of an emetic. [See Materia Medica.] For 
! lie poisonous effects of lead. See Vine. 



BITES OF BEU8QUE 

Musquito bites often degenerate into painful acrid ulcers, 
particularly on the legs, in consequence of scratching them. 
It is, therefore, proper, where these insects are troublesome, 
to wear loose linen buskins to guard the legs in the evening; 
and when this has been neglected, apply oil, vinegar, lime 
juice, or camphorated spirits, to the part, to allay the itching 
and tingling occasioned by their bites. 
V7 



■138 



BITEB OF VENOMOUS ANIMALS. 

Treatment. The bites of all venomous animals are 
(;urcd by the same means, which are very simple, if the reme- 
dies were always at hand. The caustic volatile alkali, or 
can de luce, is a certain antidote against the bites or stints of 
the most venomous serpents or spiders. Lint wetted with 
either of these should instantly be applied to the injured part., 
and renewed as it becomes dry. A tea-spoonful of the same 
medicine must also be given to the patient in a little water, 
every hour, or oftener, as may be indicated by the symptoms* 

Lunar caustie possesses the same admirable virtue, and 
should always be employed, when the other medicines arc not 
at hand. The best mode of using it, is to dissolve five or six 
grains of tho caustic in two or three ounces of water, and 
keep the affected parts moistened with it, as above directed. 
Some of the same ought also to be given internally, only in a 
more diluted state. When these remedies cannot be pro- 
cured, a cataplasm, made of quick-lime and soap, should be 
applied to the bitten part, and as much Cayenne, or red pep- 
per, mixed in spirits, swallowed every hour or two, as the 
stomach can possibly bear. 

The juice of plantain and hoar-hound, in doses of a table- 
spoonful every hour or two, is considered a good remedy 
against the bites of venomous serpents, as is also squirrel ear. 
[See Materia Medica.] 

As soon as a person is bitten by a poisonous animal, a tight 
ligature should be made above the injured, part, until suitable 
remedies can be employed. When the toe or finger is bitten, 
cutting it off immediately will prevent mischief from the poi- 
son. 

It is also a fact that sucking the wound, immediately after 
Iteing bitten, will arrest the progress of the poison. This 
was lately verified in tho neighborhood of Augusta, in the 
case of a youth who was bitten by a rattlesnake, and the 
wound being instantly sucked by a man present prevented its 
mischievous effects: nor did any injury result to the operator, 



HYDROPHOBIA, OR BITE OF A WAD DOC. 439 

When this remedy is resorted to, it may be prudent for the 
operator to guard his mouth with sweet oil or milk, and not 
swallow the saliva. It should never he attempted by a person 
with a sore mouth or very bad teeth. 



HYDROPHOBIA, 

OR THE BITE OF A MAD DOG. 

This disease is so dreadfully alarming at all times, that wo 
ought, as the bestmeans of security, toondeavorto prevent it. 

Therefore, as the infection of a rabid animal is conveyed 
by his teeth into the wound, the sooner it is removed, the less 
chance is there for absorption. Consequently, the bitten part 
should immediately be washed, and where it can be cut out, 
this should be done deeper and more extensive, than the 
wound itself. Then apply a cupping glass, with previous 
scarification, and cauterize the wound with lunar caustic. If 
the wounded part cannot be excised from its situation, it must 
be well washed, and then be scarified, and a free discharge of 
blood promoted by a cupping glass. This being done, the bit- 
ten part is to be well cauterized with caustic, and a proper 
discharge kept up for a considerable time. 

In addition to this treatment, we should,diligcntIy employ 
mercury, both internally and externally, to excite a saliva- 
tion. Opium, in such doses as are given in tetany, has been 
said to produce beneficial effects. 

A strong solution of arsenic, in water, lias been recom- 
mended as an excellent wash for wounds inflicted by rabid ani- 
mals; this having been found to possess the power of destroy- 
ing the poison, and thereby preventing hydrophobia from 
taking place. 

It is probable, the caustic volatile alkali, might prove an 
antidote against the poison of a rabid animal, as that of the 
most venomous serpents. 



140 niiNLA woj 

The firull-can* chick-weed, and emetic weed, [See .Valeria 
Ikd] are considered valuable remedies in this dreadful dis- 
ease. The most certain remedy, however, is to cut out the 
part: and tbis is certain at any period previous to the inflam- 
mation. If tin wi and is inflicted so deep that tlio bitten part 
cannot be separated, a caustic must bo applied to what 
mains. 



GUINEA WORN. 

This disease is frequent among the new negroes, and is 
pretty uniform in its appearance. 

The patient is at first sensible of an itching, and on exam- 
ining the part, a small blister is generally to be perceived. — 
Frequently, two or three of these blisters manifest themselves; 
and at times, the part has the appearance of being stung with 
nettles. Beneath tbes< blisters, or other affections, on raising 
the skin, there appears a small pierc of mucus, on removing 
w' ich, the head of a worm 's to be seen. It is generally firmly 
fix ■■■.!. and requires fotrc to detach it from the parts beneath. 
"When oner separated with the forceps, it can be twisted round 
a ligature, or a piece of lint, and by this means, a portion of 
it, a foot or two in length, may be extracted in the course of 
one day. 

In its appearance, it resembles what is called bobbin, or 
small tape, and is of the same size. It is transparent and 
mo st. and appears to contain something like a white liquid. 
As much of it as will come away without pulling, is daily to 
be extracted. It is always dangerons to use force, on account 
of the risk of breaking the worm. When this accident hap- 
pens, it occasions the most acute pain, accompanied with 
swelling and inflammation of the neighboring parts: and these 
symptoms will often continue for two or three weeks. In 
this case, the worm also takes a different course, and soon 
throws itself into another part. 



44i 

swAiLLOwxsra of pxrts. 

Pins, and other bard and sharp pointed substances, some 
limes pass into the gullet, and even into the stomach. It is 
too prevalent a practice, when any substance of this kind has 
passed into the stomach, to endeavor to hasten its passage 
through the bowels, by giving some opening medicine. 

Miik alone, or mixed with raw eggs, should be immediately 
taken, as by the coagulation which takes place, the substance 
may become so involved, as to prevent its doing injury to the 
stomach; and on the same principle, should opening medi- 
cines, which render the f'seces thin, b? avoided; as by allowing 
the feces tcj obtain some firmness, there will be the greater 
probability of the pointed parts of th«* substance being so 
sheathed, as to prevent their injuring the intestines. It is 
but rare, however, that any serious injury is done to the 
stomach by the point of the pin. 



CHILBLAINS, 

V 

Symptoms. Are inflammatory swellings, chiefly affecting 
the heels, feet, and toes, and sometimes the arms and hands, 
attended with great pain and degree of itching. 

Causes. This disease is owing to a weaker action of the 
small vessels most remote from the heart, occasioned by cold 
or dampness; and occurs most frequently among children, and 
people of delicate constitutions. 

Treatment. Whore the parts are frost bitten by long ex- 
posure to the cold, they should be plunged into the coldest 
water, and afterwards rubbed with salt. When they are only 
benumbed, they may be rubbed with strong brine, or spirit of 
camphor, or opodeldoc. [See Dispensatory,] to which, a little 
laudanum may be added, if the pain or itching be very trou- 
blesome: but when they crack and lischarge an acrid matter. 
poultices should bo applied, but not for any length of time, as 



412 3CALD5 AM) UI'RNai. 

their continuance is apt to produce fungous cxcrcsccuees.r- 
The application of diachylon plaster to the part, if the ex- 
citing cause bo avoided, will afterwards effect a euro. 



SCALDS AND BURNS. 

The leading indication in affections of this kind, is to 
abate the pain; and this is effected by whatever induces insen- 
sibility of the part, as plunging it suddenly into cold water, 
covering it with ice or snow, or applying soft soap, brandy, 
laudanum, asther, or spirits of turpentine. Of these remedies, 
spirits of turpentine deserves the preference, especially where 
the skin is detached. A liniment prepared of bascilicon oint- 
ment ami spirits of turpentine, and applied twice a-day to 
burns, when there is a loss of substance, alleviates tbc pain 
like a charm, and brings the sore to .suppuration in a few 
days, which may afterwards be healed, by a liniment com- 
posed of equal parts of linseed oil and lime-water, or by the 
application of the simple aaturine ointment, or Turner's ce- 
rate, [See Dispensatory] or what is preferable, an ointment 
made with the thorn apple. [See Materia Medica.] 

The application of cotton to a burn or scald, admirably 
alleviates the pain. My honorable and highly esteemed friend. 
Dr. James Jones, of Virginia, stated to me the case of a child 
which fell in a tub of scalding water, being most wonderfully 
relieved of pain, immediately on covering it with carded cot- 
ton. After a few days, he directed the sores to be dressed 
with the thorn apple ointment, which soon completed the 

cure. 

Blisters, which occur from burns, should be opened as soon 
as the irritation induced has subsided; and in order to prevent 
any bad effects from the admission of air, small punctures 
ought to be made, in preference to incisions. 

When fevers attend burns, mild laxatives become necessa- 
ry; and where the pain is violent, laudanum ought to be given 
in pretty large doses. Should the sores not heal kindly, as- 
tringent washes are necessary, aB recommended for indolent 
ulcers - . 



443 



HERNIA, OR RUPTURES. 

The term rupture, was adopted when it was supposed that 
the disease was always the consequence of a rupture of some 
of the parts, which form the cavity of the abdomen or belly. 
But anatomical examination has shown, that this disease, as 
it most commonly appears, takes place in consequence of the 
protrusion of some of the contents of the abdomen through 
openings, which are natural to the human body, and without 
any violent separation of the parts. It will not be necessary 
to describe, particularly, tho several kinds of ruptures which 
may occur. It will be sufficient to observe, that ruptures will 
generally appear in the groin, in the upper and fore part of 
the thigh, and at the navel. Those which appear, at first just 
above the groin, will, in general, if neglected, soon descend 
into tho scrotum, in men, and into the labia pudendi, of women. 
The tumor, in this disease, is most commonly formed by a 
part of the intestinal canal, or of the omentum or caul, or of 
both. 

In those ruptures which are capable of easy reduction, as 
soon as a pressure is properly made, the protruded intestine 
generally slips up, all at once, with a kind of gurgling noise, 
and the tumor immediately subsides; where the tumor has 
chiefly been formed by the omentum, it passes up more slow- 
ly, aud without that particular noise which accompanies the 
return of the intestine. 

In those cases of rupture, where stricture has taken place 
on the protruded parts, and the reduction is thereby rendered 
difficult, the belly becomes tense and painful, the pain of the 
belly, as well as of the tumor itself, being much increased on 
the least exertion, a total stoppage of discharge by stool takes 
place, and the patient is distressed by a sickness at tho sto- 
mach, which increases until there is almost constant -retching 
an 4 vomiting. 

To prevent these evils, it is only necessary that such a 
p'ressnrc be kept on the opening through which the part pro- 



444. HERNIA, OR RUPTURES. 

truded, as may prevent its again Galling out. The pTW 

the fingers shows how effectually this may he done, and if. 
the time this pressure is made, the patient but gently rough-, 
he will discover how forcible the protruding parts are driven 
outwards, and how necessary it is to guard against their lu- 
ture propulsion. The ingenuity of artists has devised a mode, 
by spring trusses, of applying a constant and properly adapt- 
ed pressure, requiring little or no exertion, or even attention, 
of the patient himself. No person, therefore, in the situation 
just described, should suffer a day to pass, mere than is abso- 
lutely unavoidable, without obtaining the comfort and securi- 
ty which will follow the application of a truss, since, if it he 
adopted at the first appearance of the disease, not only will 
the malady be stoptin its progress, hut, if employed with con- 
stancy and steadiness, a radical cure may he gained. 

If it be discovered that the return of the rupture is become 
difficult, and that a stricture on the protruded part has per- 
haps taken place, the person should place himself on his back, 
inclining to the side opposite to that diseased, with the head 
low, and the breech raised high, the knees being drawn up- 
wards, and a little outwards. Whilst lying in this posture, 
he should endeavor, by such pressure as he has been accus- 
tomed to employ for its reduction, to return the protruded 
part. Should he not succeed in this attempt, he may lay on 
the part a piece of folded linen, dipped in cold water, and re- 
peat his attempts. If these be also unsuccessful, he may then 
be assured that a stricture has taken place, and as his life de- 
pends on its speedy removal, no time should be lostin obtain- 
ing the best surgical assistance that can be had. 

The umbilicial hernia, or the rupture of the navel, is most 
common to childhood, and is easily cured, if early attended to. 
The means to be adopted are simply these— the protruded 
parts are to be returned, which may be easily done, by alight 
pressure with the finger, and retained in their proper situa- 
tion, by a conical piece of very soft sponge, thoroughly clear- 
ed, by rubbing between the thumb and finger, of sand and 
minute shells, which may be lodged in its cavities. This be 



FALLING OF THE FUNDAMENT. 446 

ing kept to the, part, by the point of one finger, is to be sc- 
oured by several slips of strongly adhesive plasttr, three ineh- 
os in length, crossing each other in a stellated form. 



PROLAPSUS AKI. 

OR FALLING OF THE FUNDAMENT. 



It is occasioned by weakness of the part, which is aggra- 
vated by costiveness, hemorrhoidal swellings, diarrhoeas, and 
particularly a tenesmus. 

Treatment. The cure is to be effected by reduction qf 
the part as soon as possible, and retaining it in its natural 
position, by a compress, secured with a bandage. To effect 
its reduction, the patient should be laid on his face in bed, 
with his buttocks raised above the rest of his body, and while 
supporting the tumor with the palm of one hand, the part of 
the gut least protruded, is to be first introduced with the fore 
linger of the other. As soon as the bowels are returned, the 
bandage is to be applied. When the protruded parts become 
inflamed, from being exposed to the air, before a reduction be 
attempted, the inflammation is to be alleviated by blood-let- 
ting, and fomenting the part with a warm decoction of mul- 
lein. 

Persons who are subject to falling of the fundament, would 
do well to wash the part, immediately after evacuation, wit!) 
a strong decoction of oak bark. 

Such remedies as tend to recover the tone of the parts most 
readily, are to be used, as cold bathing partially applied, and 
injections of the decoction of bark, with the addition of a little 
laudanum, or starch, if there be an acrid discharge. With 
the same view, tonic medicines, as steel, columbo, or bark., 
should be taken thrice a-day. Persons subject to this disease^ 
ought to ose such diet as produces but little excrements, and 



446 WARTS AM* CORNS.— WBITLO 

those of a soft consistence. Rye mush and molasses, used ex- 
clusively a S a diet for a few weeks, has been found to produd 
a perfect cure. 



WAITS AND CORNS. 

Wiibb warts arc attended with inconvenience, they mar bs 
removed either by ligature or caustic, ac ordingto the extent 
of their base. The caustics commonly used for this purpose, 
are crude sal-ammoniac, blue vitriol, lunar caustic, or tinc- 
ture of steel, applied every day. 

As corns are formed entirely from pressure, we must care- 
fully avoid the occasional cause, by wearing wide shoes; and 
for their removal, they should be bathed for some time in 
warm water, and then pared off as much as possible, without 
giving pain; after whieh, apply over them a wafer or diachy- 
lon plaster, to defend them from the cold air. Another meth- 
od is to allow them to grow to some length, through a piece 
of perforated leather, properly secured by plaster, or any 
other means; and afterwards, to pick them out, or to cut 
round their root, by which they may, for the most part, be 
casjly turned out. 



WHITLOW, 

Is an inflammatory swelling of the fingers, confined gene- 
rally to the las? joint, particularly under the nail, attended 
with a sense of most burning heat. 

Causes. It is often induced by external violence, as the 
puncture of a pin, or contusion of the nail; but it most fre- 
quently takes place without any obvious cause. 

Tueatmf.xt. The moment that a sense of any preter- 
natural heat, or pain is felt, in order to effect resolution, ap- 



TUMORS, OR BOILS. 44 1 / 

ply a blister, or let the finger be bathed, several times a-day, 
in a mixture composed of lour ounces of spirits of camphor, 
halt an ounce of laudanum, and two drachms of extract of lead. 
"When those articles are not at hand, holding the hand in 
brandy, or sharp vinegar, or very hot water often repeated, 
and continued for some time, will likewise prevent suppura- 
tion. According to my honorable and worthy friend, John 
Taliaferro, Ksq. of Virginia, the application of a plaster, 
composed of lime and soft soap, is a sovereign remedy. 

Should, however, these means fail to produce resolution, 
the best method is to make an early opening down to the 
bone, which w 11 occasion the patifnt much less pain, than al- 
lowing the matter gradually to make its own way to the sur- 
face; which, likewise, from the length of time required, is at- 
tended with more mischief to the parts. The wound is then 
to be brought to suppuration by emollient poultices, and af- 
terwards, treated as an ulcer. 



TUMORS, OR BOILS. 

Evert tumor terminates in one of tbr following ways: — 
By a:i absorption of the substance into the circulation, by a 
conversion into jms, or degeneration into scinhus or cancer. 

Tl-ere are two plans for the treatment of tumors. Either 
by resolution or maturation. In the first, there is a dispersion 
of the swelling; and in the second, it is brought to maturity, 
and of course, a discharge takes place by spontaneous rup- 
ture, or by incision. 

Trkatment. In the treatment of tumors, we must be 
regulated by the nature and condition of them. 

If, for example, they should appear on any part or the body, 
With only a slight degree of pain, tension, and inflammation, 
and m» preceding indisposition, that may induce us to believe 
it to be the effort of nature, to get rid of some noxious matter,, 



-443 TUMORS, OR BOIL?-- 

we should then endeavor to disperse the inflamuiatiou, by 
strictly observing a cooling regimen, by bleeding, by mild 
cathartics, and by topical remedies, as cloths wrung out of 

lead water, orsatur.ne poultices, [Sec JUspcnsatory] often re- 
newed. 

But when tiny arise from bad habits of bod), their suppu- 
ration in all cases should be promoted as soon as possible, by 
warm emollient poultices, as milk and bread, flaxseed, or 
mush and fat, renewed every three or four hours. 

When the suppuration is complete, if the matter do not 
make its own way, the tumor is to be opened with a lancet or 
caustic, and after applying one or two poultices, it should be 
dressed with basilicon, [See Dispensatory] spread very thin on 
lint, night and morning, until it ceases to discharge; after 
which, with Turner's cerate, or some healing ointment. If 
fungous or proud flesh appear, it must be destroyed by sprink- 
ling red precipitate, burnt alum, or rhubarb over it, or touch 
the protuberant part with blue vitriol or caustic. 

Attention must also be paid to the general state of the sys- 
tem, since, if that particular state on which the tumors Be- 
pend, is not changed, the patient may be harassed a consid- 
erable time by their recurrence. 

Hence, in debilitated constitutions, the tonic and strength- 
ening remedies, such as bark, sea bathing, &r., should be em- 
ployed, and in robust and cross habits, sulphur, and cream 
of tartar, ought to be taken in doses of a tea-spoonful thric* 
a- day. 

A tumor on the gums is to be brought to suppuration, by 
applying roasted figs internally to the part, as warm as can 
be borne; and afterwards, the mouth is to be frequently wash- 
ed. ejt'.er wiMi the astringent or detergent, gargle. [See Dis- 
pensatory.] But when it arises from a carious tooth, a remo- 
val of it becomes necessary, in order to effect a cure. 



44«J 



SCIRRHUS, OR CANCER. 

A cancer is a spreading sore, preceded by a hard or scir- 
rhus swelling of the part, attended with pain, and, for the 
most part, a thin fetid discharge. Any part of the body may 
be the seat of this disorder, though it is mostly confined to 
the glands. 

A scirrhus in the breast commences with a small, hard, and 
moveable kernel, like a pea, without discolouration and wth- 
out pain. This generally increases in size and in hardness. 
The neighbouring parts become affected with a sense of 
pain and uncommon heat, as if touched with fire, or pierced 
with sharp needles. Inflammation now succeeds, which end- 
ing in an ulcer or open s>re, the cancerous state begins. — 
When the surface of the skin is attacked by cancer, it gene- 
rally begins with a small excrescence of the watery kind, 
which becomes a cancerous ulcer, on suffering even the slight- 
est irritation. 

Treatment. If the unfortunate subject of this malady is 
a young subject, and of a good constitution, and the complaint 
in its worst state, the best advice to be given is to apply to 
some experienced surgeon, and have the part extirpated im- 
mediately. AVhcn extirpation cannot be accomplished, every 
attempt should he made to stop the progress of the com- 
plaint, by general and topical blood-letting, by a cooling diet, 
consisting principally of milk and vegetables, and to keep the 
bowels open by the occasional use of mild cathartics. 

In the incipient scirrhus state, wearing a hare or rabbit 
skin over the part affected, is extremely useful; and uhen 
this cannot be procured, a mercurial plaster will he found 
serviceable. Lead water, in this state, has likewise been 
employed with some success, by arresting the progress of tlie 
complaint. Every thing that tends to irritate, such as rub- 
bing, picking, or handling the affected part, should he avoid- 
ed. The clothing should be. so regulated as not to press too 



^50 COMMON ULCER?. 

hard ou the tumor, nor to keep it disagreeably warm, nor 
leave it painfull) cold. 

W lien the cancer becomes ulcerated, various have been the 
applications, but those which give the hast pain are the most 
eligible. The narrow leafed dock-root has proved an effectu- 
al cure of this malady, in man) instances. The manner of 
applying it, is by boiling the root till it is quite soft, then 
batue the part affected, with the decoction, three limes a-day, 
as hot as can be borne, using the root in form of poultice. 

Another remedy for this disease, is the solution of arsenic. 
It is to be taken inwardly, thrice a-day, in its usual doses, 
[-See Dispensatory] and to be applied externally in a diluted 
state. A drachm of the solution is first to be diluted with a 
quart of rain water, and made gradually stronger, till it be 
double of that strength. This mixture may be either applied 
on lint, or made into a poultice with the crumb of bread. 

The solution of kali on lint, has also been employed with 
some success in cancerous ulcers, beginning with it weak, and 
gradually increasing its strength. 

The charcoal powder [»S'ec Vispensatory] is an excellent ap- 
plication to cancerous sores, particularly when they have an 
offensive smell. It may be daily applied in powder on In** 
carefully observing not to expose the ulcer to the air on 
changing the dressing; Carrots [See Materia Jtiedica] are 
also a good application to foetid ulcers. 



COMMON ULCERS. 

No disease occurs more frequently among the poor and 
kiegroes, than ulcers of the legs; for this obvious reason, they 
are more exposed to accidents, and when they meet with a 
wound or contusion in the leg, the injured part inflames, and 
becomes an ulcer for want of proper care. Women with ob- 
structed menses are also subject to this disorder. 



fe'OMMON VLfiERS. 45 J 

Ulcers receive various appellations, and require diflVrent 
modes of treatment, according to their appearances, or the 

causes, and peculiarities of the constitution of the patient. 

Where the disease is local, topical remedies only are neces- 
sary; but when it is connected with any disorder of the consti- 
tution, medicines that affect the whole system, are absolutely 
necessary. When ulcers appear to have had any effect, either 
in carrying off, or preventing disorders to which the constitu- 
tion may have been liable, a cure should not be attempted, un- 
til an issue is made in some more convenient part, which 
should he made to discharge nearly as much as the ulcer. — 
[See Issues.] 

An ulcer not attended by any considerable degree of pain 
and inflammation, and which affords a discharge of mild mat- 
ter, of whitish consistence, the granulation firm, red, and of 
healthy appearance, is called the simple purulent ulcer, and is 
entirely a topical affection. This ulcer is the most simple 
that can occur, both in its symptoms and method of cure; and 
it is to the state of such a sore, t*:at every other species must 
be reduced before a permanent cure can be effected. 

The causes of purulent ulcers are, ail wounds that do not 
unite without the formation of matter, and every external 
accident that terminates in suppuration, with an opening as 
a consequence of it. 

In he cure of this species of ulcers, first remove any inflam- 
mation which may attend it, by emollient poultices, as bread 
and milk, renewed ever) three hours. As soon as the inflam- 
mation subsides, or it the poultices, lest the granulations be 
rendered lax and flabby', but keep the sore clean, and dn-sj 
with some mild ointment, such as Turner's, or the simple ce- 
rate, [Sec Dispensatory] spread very thin on softlint,or apply 
dry lint, and upon that, a piece of linen spread with the oint- 
DK'nt. 'I he thorn apple, ointment [Sec Materia Jlfedica] is a 
most valuable application to heal sores. The frequency of 
dressing ulcers must depend on the quantity of matter dis- 
charged: but in general, they should bo dressed once* in twen- 



452 



COMMON ULCEUS. 



fcy-four hours in winter, and twice in summer, and the 
care should betaken, in renewing the dressings, not to exjx 
the sore for any time to the air. When the ulcer is filled up 
with sound flesh, the remaining part of the cure consists in 
the formation of a cicatrix. This is fnquenfly the work of 
nature, but, in many cases, when every deficiency appears to 
be supplied, still a cure is tedious, the. surface of the sores re- 
maining raw, and discharging freely. In such cases, the sores 
should be washed twice a-dav, with simple lime water, or with 
some of the astringent washes. [St-e Dispensatory.] 

Ulcers of the irritable kind, which yield a thin ichorous dis- 
charge, sometimes bloody, and give pain on being touched, 
are brought to a favourable state by warm fomentations, a* 
decoctions of marsh mallows, slippery elm, wormwood, cam- 
momilc flowers, or hops, [See .Materia Medico] and hy poul- 
tices of the same ingredients, to which may be added bruised 
flaxseed or oatmeal. But so soon as the irritability of the 
ulcer is removed, these applications should be discontinued, 
and the common remedies for ulcers employed. 

However, there are cases of irritable ulcers being rendered 
more painful by the application of any thing warm, and when 
this happens, such fomentations are not to be employed. — 
There, the sweet oil or saturine poultices applied cold, will be 
found most beneficial. 

Indolent ulcers which are marked by a backwardness in 
forming granulations, and in those that are formed, a wani 
of sufficient .strength to bring about a complete cure, require 
stimulating applications, as lime water, solution of kali, blue 
vitriol, or any of the astringent washes. Lint dipped in 
either of those solutions, that may be found to agree best with 
the patient, should be applied twice in twenty-four hours to 
the sore, after being carefully cleansed with castile soap and 
water. The strength of the solution should be gradually in 
creased every two or three days; for what at first gives con- 
siderable pain, will soon lose that effect. Tincture of myrrh, 
pure or diluted, according to the state of the nlrer, is, in 



COM MOM ULCEUS. 4j3 

My instances, a good application, and a decoetion of walnut 
leaves, is exceedingly useful in disposing foul ulcers to heal. 

In some superficial ulcers, attended witli a thickening of .the 
■kin, and when there is an unusual coldness ol* the limbs, 
without any tendency to mortification, warm salt water has 
hern used with the great st advantage. 

There is nothing of more importance, hoth in facilitating 
and ensuring a permanent cure of ulcers on the legs, than 
compression, which, however, should never he employed un- 
til the inflammation has subsided. As soon as this desira- 
ble event shall have taken place, and the usual dressings are 
applied, tiie affected part should be cover d with several 
foldings of soft linen rags, and the whole secured upon lie 
part witti a calico or flannel bandage, three inches in breadth, 
and four or live) aids in length; or rather, as much as will 
support the limb from the foot to the knee. 

This bandage should be applied with as much firmness as 
tan be borne by the patient, and as much evejin ss as possi- 
ble, by passing it first round the leg at the ancle joint, then once 
•r twice round the loot, and afterwards up the limb in a spi- 
ral manner, until it reaches the knee, observing, that each 
turn of the bandage have its lower edge about an inch above 
the lower edge of the fold next below. If the compression 
should give pain and produce inflammation, the part that is 
effected should be moistened with cold water, poured from a 
tea-kettle or tea-pot, and repeated as often as the above symp- 
toms may indicate the necessity. 

Should any disease prevail, its removal must first be effect- 
ed. If the patient be weak, the diet should he nutritious, and 
tonic medicines, as bark, or the nitric acid, given in their 
usual doses. But if, on the contrary, of a plethoric habit, he 
should observe a spare and cooling regimen, and take a tea- 
spoonful of cream of tartar and flour of sulphur thrice a day. 
In obstinate cases, small doses of calomel, until the system is 
affected with it, or the use of poke-berry bounce, will assist 

the cure. 
59 



454 



WOUNDS. 

The cure of all wounds is effected two ways, either by ad- 
hesion or suppuration; and previous to attempting either of 
these modes, the hemorrhage or further effusion of blood 
should he restrained, and any extraneous substance removed. 

Hemorrhages are to be restrained by the application of dos- 
sils of lint, or by the tourniquet, or pressure with the hand, 
above the wounded part, until a ligature can be applied. 

In dangerous hemorrhage, or bleeding in the extremities, 
we have known the curative operations wonderfully assisted 
by simply raising the hmb as perpendicular!} as possible. In 
the erect posture, the gravity of the blood so checked it- ve- 
locity as to enable th<- surgeon, with great care, to stop its 
effusion, which he had not been able to effect while the limb 
was pendent, and its vessel distended with blood. 

Simple as this suggestion may appear, it is a new disco- 
very in the science of healing, for which, we are indebted te 
professor Physic, whose extraordinary skill in that noble art, 
has conciliated to him that very amiable title, "the American 
Hunter," and for safety of all surgical operations, has placed 
Philad lphiaon the same high level as Edinburgh itself. 

When ligatures are necessary, in consequence of large 
arteries being wounded, the following rules are to be observ- 
ed in applying them. If you have no tourniquet, take a gar- 
ter or a cord, make a small linen cushion, about four or five 
inches long, three broad, and about two thick, or roll up a 
handkerchief hard, in a similar form, and lay it on the trunk 
of the artery above the wounded part; put the garter or cord 
over the handkerchief, round the limb; tie a knot, leaving a 
proper space; and then twist the ligature with a piec of 
stick, until the hemorrhage is completely restrained; you are 
then to prepare a ligature, formed of two or three white waxed 
Oireads, proportioned to' the size of the vessel; after which, 



WOUNDS. 45.) 

slacken the bandage, in order, by its hemorrhage, to discover 
Lly (he situation of the artery, and with a tenaailum, or a 
crooked needle, stick its point into the coat of the artery, and 
draw out the latter for an eighth of an inch, when a ligature* 
previously placed over the instrument in the manner of a 
ring, by one of the ends being put twice through the other, 
termed the surgeon's knot, is to be pulled over the point of 
the needle by an assistant; and when upon the vessel, its two 
ends should be drawn gently, until the sides of the latter are 
compressed. A second knot, if the artery is large, may be 
then made, after which, the instrument is to be removed, and 
the ends of the thread or ligature cut off, at such a distance, 
that they may hang at least one or two inches without the 
edge of the wound. 

When a small artery is wounded, if it be divided, it re- 
tracts, and the hemorrhage presently ceases. If it is punc- 
tured, the wound should be enlarged, and then the artery may 
be tied, if proper pressure proves ineffectual. Sand, dust, or 
smail pieces of glass, &c, are best removed by washing I he 
parts in warm water, either by means of a sponge, or of a 
syringe. 

In the third place, as the principal object, proceed to the 
employment of those means, which will probably heal the 
wound in the most easy and expeditious manner; for the long. 
cr this is neglected, the less is the part disposed to heal. — 
Whenever the nature of the injury wiil admit of it, the divided 
parts should be immediately brought into contact, the irrita- 
tion excited by the wound itself, will then generally be pro- 
ductive of a certain degree of inflammation, which will accom- 
plish a union in the course of a few days; however, in relaxed 
habits, with symptoms of debility, the application of some 
stimulants, as Turlington's balsam, spirit, or balsam of apple, 
will be required to produce that effect. The wound is then 
said to be healed by the first intention, and this mode of care 
should always, when practicahlo.be attempted. Tke means 



456 wounds. 

of drawing and preserving divided parts in cont ict, arc band- 
ages, adhesive plasters, and sutures. \\ ith respect to the 
two firft, these should always be preferred to the latter, in 
wounds that do not penetrate to any considerable depth. 

The mode of applying adhesive plasters is by straps; one 
half of which, is fastened on one side of the wound, and the 
other on the skin, on the other side of the wound, drawing it 
tight, and holding it firm until the warmth of the part secure! 
it; but if the wound is deep, this contact of the sides must be 
made by sutures. 

In forming sutures, it should be observed, that one stitch, 
or suture, is sufficient for every inch of wound, and that the 
ligature or stitch, should always he carried near the bottom of 
the wound, and the threads passed from within, outwards.— 
Thus, a needle being put upon each end of the same thread, 
well waxed, and each of the needles inserted at the bottom of 
the sore, when pushed outwardly, about half an inch to an 
inch from the edge of the wound, according to its depth, will 
form one stitch, and the needle being withdrawn, tin- same 
thing is to be repeated, according to the extent of the wound. 
When all the stitches arc completed, the lips of the wound arc 
to be pressed together, and supported in that position, until 
the ligatures are tied in the manner as already directed for 
making a surgeon's knot. 

It is of consequence to observe, that where the sutures or 
adhesive piasters have been neglected at first, they may be 
employed with advantage during any stage of the sore, as the 
parts will unite at any time very readily; and it will expedite 
the cure very much, to bring the edges of the ulcer into con- 
tart, whenever it can be done. When the parts are brought 
together, in the manner directed, in order to prevent the ac- 
cess of air, it will be proper to cover them with lint, spread 
either with a thick mucilage of some mild gum, or some bland 
ointment, as the simple saturine, or thorn apple ointment; or, 
in debilitated or relaxed habits, apply Turlington's balsam — 
[Set Dispensatory. ] 

The first dressine; of wounds should never be removed, un- 



wounds. 457 

til the cure be completed, or until they appear to be covered 
With nutter, unless the pain in tlie wound becomes severe, 
ai" is productive of much inflammation; and tlien the dress- 
ings should immediately be removed, and the parts gently 
rubbed with some olive oil, and a plaster of saturine cerate, 
spread on soft lint, applied. If this prove insufficient, aitd 
the inflammation is observed to rise still higher, a separation 
of the lips, the stitches tense, and the points where stitches 
pas^, particularly inflamed, cut the ligatures, and take away 
every thing that is like stricture upon the wound. All hopes 
of procuring adhesion must now be abandoned, and the wound 
should be brought to a speedy and plentiful suppuration, by 
flaxseed, or milk and bread poultices, often renewed; and as 
soon as there is a full appearance of pus, with relief of the 
more violent symptoms of inflammation, the poultices should 
belaid aside, and the sore then treated as a simple ulcer. 

When the sutures or plasters have been applied, and the 
symptoms of pain and inflammation continue moderate, they 
may generally be removed about the fifth or sixth day, as a 
union will by that time he produced. 

Gun shot,* or lacerated and contused wounds, as marked 
by their ragged and unequal edges, are the most dangerous of 
all others, from their disposition to gangrene. Hence, it is 
obvious, that in these wounds, the means to guard against 
mortification should be early employed. In the treatment of 
wounds of this description, three stages are to be observed in 
its progress, which may be termed the inflammatory, suppu- 
rant, and the incarnating. In the management of the first or 
inflammatory stage, especially if the patient complain of much 
pain, blood-letting should be had recourse to, and repeated 

•Speaking of gun-shot wounds reminds me of a most awful and me- 
lancholy event, which not long since took place in Charleston, S. C. — 
1 mean the death of the great physician and historian, Dr. David 
Ramsay. 

This gentleman, whose urbanity of manners, and extraordinary lite 
rarv acquisitions, had rendered htm the brightest ornament of science 
and society, was suddenly cut oft' amidst Ins usefulness to his family 
and country, by the pistol of a lunatic. The untimely fate of so tru- 
ly amiable a man, and so dis^ I a physician ana patri , 
Dr. Ramsay, will lung be rem ith the deepest regcet 



458 wounds. 

according to the violence of inflammation and strength of 

the patient; ami if possible, to procure leeches, these should be 
applied near the edges of the sore. Emollients ar then to he 
used, as pledgets of mild ointments on the woum', with poul- 
tices of bread and milk, or flaxseed laid above, ;>nd renewed 
every three or four hours, in order to promote a speedy sup- 
puration, which are the best means of preventing gangrene. 
When the pus is freely formed, a separation of the most injur- 
ed parts taU^s place, and as soon as they have come away, 
the edges of the wound|yav he brought together by ph sters 
or bandages, but no kind of suture should be employed; and 
the sore will then come to be treated as a simple ulcer. 

In the second or suppurant stage, the chief point is to check 
the excess of suppuration, and dispose the wound to heal. — 
This depends on a light nourishing diet, with wine, and the 
plentiful exhibition of bark and elixir vitriol. 

The third or incarnating stage is promoted, by placing the 
member in a proper position, to give a free discharge of mat- 
ter, assisted by pressure at the same time, and by opening 
every collection which appears, by removing splinters, bones, 
or whatever causes irritation— and by healing with astringent 
dressing of lint, dipt in the solution of alkali, lime water, or 
any of the astringent washes, [Sec Dispensatory,] when the 
discharge is excessive. 

Tn the progress of wounds, certain constitutional symptoms 
arise, that demand particular attention, these are pain, inflam- 
mation, and convulsive affections. The first of these usually 
goes off in a short time, by attending to the, posture and ease 
of the wounded part, and moving any extraneous irritation; 
but when it continues very violent, and for a longer time than 
usual, it will be necessary, in the first place, to try the effete 
oflaudanum, in doses of eight or ten drops every two or four 
hums; and when the inflammation is violent, to unload the 
vessels by topical bleedings; which may be further aided by 
fomentations ami emollient poultices. If these are not suffi- 
cient, and the pain still continues acut^, it probably depends 
on a partial separation of nerves; to relieve which, a complete 



MORTIFICATION. 459 

divisiou of tliem should be made. The latter complaints nre 
spasmodic, which vary in degree from the slightest convul- 
sive twitching, to the highest state of the spasm in the attack 
of the Jock jaw. They are frequently ihe effects of trifling 
injuries: a small scratch, for instance, which does not pene- 
trate to a greater depth than the skin, will sometimes induce 
tin rn: and when they happen, as the consequence of large 
wounds, they do not make their appearance until the sore 
seems nearly healed. 

I pon the first symptoms of these affections, the patient 
should be immersed in a hath of warm water, soap-suds, or a 
ley made with wood ashes, as long as he can bear it, am! opi- 
um, should be exhibited in pretty large doses, every two or 
three hours, as the symptoms may indicate. When this fails, 
the malady is to be treated by remedies prescribed for letany. 

The constitutional treatment of wounds requires, during the 
inflammatory stage, the strictest attention to the cooling regi- 
men, a low spare diet, an occasional use of laxatives, and the 
■rounded part kept in such a situation as affords most relief. 
When suppuration is formed, a fuller diet will then be necessa- 
ry; and if the discharge of matter is excessive, bark and elixir 
vitriol must be employed. 



MORTIFICATION. 

The word mortification, in its present acceptation or mean- 
ing, is generally supposed to have place where the circulation 
is no longer performed through the diseased part, which gene- 
rally turns black, and becomes putrid, producing a separation 
of 'he diseased surface from the sound flesh, like an eschar, in 
consequence of a caustic having been applied. In the incipi- 
ent stage of this disease, which is termed gangrene, there is 
generally a very high degree of inflammation, and a swelling 
of the parts affected, with some vesications, like those from 
scalds, but of different colours, according to the extravasated 






460 MORTIFICATION. 

iluid, with which they are replete; sometimes pellucid or yel- 
low, at other times black or brownish. 

While things are in this state, attempts should be mad" to 
prevent a sudden change to a mortification: but in order to 
effect this, it must be observed, that a tendency to mortify 
may be owing to very opposite causes. It must, therefore, be 
extremely obvious to every man of consideration, thai there 
cannot be any thing properly a specific (or a disease, where a 
plethora of fulness is the cause in one subject, and inanition 
in another. 

Wc know very well that all inflammations may terminate 
in mortifications. It is also of importance to know, that 
where there is a languid circulation, as in old age. or inch's 
of excessive debility, from protracted fevers, the extrcmit-os 
not only threaten soon to become gangrenous, but the prog- ss 
to mortification is often very rapid iindVrsurh circumstances. 
for not only the vital beat is deficient, but the vessels thnn- 
seves are frequently diseased, and though duly distended with 
blood, are incapable of reacting on the Contained fluid, which, 
consequently, in time, must stagnate in the small vessels. 

Hence, it is obvious, that a mo.tiliration may proceed from 
a circulation that is too rapid, or too languid; and, conse- 
quently, the treatment must vary according to circumstances, 
and the cause of disease. 

In the first case, general blood-letting, diluent drinks, with 
nitre dissolved in them, and the cooling regimen in every res- 
pect, are indispensable for its cure. And in the second, a 
liberal use of cordials and invigorating medicines, as wine 
and bark, to raise and maintain the vital heat, and to check 
the progress of putrefaction, can alone be depended upon. 

Wheq the mortification proceeds from too languid a circu- 
lation, or when there is much pain, opium or laudanum is one 
of the greatest cordials, and should be taken freely every 
three or four hours, hut not in such doses as to produce its 

narcotic effects. 

The best external application to arrest the c«urs« of gan- 



SPRAINS AND llRUISES. 461 

<;rene or mortification, is to apply a blister over the gangre- 
nous part, sufficiently large to cover one or two inches of the 
sound flesh, and afterwards to dress the part with cataplasms, 
made of bark, charcoal powder, and yeast, to be renewed 
every three or four hours, or as often as they acquire a pu- 
trid smell. 

When the mortified parts begin to separate, remove no 
more at each dressing than comes away without pain or loss 
of blood; and as soon as the gangrene stops, and granulations 
•f good flesh appear, it is to be treated as a simple ulcer. 



SPRAINS AND BRUISES. 

In the treatment of sprains anil bruises, the chief point is 
to give an instantaneous vigor to the solids, so as to prevent 
the increase of effusion. Hence, the part should be instantly 
plunged into cold water. After this, cloths wetted with vine- 
gar or lead water, to which, laudanum may be added, should 
be applied, and renewed as fast as they grow warm, until the 
pain and inflammation have somewhat subsided. The sprain- 
ed part may then be dressed two or three times a-day, with a 
bandage of brown paper, dipt in warm vinegar and spirits, 
or embrocated with opodeldoc or volatile liniment, [See Dis- 
pensatory] always observing to preserve the part in the easiest 
and most relaxed posture. 

In addition to this local freatment, if the patient be of a 
plethoric habit, or the injury very severe, blood-letting, cool- 
ing cathartics, and a light diet, are particularly enjoined 

When bruises have been neglocted at the onset, or become 
painful, warm fomentations of bitter herbs, are extremely 
useful; and their good effects will be considerably aided by 
applying the ingredients themselves as a poultice to the part, 
as warm as can be borne, and sprinkled with a little finely- 
powdered oamphor. 

After serfous sprains, the patient often complains of weak- 
60 . 



^62 DISLOCATIONS- 

nes^ and uneasiness in the injured parts. In such 
stream of cold water poured on the part at a considerable 
height, from the spout of a U . r pitch r, two or three 

times a-day, completes the cure, especially i! a fi sli bi 
flannel be rigorously used immediate!) I lore and aftei the 
application. Some assistance will ii!v ie be obtained by 
the use of a bandage or roller, to confine the swelling when 
that symptom occurs. 



DISLOCATIONS. 

Dislocation is the removal, by force, of an articulated 
bone from its natural situation, which is easily known bj a 
degree of protuberance on one side, equalled bj nd- 

ing hollow on t'-io other; by comparing the joint of one m 
ber injured with its fellow; by an inability to i kovethe injured 
limb; and by pain and tension in the part affected. In what- 
erer part a dislocation happens, it is of great importance to 
have it reduced as soon as possible, because* by delay, 
operation becomes extremely difficult, and is very frequently 
rendered ir practicable, after the inflammation and swelling 
have come on. 

Therefore, whenever this accident happens in the country, 
if medical assistance cannot immediately be obtained, the most 
intelligent person present should reduce the hone. 

In the replacing of dislocated limbs, the principal object to 
be attended to, is the mode in which the extension is made, 
for the success of the operation depends more on this, than 
the force with which it may be applied. Therefore, gradual- 
ly extending from one side to the other, and gently moving it 
upwards and downwards, is more likely to succeed, tl an 
strong extension in a right line: the force should be begun ve- 
ry gradually, and increase slowly at each trial, in case it re- 
sists the first. In case of a luxation being obstinate to reduce, 
bleeding, so as to cause faintness, may often bemused ad van* 



DISLOCATIONS. 463 

tagoously, and whilst the patient is in a weak state, there is a 
greater probability of success, from extension well directed; 
the operator, at the same time, endeavoring, with his hands, 
to replace the dislocated end of the hone. 

Alter the hone is replaced, compresses made by two or 
three folds of old linen, wetted with vinegar or lead water, 
should be constantly applied to the part, in order to obviate in- 
flammation; and the limb shonld he retained in its natural 
situation, by bandages, which should neither he applied over- 
tight, nor over-loose; as in one case, th<-y would compress too 
much, and in the other, they would be of no use to the parts. 
>\ here inflammation has taken place before the reduction 
is accomplished, it cannot he, performed until that is over- 
come. For this purpose, we must adopt the antiphlogistic 
plan, such as bleeding, keeping the bowels in a laxative state, 
by the occasional use of the cathartic mixture, and using warm 
drinks, together with the camp' orated powders, aud the anti- 
menial solution, [See Dispensatory] in their nsual doses, in 
order to promote perspiration. 



DISLOCATION OF TIIE JAW. 

The lower jaw may be luxated by yawning, blows, falls, 
chewing har<l substances, or the like. This accident may be 
known to have taken place from the patient's being unable to 
shut his mouth, or eat. any thing. The chin, likewise, either 
hangs down, or is wsested to one side; and the patient is 
neither able to speak distinctly, nor to swallow without con- 
siderable difficulty. 

The common method of reducing a dislocated jaw is to 
place the patient upon a low sto»l, in such a manner that an 
assistant may hold the head tirm, by pressing it against his 
breast. The operator is then to p:jsb his two thumbs, pro- 
tected with linen cloths, that they may not he. bitten when the 
jaw slips into its place, as far back into the patient's moufli 



464 DISLOCATIONS. 

as he can, and then, with his fingers applied to the ontside oi 
the angle of the jaw, endeavor to bring it forward, till it move 
a little from its situation. He should then press it forcibly 
downwards, and backwards, by which means the elapsed 
heads of the jaw will immediately slip into their place. 



DISLOCATION OF THE SHOULDER. 

The humerus or upper hone of the arm is the most subject 
to dislocation of any in thq body, and may be luxated in va- 
rious directions. The accident, however, happens most fre- 
quently downwards, and very seldom directly upwards. This 
dislocation may be discovered by the patient's inability to raise 
his arm, as well as by violent pain in attempting it, and by a 
depression of cavity on the top of the shoulder. When the 
dislocation is dow award or forward, the arm is lengthened, and 
a ball or lump is perceived under the arm pit; but when it is 
backw ard, there appears a protuberance behind the shoulder, 
and the arm is thrown forward towards the breast. 

The usual method of reducing a dislocation of shoulder is 
to set the patient upon a low stool, and to cause an assistant 
to hold his body firm, while another lays hold of his arm a 
little above the elbow, and gradually extends it. The opera- 
tor then puts a napkin under the patient's arm and causes it. 
to be tied behind his own neck. By this, while a sufficient 
extension is made, he lifts up the head of the bone, and with 
his hands directs it into its proper place. In young and del- 
icate persons an operator may generally reduce this disloca- 
tion by extending the arm with one hand and thrusting in the 
head of the bone with the other. In making the extension, the 
elbow ought always to be a little bent. 

If much difficulty occur in the operation, blood-letting., 
sometimes so far as to produce fainting becomes neccssarx 
This remedy seldom fails to facilitate the redaction. 



465 



DISLOCATION OF THE ELBOW. 

The bones of the fore-arm may be dislocated in any d 
lion, but most commonly upwards and backwards. In 
luxation, a protuberance may be observed on that 
arm towards which the bone is pushed, from Much circum- 
stance, joined to the patient's inability to btr-a s arm, a luxa- 
tion at the elbow may be known. 

For reducing a dislocation at the elbow, two assists e 

for the most part necessary: one of them must lay hold of the 
arm above, and the other below the joint, and make a pretty 
strong extension, while the operator returns the bones into 
their proper place. The arm must afterwards be bent, and 
suspended for some time with a sling about the neck. 

Dislocations of the wrist and fingers are to be reduced in 
the same manner as those of the elbow, viz. by making an 
extension in different directions, and thrusting the head of the 
bona into its place. 



DISLOCATION OF THE THIGH. 

When the thigh-bone is dislocated forward and downward, 
the knee and foot are turned out and the limb is longer than 
the other; but when it is displaced backward, it is usually 
pushed upward at the same time, by which means the limb is 
shortened, and the foot is turned inward. 

When the thigh-bone is displaced forward and downward, 
the patient, in order to its reduction, must be laid upon h\4 
back, and made fast by bandages, or held by assistants, while 
by others an extension is made by means of slings, fixed about 
the bottom of the thigh a little above the knee. While the 
extension is made, the operator must push the head of the 
bone outward until it gets into the socket. If the dislocation 
lie outward, the patient must ho laid on his face, and during 
the oxtension the head of the banc must he pushed inward. 



46G INJURIES OF THE HEAD, AND 

Dislocations of the knees, ancles, arrl foes, arc reduced 
much in the same manner as those of the upper extn 
viz. by making an extension in opposite direction'-', while the 
operator replaces the bones. In many cases, how ver, the. 
extension alone is sufficient, and the bone will slip into iis 
place merely by pulling the limb with sufficient force. It is not 
hereby meant that force alone is sufficient for.,ihe reduction of 
dislocations. Skill and dexterity will often s 
than force: and one man who possesses them has been able to 
perform what the united force of many was found inadequate 
to accomplish. 



XSKTORISS OF THE HEAD, 

AND FRACTURES OF THE LIMBS. 

If, in consequence of a bnd fall or blow, a considerable in- 
jury appears to have been received, the sufferer being unable, 
in consequence of the. loss of his senses, to point out the in- 
jured part, some consideration is necessary before any at- 
tempts arc made, even to raise hi in from the ground. Be- 
oause, should a fracture of one of the hones have happened, 
and not suspected by his assistants, their exertions to raise 
him, and to place him on his feet, might force the enda of the 
fractured hone through the soft part, and convert a simple 
fracture into a very dangerous compound one. The limbs, 
therefore, should be carefully examined, hut even if they 
seem to have sustained no material injury, yet should the pa- 
tient not be precipitately raised, until something be provided, 
on which he may be placed, as, thereby, unnecessary and per- 
haps injurious exertions are avoided. 

11 be fair to conclude, from the deprivation of the 
senaes, that the brain may have sustained some injury, great 
ca .. c 8ho „.,i mvey the patient to his apartment. 

w1th ag id, whilstlaying inbed, the 

head should be somewhat raised. If the patient be of a pie- 



FRACTURES OF THE LIMBS. 4f>7 

(boric habit, a moderate bleeding will be required as soon as 
possi tie accident^ after which, the bowels should be. 

cvacuatcd either by purgative medicines or clysters. One or 
two ing procure:!, and if possible the warm bath used, 

the anodyne sudorific drops, [Ste Dispensatory] should next be 
exhibited, to produce perspiration, and to excite absolution of 
the extravasated blbodj and this mixture should be continued, 
in doses of ten or twelve drops, every four or six hours, until 
the patient is out of danger, observing to keep the bowels open. 

During convalescence, the bark, col umbo, or steel, with 
wine may be employed. If there be a laceration of the ^calp, 
e\ ry attempt should be made to induce suppuration of the 
part, by the application of warm fomentations or poultices, 
and this taking place, a relief of all the symptoms will occur, 
when it is to be tr< ated as a simple wound. 

But should it be discovered,, that a leg or thigh is broken, 
the patient is not to be stirred until a proper vehicle, as a 
door, or two or three boards well secured together, is pro- 
cured, on which he can be placed. To place him on this, two 
persons may raisv' hun by means of a sheet slid under his 
hips, whilst one raises him by the shoulders, one person rais- 
ing the sound leg, and one carefully conducting the fractured 
limb, which should be placed on a pillow, with the knee a lit- 
tle bent. The best mode of conveyance is undoubtedly by 
two or four men, and a carriage should never be employed., 
when this mode can be adopted. As the patient will be under 
the necessity of laying some time Without getting up, much 
subsequent pain and exertion will be prevented, by preparing 
the bed in the following manner: 

In place of the laced canvass, bottom boards are to be laid 
across the bed frame, which makes the bed hard and keens it 
perfectly level and smooth during the cure. In place of a 
feather bed a mattress only is to be laid above those boards,* 
over this another, cut into four parts, with a piece of a sheet 
sewed round each portion, is to be placed that they may be 
shifted under the patient from time to time. On the bed thus 
prepared, a pillow, like a mattress, flat and firm, is to belaid 
for receiving the limb. 



'i&> , ill. Lu- 

ll! setting a broken bone, very little extension is required, 
nor should tight and firm bandages be used, which give con- 
siderable pain to the patient without the least benefit. In a 
simple fracture of the thigh or leg, with patients not unruly, 
very little more is necessary than to restore the foot <<> a right 
direction with regard to the leg, and then stretch out the limb 
on a well made pillow, observing to extend, straighten, and 
lay it anew, when it is disordered or shortened, without fear 
of hurting the callus. And when you have placed the limb 
between two splints, or troughs, made of untanned leather or 
pasteboard, which have bci-n previously soaked and softened, 
the whole braced down with ribbons or tapes which may prc- 
eerve it steady, you have done every thing. 

Having prepared two long troughs, or pieces of untanned 
leather or paste-board bent in a hollow form, lined, or rather 
cushioned with two or three folds of flannel, with tapes or 
ribbons, four or five in number, attached to the outside of one 
of the splints, by which both splints may, after all is over, be 
gently tied together with how knots, to be slackened or tighten- 
ed, according to the swelling of the limb; you are then to 
place these by the side of the fractured leg, and direct one of 
the assistants to apply his hands broad around the upper part 
of the limb, and grasp it gently and steadily; take the foot 
and ankle in the same manner in your own band; slip your 
left band under the broken part of the limb, slide it gently 
along, and then lay it upon the splints, to which the ribbons 
are attached. 

If the bone cannot br* reduced by this extension, endeavour 
to forceit in with your thumbs. Begin then to lay the limb 
smooth; let your assistant again grasp it, by spreading bis 
liands upon the thigh, or below the knee with the design of 
extending, along with you, not by lifting the leg from the pil- 
low, but rather by keeping it down, and steadying it by pres- 
sure, while you, with both hands, lift the foot and ankle, grasp 
them gently, but firmly; raise them a little from the pillow, 
and draw gently, steadily, and smoothly. When yon have 



PRACTURES OF THE LIMBS. 469 

thus extended and Bmoothed the broken leg, in a manner 
wliicli you almost suppose agreeable, rather than painful, to 
the patient, press it down gently, and steadily upon the lower 
splint; the upper is then to be laid above it; and by grasping 
the soft and moistened splints, you must model them a little to 
the shape of the limbs. When the whole has taken a form, 
tie st veral tapes, one after another; and after having tied 
them in a general w;iy, go over them again, one by one, and 
tie them a little closer, so as to keep the limb agreeably firm. 

The process is either slower or more imperfect in children 
and old people: their bones, therefore, are more apt to be bro- 
ken again; hence with them, the splints should be kept longer 
applied. On particular occasions, also, particular precau- 
tions must be taken. Thus with delirious patients, and those 
who are. liable to sudden motion, as when at sea, the limb af- 
ter being set must, be laid between two pillows, and the pillows 
fastened to the bed. It is also, sometimes necessary to make 
the s| lints more secure, and this may be done b\ soaking a 
roller or bandage in whites of eggs, mixed with a little Hour; 
or by strewing a little powdered rosin on the bandage, and af- 
terward-! soaking it with spirits of wine; or finally, by soaking 
the bandage with fine glue, which makes a firm case, and is 
far from being offensive. 

Lastly, though splints and bandages in general are unneces- 
sary during the cure; yet, when a patient rises from bed, rests 
the weight of his body on a fractured bone, ami begins to be 
exposed to accidents, the splints laid along the limb should be 
made firm by a bandage or roller as above described, to pre- 
vent those accidents which may be incurred by precipitation 
and rashness. 

In fractures of the arm, the parts hang naturally in the best 
posture, and require but two splints of thin paste-board, rolled 
gently with a linen roller: and in fractures of the fore arm, 
the limb preserves its natural length or form; it requires mere- 
ly to be laid upon a long splint of paste-board, with a small 
splint, laid above, the two splints being secured with light rib- 
bons or tape-', and the arm from the elbow to the fingers' ends 



470 wtAeTBwn of tiik limi • 

Supported by a sling or haudkerchii (' round the neck, raising 
the palm of the hand tj tue breast, with tin fingers moderately 
bent. 

When the arm is fractured between the elbow and shoulder, 
the fore arm may be placed in the same position, as already 
described; but the sling, instead of supporting the whole 
length of the arm, should only support the hand, which should 
be raised higher than in the former case, the elbow being al- 
lowed to ssnkj its motion, however, being prevented, by a 
handkerchi f passed moderately tight round the trunk, inclu- 
ding the fractured arm. 

Vv ben the small bones happen to be fractured, they must he 
replaced and retained in their situation, by splints and ban- 
dages fitted to the part. In using sp ints of pasteboard or 
nn anned leather, it is always necessary they should be applied 
in the first instance wet, so as to assume the form of the frac- 
tured part. After the first fortnight, the dressings should be 
occasionally removed to allow some motion of the joints; and 
then replaced, and daily removed for tin* same purpose, 

When therv is an external wound, communicating with tlie 
cavity of the fracture, it is termed a compound fracture. Thie 
sometimes occurs by the protrusion of t: e bon ■; at other timee 
by the same force which eaused the fracture. In such coses, 
the bone is to be reduced by carefully attending to the posture 
of the limb, and by dilating the wound, when the bone bc- 
tomes girded in it. The w-mnd is then to be dressed with dry 
lint, in order to allow the blood to coagulate, which will form 
a kind of scab, an) every effort should be made to unite the 
wound by the first intention, thereby converting the accident 
to t>e state of asimpl* fracture. 

Almost all fractures are attended with contusion and conse- 
quently swelling; the abating of which is the first step that 
should be t.ak- n towards t«e cure, and is to be effected by 
Bleeding, if the patient is of a plethoric habit, by mild purges, 
a cooling regimen, anl by the exhibition of the anody le su- 
dorific drops, as already described: t.»u application io tho parts 






FRACTURES OP THE RIBS. 47A 

affected should be vinegar or lead water, v\ itli crumbs of War!, 
or poultices made of stale beer, or vinegar and oatmeal, with 
a little oil to pi event their growing dry or s;iff. 

The swelling of the limb being subsided, and the callus 
formed, cold water may be poured through the spout of a tea 
kettle over the fractured limb every morning tu restore th£ 
tone of the injured parts. 



FRACTURES OF THE RIBS. 

The ribs are broken, for the most part, near to the middle. 

The accident usually proceeds from blows or falls, and is 
known by an acute pain in breathing, and a crepitus or gra- 
ting being perceived, on pressing the rib in different places. 
Uy carefully passing the hand over the rib, the inequality 
produced by the fracture may he sometimes distinctly felt. 
Coughing produces a crepitation, which is frequently percep- 
tible to the patient himself as well as to the by-standers. 

The only treatment necessary, in simple fractures of the 
ribs, whether one or several be broken, is to keep the part, 
during the reunion, as much as possible in a state of rest. 
This is done by counteracting, to a considerable extent, their 
motion in respiration. To effect this, a bandage, six inches 
wide, is to he passed repeatedly round the chest, as tightly 
as the patient can suffer it to be drawn. Its slipping down 
may he prevented by means of a shoulder strap. 

Or instead of a roller, a jacket, of strong linen, capable of 
being drawn vert tight, by means of tapes, may he used. 
Until the reunion be completed, the patient should be kept as 
quiet as possible. 

If the lungs he wounded hy a splinter of the rib, blood will 
be spit up. and high fever and inflammation will be likely to 
ensue. In this case, blood must be drawn copiously from the 
arm; and the pati-nt be treated, in all respects, as if he were 
labouring under pleurisy. 



47J 



BLOOD-LETTING. 

The art of openings vein, and the necessary cautions res- 
pecting the operation, should be learned hj every on ; since 
cases of emergency ma) happen, when tlie necessity of its 
being performed is evident, and where life may In 1 lost before 
m dual assistance can be obtained. Anotiu-r qualification 
necessarj to be possessed, is that of being able to stop the How 
of bluoil from a vein thus opened. 

To bleed, you are to apply a ribbon or ligature with a de- 
gree of tightness, an inch or two above the elbow joint; and 
as soon as a vein is conspicuous, place the thumb of your left 
hand about an inch below the place of your puncture, and 
then with your right hand, holding the lancet firm betwixt 
your thumb and lore linger, make an incision obliquely into 
the vein, without changing its direction, or raising the han- 
dle, lest the point, being lowered in proportion, should cut 
the under Dart of the vein, or perhaps even wound an artery.* 

When the quantity of blood you wish is drawn, untie the 
ligature, and close the orifice. To accomplish this, It the 
thumb b>- placed on the or i (ice- so as to bring its sides toge- 
ther, and to press it with a modrWrate force. The How of blood 
will now be stopped, and the operator, with the hand, must 
apply a compress, made by twice doubling a piece of linen, 
about two inches square, between the orifice and his thumb; 
over this, place another compress, three or four incites square, 
of a thickness sufficient to (ill up the hollow of the bend of 
the arm, confining the whole with a ribbon or tape, passing 
over the compress, and above and below the elbow-, in the 

•To discriminate between an artery and vein, is a matter of the 
utmost importance. This is readily done if proper attention be paid. — 
The chief m irk of distinction is, that the artery has a pulsation, 
which tiie vein has not. 

But frequently it happens, that an artery lies so immediately under 
a vein,, that its may be felt through the vein. In a ich C 

to open the vein u:.l^bs the operator h» ski'.UV. 
d with danger. 



BLO©D-LETTIN«. 473 

form of a figure eight, finishing with a knot over the com- 
press. 

If the bleeding continue obstinate, the sleeve of the gown or 
roat above the orifice, ought to be ripped or loosened; and if 
this do not succeed, the lips of the incision should be brought 
nicely together, and while, they are compressed firmly by the 
thumb of the operator, the coldest water should be poured on 
the arm, or the orifice washed with sharp vinegar. The 
placing of a piece of adhesive plaster over the orifice in the 
rein generally succeeds in checking the ilow of blood. 

To bleed in the foot, a ligature must be applied above tht 
ankle joint, and after opening the most conspicuous vein, if 
the flow of blood is not copious, it may be increased by im- 
mersion of the part in warm water. On removing the liga- 
ture, the blood will readily cease to discharge, and a piece of 
•ourt-pJaster is the best bandage. 

Topical blood-letting is executed hy the application of 
leeches, as near as possible to the part affected, or by a scari- 
ficator, or an instrument with a number of lancets acted upon 
by a spring. 

When leeches are employed, they must be previously pre- 
pared by drying them, or allowing them to creep over a dry 
cloth; and the part to attract them should be moistened with 
cream, sugar, or blood, and they confined on it by applying 
a wine-glass over them. 

When the scarificator is used, so soon as a wound is made, 
a cup exhausted of its atmospheric air, by burning over it, 
for a few seconds, a bit of soft paper, dipt in the spirit of wine, 
and on the flame of which, being nearly exhausted, must in** 
•tantly be applied over the scarified part; when full, it is easi- 
ly removed by raising one side of it, to ado it the air. When 
you have taken away, in this manner, a sufficient quantify of 
blood, the »vounds are to be covered with some cream or mild 
ointment. 

In the operation of blood letting, certain morbid consequen- 
ces at times arise, which demand a special treatment. 



474 BLOOtM/ETTlNS.. 

The most common of these, are a swelling of the y»*rt, term 
«d cccymosis, and when it occurs, shifting the position of the 
arm, so as to induce a Tree discharge, will lessen the tumor, 
if not entirely remove it. Should tnis Fail, compress, s, :li|)t 
in the solution of sal-ammoniac or brandy, are to be applied. 
Tiicse also failing, an I th < swelling *till continuing, without 
any diminution, the tumor must be opened, and after removing 
the coagulated blood, t he sn e is to be treated :is a common 
wound. This result, however, very rarely occurs. 

Anothercons 'quenre which sonn times follows blood-letting* 
is an acute pain, immediat 1> felt on the introduction of Hie 
lancet, and eommunicated from the pnrl to the extremity of 
Hie member. The treatment of this rotn plaint consists in the 
early use of cloths, wrung out of lead water, applied to the 
part, and adopting, in every respect, the antiphlogistic plan, 
as blood-letting, cooling cathartics, and a low diet, to obviate 
inflammation. 

This treatment not succeeding, laudanum must be given ia 
large <!oses, which, also failing, a free division of the iervs 
or tendon, which was pricked with the lancet, is the only 
remedy left. 

The la^t accident required to be noticed, is the wounding 
«*f an artery, which is know